Originally Posted by Mr.Cooper69
1. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM.
Department of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a single dose of citrulline malate (CM) on the performance of flat barbell bench presses as an anaerobic exercise and in terms of decreasing muscle soreness after exercise. Forty-one men performed 2 consecutive pectoral training session protocols (16 sets). The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover design. Eight grams of CM was used in 1 of the 2 training sessions, and a placebo was used in the other. The subjects' resistance was tested using the repetitions to fatigue test, at 80% of their predetermined 1 repetition maximum (RM), in the 8 sets of flat barbell bench presses during the pectoral training session (S1-4 and S1'-4'). The p-value was 0.05. The number of repetitions showed a significant increase from placebo treatment to CM treatment from the third set evaluated (p <0.0001). This increase was positively correlated with the number of sets, achieving 52.92% more repetitions and the 100% of response in the last set (S4'). A significant decrease of 40% in muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours after the pectoral training session and a higher percentage response than 90% was achieved with CM supplementation.
The only side effect reported was a feeling of stomach discomfort in 14.63% of the subjects. We conclude that the use of CM might be useful to increase athletic performance in high-intensity anaerobic exercises with short rest times and to relieve postexercise muscle soreness. Thus, athletes undergoing intensive preparation involving a high level of training or in competitive events might profit from CM.
2. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ.
Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.
Previous studies have shown an antiasthenic effect of citrulline/malate (CM) but the mechanism of action at the muscular level remains unknown.
To investigate the effects of CM supplementation on muscle energetics.
Eighteen men complaining of fatigue but with no documented disease were included in the study. A rest-exercise (finger flexions)-recovery protocol was performed twice before (D-7 and D0), three times during (D3, D8, D15), and once after (D22) 15 days of oral supplementation with 6 g/day CM. Metabolism of the flexor digitorum superficialis was analysed by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4.7 T.
Metabolic variables measured twice before CM ingestion showed no differences, indicating good reproducibility of measurements and no learning effect from repeating the exercise protocol. CM ingestion resulted in a significant reduction in the sensation of fatigue, a 34% increase in the rate of oxidative ATP production during exercise, and a 20% increase in the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, indicating a larger contribution of oxidative ATP synthesis to energy production.
Considering subjects individually and variables characterising aerobic function, extrema were measured after either eight or 15 days of treatment, indicating chronological heterogeneity of treatment induced changes. One way analysis of variance confirmed improved aerobic function, which may be the result of an enhanced malate supply activating ATP production from the tricarboxylic acid cycle through anaplerotic reactions.
The changes in muscle metabolism produced by CM treatment indicate that CM may promote aerobic energy production.
3. Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. Giannesini B, Le Fur Y, Cozzone PJ, Verleye M, Le Guern ME, Bendahan D.
Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR CNRS 6612 Université de la Méditerranée, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France. email@example.com
Citrulline malate (CM; CAS 54940-97-5, Stimol®) is known to limit the deleterious effect of asthenic state on muscle function, but its effect under healthy condition remains poorly documented. The aim of this longitudinal double-blind study was to investigate the effect of oral ingestion of CM on muscle mechanical performance and bioenergetics in normal rat. Gastrocnemius muscle function was investigated strictly non-invasively using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. A standardized rest-stimulation- (5.7 min of repeated isometric contractions electrically induced by transcutaneous stimulation at a frequency of 3.3 Hz) recovery-protocol was performed twice, i.e., before (t(0)-24 h) and after (t(0)+48 h) CM (3 g/kg/day) or vehicle treatment. CM supplementation did not affect PCr/ATP ratio, [PCr], [Pi], [ATP] and intracellular pH at rest. During the stimulation period, it lead to a 23% enhancement of specific force production that was associated to significant decrease in both PCr (28%) and oxidative (32%) costs of contraction, but had no effect on the time-courses of phosphorylated compounds and intracellular pH. Furthermore, both the rate of PCr resynthesis during the post-stimulation period (VPCr(rec)) and the oxidative ATP synthesis capacity (Q(max)) remained unaffected by CM treatment. These data demonstrate that CM supplementation under healthy condition has an ergogenic effect associated to an improvement of muscular contraction efficiency.
4. Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice. Takeda K, Machida M, Kohara A, Omi N, Takemasa T.
Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
During high-intensity exercise, the concentration of ammonia is augmented in skeletal muscle. Ammonia activates phosphofructokinase and prevents oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, thus leading to exhaustion. Citrulline is an amino acid component of the urea cycle in the liver, along with ornithine and arginine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and performance during high-intensity exercise. We constructed a swimming exercise protocol, in which mice were subjected to exhaustive swimming with a load of 5% body weight, and measured the time until exhaustion, the blood levels of lactate and ammonia, and the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles. Citrulline supplementation significantly increased the swimming time until exhaustion. Exercise-induced blood ammonia elevation was repressed by citrulline supplementation, and exercise-induced blood lactate increment in the citrulline-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the non-supplemented group. Citrulline supplementation may facilitate the detoxification of ammonia via the urea cycle and inhibit additional glycolysis. Our findings suggest that citrulline supplementation may be useful for improving the exercise performance of athletes.
And finally, beyond performance enhancement and soreness reduction, CM's effects on nitric oxide production will certainly help in the bedroom:
5. Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction. Cormio L, De Siati M, Lorusso F, Selvaggio O, Mirabella L, Sanguedolce F, Carrieri G.
Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
To test the efficacy and safety of oral L-citrulline supplementation in improving erection hardness in patients with mild erectile dysfunction (ED). L-arginine supplementation improves nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and endothelial function; however, oral administration has been hampered by extensive presystemic metabolism. In contrast, L-citrulline escapes presystemic metabolism and is converted to L-arginine, thus setting the rationale for oral L-citrulline supplementation as a donor for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway of penile erection.
In the present single-blind study, men with mild ED (erection hardness score of 3) received a placebo for 1 month and L-citrulline, 1.5 g/d, for another month. The erection hardness score, number of intercourses per month, treatment satisfaction, and adverse events were recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 24 patients, mean age 56.5 ± 9.8 years, were entered and concluded the study without adverse events. The improvement in the erection hardness score from 3 (mild ED) to 4 (normal erectile function) occurred in 2 (8.3%) of the 24 men when taking placebo and 12 (50%) of the 24 men when taking L-citrulline (P < .01). The mean number of intercourses per month increased from 1.37 ± 0.93 at baseline to 1.53 ± 1.00 at the end of the placebo phase (P = .57) and 2.3 ± 1.37 at the end of the treatment phase (P < .01). All patients reporting an erection hardness score improvement from 3 to 4 reported being very satisfied.
CONCLUSIONS: Although less effective than phosphodiesterase type-5 enzyme inhibitors, at least in the short term, L-citrulline supplementation has been proved to be safe and psychologically well accepted by patients. Its role as an alternative treatment for mild to moderate ED, particularly in patients with a psychologically fear of phosphodiesterase type-5 enzyme inhibitors, deserves further research.
^I'd say that is rather relevant given the amount of people in the BBing community who have issues with their sex life and "getting it up."