Lodhra Bark Extract
Symplocos Racemosa Extract
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) Inhibition
PDE inhibitors are used clinically for erectile dysfunction (PDE5i like Viagra), weight loss, and bronchodilation/asthma treatment.
Symplocos Racemosa is one of nature’s most well-documented phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Phosphodiesterase is the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic-AMP (cAMP). cAMP is a second messenger that has beneficial effects like improved fat loss, increased muscle mass, improved thyroid function, and improved steroidogenesis. Indeed, the very reason forskolin works is because it increases levels of cAMP in the body by increasing levels of the enzyme that creates cyclic AMP.
A simplified model:
Enzyme A -> cAMP pool of the body -> Enzyme B
Enzyme A is creating more cAMP for the aforementioned benefits. This is the enzyme that forskolin increases, resulting in the well-documented effects on human body composition.
Enzyme B is breaking down cAMP and working against enzyme A. Enzyme B is known as phosphodiesterase (PDE). Symplocos racemosa contains PDE inhibitors, so levels of Enzyme B decrease and levels of cAMP increase. The net result is increased levels of cAMP.
The specific PDE they tested against in these studies was PDE1, but this does not mean that Lodhra bark is not active against other PDE isoforms. PDE1 inhibition is a mechanism shared by selegiline (Deprenyl), but its main documented role is enhanced pulmonary function, improved energy levels, and increased vasodilation in response to nitric oxide (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650605/
Aside from increasing cAMP which increases steroidogenesis, Lodhra also increases LH/FSH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261983
) and was effective in treating a murine model analogous to secondary infertility. In males, LH is known to stimulate testosterone production while FSH nourishes developing sperm.
Complementary Effects with Arachidonic Acid (ArA)
ArA has three primary metabolites: prostaglandins (associated with muscle accretion and vasodilation), thromboxanes (associated with blood clotting; inhibited by carnitines or aspirin), and leukotrienes (associated with constriction of smooth muscle, such as bronchoconstriction). The latter two effects are typically considered unfavorable.
Lodhra Bark is a lipoxygenase inhibitor, preventing the conversion of ArA to leukotrienes. This leaves more ArA available to be converted to prostaglandins or thromboxanes, the latter of which can be inhibited by methods stated above.