The CKD: Lyle's Mcdonalds way

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    The CKD: Lyle's Mcdonalds way


    Take a deep breath before you tackle this one. Its looooooooooong



    Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Part 1
    Copyright Lyle McDonald 1996


    Abstract
    After roughly a 20 year absence from the public eye, the ketogenic diet
    has made a reappearance in both the fields of weight loss as well as sports
    nutrition. Books like "Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution", "Protein Power" by
    the Eades', and to a lesser degree "The Carbohydrate Addicts Diet" by the
    Hellers have brought low carb dieting back into the weight loss arena.
    Additionally, in the field of sports nutrition, two slightly different
    approaches have entered the fray in the form of "The Anabolic Diet" created
    by Dr. Mauro DiPasquale and "Bodyopus" created by Dan Duchaine. Rather
    than suggesting a low carbohydrate approach indefinitely, these two diets
    advocate a cyclical ketogenic approach combining 5 days of low carbohydrate
    intake with a 2 day carb-up akin to what endurance athletes used to do
    prior to competition.
    Unfortunately, it is difficult to draw any absolute conclusions about this
    approach from article written about it as the groups involved in the debate
    invariably have some vested financial interest in either promoting or
    decrying the approach. In this article, I simply want to examine some of
    the theoretical bases of the cyclical ketogenic diet and if it has any
    merit. Additionally, possible health concerns will be discussed.

    Some Basic physiology
    What are ketones?
    Ketone or ketone bodies (KB) are a byproduct of fat metabolism. KB's are
    generated in the liver due to the actions of glucagon (15). There are two
    KB's which circulate freely in the bloodstream. They are acetoacetate and
    beta-hydroxybutyrate. Most aerobic tissues, including the brain, skeletal
    muscle, and the heart can oxidize KB's for fuel (8). Under normal blood
    sugar conditions, glucose is the preferred fuel in the brain, muscles and
    heart. Under these conditions the rate of ketone body utilization by
    tissue depends in part on their concentration. Under normal conditions, KB
    metabolism is minimal, perhaps 1-2% of total energy expenditure. In
    diabetic ketotic patients, this can increase to 5% (8).

    Glucagon, insulin and ketogenesis:
    The formation of KB's and utilization of fuel is ultimately controlled by
    the circulating levels of insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a hormone
    released from the pancreas in response to eating carbohydrates. Glucagon
    is insulin's antagonistic hormone and is only present when insulin levels
    fall to quite low levels. In the liver, high glucagon levels direct FFA
    away from TG synthesis and towards beta-oxidation. Glucagon also activates
    adipose tissue lipase which activates lipolysis. Glucagon's ketogenic and
    lipolytic effects are inactivated by even small amounts of insulin. To
    achieve sufficient glucagon concentrations for increased
    ketogenesis/lipolysis, blood glucose levels must drop to around 50-60 mg/dl
    and insulin must drop almost to zero. This drop in insulin can occur with
    complete fasting, exercise, or by simply restricting carbohydrate intake to
    below 30 grams per day. Within about 3 days of carbohydrate restriction,
    blood glucose will fall below 60 mg/dl, insulin levels will drop to zero
    and glucagon levels will increase causing an increase in KB formation.
    With exercise training, ketogenesis should occur more quickly and ketosis
    established. (2)
    How to induce ketosis?
    Ketosis (defined as the buildup of the KB's in the bloodstream) will occur
    under several conditions including: fasting, after prolonged exercise, and
    when a high fat diet is consumed. (7,8,15).
    Once ketosis is established (i.e. when ketone concentration in the blood
    is higher than glucose concentration), ketones will become the preferred
    fuel by all three tissues providing up to 75% of the fuel utilized (7).
    The brain, which normally utilizes glucose exclusively for fuel will, after
    a period of 2 to 3 weeks, switch almost exclusively to using KB's for fuel
    (1, 6, 15). The time delay for the brain to make this metabolic shift has
    some major implications which need to be discussed. As described further
    below, one study (22) found a decrement in mental flexibility during the
    first week of adopting aketogenic diet. Therefore, for individuals who's
    jobs or livelihood requires great mental acuity, the ketogenic diet
    approach (cyclical or otherwise) may not be an ideal one.

    The ketogenic ratio
    Food can be rated as either ketogenic or anti-ketogenic dependent on their
    conversion to glucose in the body. Dietary fats are the most ketogenic
    item, converting to glucose with only 10% efficiency. Proteins are in the
    middle, converting to glucose with about 58% efficiency (this is due to the
    fact that some dietary amino acids are ketogenic in nature, meaning that
    they convert to ketones, and others are glucogenic, meaning that they
    convert to glucose) (2). Dietary carbohydrates convert to blood sugar with
    100% efficiency making them completely anti-ketogenic in nature. To
    rapidly establish ketosis, a minimum ratio of 1.5 grams of fat for each
    gram of protein and/or carbohydrate is recommended. This would provide a
    ketogenic ratio of 1.5:1. While higher ketogenic ratios are used
    clinically, this author can see no need to use a higher ratio of fat to
    protein and carbs for a healthy athlete. (5)

    What exactly does ketosis mean?
    Ketosis simply refers to a metabolic state where the concentration of KB's
    in the blood builds to higher than normal levels. As will be discussed
    below in further detail, this should not be equated with the ketoacidosis
    which occurs in diabetics.
    The presence of ketosis through whatever means implies two things (15):
    1. that lipid energy metabolism has been activated
    2. that the entire pathway of lipid degradation is intact.
    Normally, there is fairly tight control on the production of KB's. Except
    in pathological conditions such as diabetes, excess ketones will simply be
    excreted in the urine (1). This allows an individual to check for the
    presence and urinary concentration of ketones by utilizing Ketostix.

    Metabolic effects of ketogenic diets
    Establishment of ketosis, even in the short term, has the effect of
    increasing the body's ability to utilize fat for fuel. After adaptation to
    ketosis, there is a decrease in fasting RQ (an indicator of relative fuel
    metabolism with lower values indication greater reliance on fat metabolism
    versus carbohydrate metabolism) (7). Also, there is a decrease in glucose
    oxidation during ketogenic diets as KB's are providing much of the body's
    energy needs (18). Additionally, adaptation to a ketogenic diet increases
    fat oxidation during exercise even in trained individuals (14, 17).
    One point of contention regarding ketogenic diets is the supposed protein
    sparing effect when compared to a eucaloric diet with a high carbohydrate
    intake. Due to methodological differences, some studies have found a
    decrease in protein utilization while others have found an increase (8).
    However, available data seems to support the idea that ketosis spares
    protein from being used for energy. Since there is essentially an
    unlimited supply of fat which can be converted to ketones, and since
    ketones can be used by all oxidative tissues, there should be little need
    to oxidize protein to generate glucose through gluconeogenesis. There is
    an obligatory protein requirement which must be met of about 30 grams per
    day. And, to be safe, an intake of 60-75 grams of protein is recommended
    (7).

    Other effects of low carbohydrate diets
    Additionally, a low carbohydrate intake will allow for overall greater
    lipolysis and free glycerol release when compared to either high
    carbohydrate or normal diets (7, 12). This is mediated in part by the lack
    of insulin, which has a lipolysis blocking action even at low
    concentrations as well as increases in other lipolytic hormones such as
    growth hormone, glucagon, the catecholamines, and glucocorticoids. (7)
    Additionally, growth hormone levels increase on low carb diets which will
    further help to prevent the inevitable protein losses which occur when
    calories are restricted (2, 7).

    Hopefully the above discussion adequately describes what occurs when
    ketosis is established through the combination of carbohydrate restriction,
    a sufficient ratio of fat to protein plus carbohydrate intake, and exercise
    training. This suggests that the lowering of insulin, and the resultant
    hormonal mileu created may optimize the oxidation of fat when fat loss is
    the goal. However, as many individuals find completely adequate success
    with a less stringent diet, this type of extreme approach is likely not
    warranted for everyone. Additionally, a similar hormonal mileu (i.e.
    lowering of insulin, etc.) can occur under normal dietary conditions
    through various means. A replacement of higher glycemic index
    carbohydrates with lower GI carbs will lower basal insulin levels as will a
    high fiber intake. Cardiovascular exercise done first thing in the morning
    before any calories are consumed may create a similar hormonal picture due
    to the lowering of blood glucose after an 8 hour fast. Additionally, the
    performance of cardiovascular exercise following high intensity resistance
    training should also allow for greater fat utilization due to lowered blood
    glucose and insulin levels.
    However, we have not yet discussed the most unique feature of the
    cyclical ketogenic which is the high carbohydrate phase on the weekends.
    The validation of the weekend carb-up is the point upon which the cyclical
    ketogenic diet ultimately hinges. Unfortunately, direct data on healthy
    athletes is sorely lacking and only inference can be drawn from other data.
    The problem with all fat loss diets is the inevitable loss of lean body
    mass (i.e. muscle) which will occur. This leads to a loss of muscle tissue
    and a slowing of metabolism making weight regain highly likely. While
    ketogenic diets may limit muscle protein loss more so than high
    carbohydrate diets, the loss of some muscle will occur. The weekend
    carb-up, in addition to refilling muscle glycogen stores for the next
    week's training, may also have the potential to stimulate anabolism and
    rebuild some if not all of the lost muscle tissue. What is not understood
    is why the period of high carbohydrate intake does not undo the metabolic
    adaptations to the ketosis is established during the week. It seems
    possible that, for the same reason it takes several weeks to days for the
    body to adapt to a ketogenic diet, a similar amount of time may be required
    to de-adapt or, rather, readapt to normal carbohydrate metabolism. This
    area requires more direct study before any conclusions can or should be
    drawn.

    The carb-up
    With the consumption of a normal carbohydrate adequate diet, muscle
    carbohydrate stores should remain filled. Under normal circumstances, the
    muscles contain approximately 350 grams. With glycogen depletion caused by
    exhaustive exercise followed by a high carbohydrate intake, these levels of
    muscle carbohydrate can be nearly doubled (19).
    Under normal dietary conditions, exercise has been shown to increase
    insulin sensitivity which increases the muscle's ability to accept insulin
    at the receptor level (12) but this increase in insulin sensitivity only
    occurs in the muscles trained. The increase seems related to glycogen
    depletion in the worked muscles. Additionally, following a low
    carbohydrate diet, but not after a high carbohydrate diet, glycogen
    synthase activity (the enzyme which stores dietary carbohydrate in the
    muscle) is increased further (4). So, all of the pieces are in place. By
    combining a high fat diet, exhaustive exercise training (which should be
    performed on Friday prior to beginning the carbohydrate loading period) and
    a high carbohydrate intake, glycogen supercompensation can occur.
    However, while complete super compensation may take three to four days, the
    majority of glycogen storage will occur in the first 24 hours. (19). The
    muscles are capable of storing from 9 grams of carbohydrate per kg of lean
    body mass all the way up to 16 grams of carbs per kg lean body mass. The
    above is nothing that wasn't already known. Endurance athletes looking to
    improve performance used to combine 3 days of exhaustive exercise with a
    carbohydrate restricted diet identical to what was described above to
    accomplish glycogen super compensation to provide greater energy stores for
    their events. What about the rebuilding of muscle that was alluded to
    above?
    For every gram of carbohydrate stored in the muscle, assuming adequate
    water intake, 4 grams of water will be stored additionally. With a normal
    mixed diet, muscle carbohydrate stores are roughly 350 grams for a person
    with 65kg of lean body mass (19). At 4 grams of water per gram of
    carbohydrate, this is 1400 grams of water stored in the muscles. With
    super compensation to 16 grams per kg lean body mass, 1040 grams of
    carbohydrate can potentially be stored which would yield 4160 grams of
    water, almost a 3 fold increase.
    Recent research supports the idea that muscle protein anabolism may be
    regulated by cellular hydration state at least in certain
    pathophysiological states like burn trauma. According to this hypothesis,
    cellular dehydration sends a proteolytic (protein breakdown) signal to the
    cell while cellular hydration (and, presumably super hydration as would
    occur with glycogen super compensation) would send a powerful anabolic
    signal to the cell (9,10). Along with this, after 3 days on a high fat
    diet, the insulin response to a standard glucose load is increased compared
    to a high carbohydrate diet (20). Hyperinsulinemia is another stimulus for
    anabolism. (3) So, it seems plausible (although direct research is awaited
    to support or refute this) that glycogen super compensation, along with the
    powerful anabolic signal sent by the almost three fold increase cellular
    hydration could rebuild any muscle lost while following a low carbohydrate,
    ketogenic diet. What is not understood at this time is why endurance
    athletes, performing an identical form of glycogen super compensation do
    not see increases in muscle mass. This suggests that the simple act of
    carbohydrate restriction and protein breakdown followed by carbohydrate
    loading may not independently promote anabolic processes.

    What about side effects?
    Probably the largest side effect reported with ketogenic diets is fatigue,
    especially during the initial adaptation to ketone metabolism, especially
    in the brain. A recent study found that, during the first week of a
    ketogenic diet, performance on tests indicative of mental flexibility were
    impaired. These affects abated as the diet was continued (21).
    One question regarding ketogenic diets is the potential effects on blood
    lipid profile. Anecdotally, many individuals report an improvement in
    blood lipid profile but this author could only find one reference to
    cholesterol levels. During 4 weeks of adaptation to a ketogenic diet,
    cholesterol levels did increase from 139 to 200. What effects on blood
    lipid longer periods of ketosis would have had are currently unknown. (18)
    This underscores the absolute need for anyone desiring to try this approach
    to monitor blood lipid levels with frequent blood testing.
    Unfortunately, no direct research has been done in the last 15 or so years
    looking at untoward side effects of the ketogenic diets. While it is
    attractive to draw inference from studies of epileptic children, for whom
    ketosis appears to control a majority of intractable seizures and who are
    kept in deep ketosis for periods of a year or more (5,13), this sub
    population may or may not be indicative of the effects of such a diet in
    healthy individuals. Additionally, the fact that the diet is abandoned
    after that period of time suggests that long term ketosis may have unwanted
    effects. Or that long term adaptation to the ketogenic diet is sufficient
    to control the seizures without having to maintain the diet.
    Additionally, ketogenic diets have shown some promise in the treatment of
    certain types of tumors by starving the tumor of glucose while providing
    adequate energy substrates in the form of KB's to other tissues (16).
    But, as with the subgroup mentioned above, it would be exceedingly
    premature to draw inference as to the long term side effects which may
    occur with a ketogenic diet from these studies. The longest study on
    ketogenic diets found by this researcher in the last 15 years were only 4
    weeks in duration. Therefore, it can only be concluded at this time that
    long term side effects of ketogenic diets are not currently known.
    Considering that many disease states such as coronary artery disease can
    take years to manifest themselves, caution must be taken.
    As with any radical change in diet or food intake, especially one such as
    the ketogenic diet which causes extreme changes in the body's biochemistry,
    individuals must take care to monitor their health status. Tracking blood
    lipid profile and other indicators of heart disease as well as other bodily
    functions will help to indicate if any negative effects are occurring in
    the body and frequent diagnostic tests are highly recommended.
    Additionally, it is currently unknown whether adaptation to long term
    ketosis can be reversed without detrimental effects to normal metabolism.
    That is to say, it is conceivable that the metabolic effects caused by such
    a major dietary change could cause irreversible changes to normal
    metabolism.
    Some comment should be made is in regards to nutrient intake. Due to the
    restrictive nature of ketogenic diets the potential exists for
    micronutrient deficiencies. In the studies on ketogenic diets, the
    researchers provided supplementation of a multi-vitamin/mineral tablet to
    ensure adequate micronutrient intake. It may be advisable for those why
    try such a diet independently to supplement with a multi-vitamin/mineral
    providing 100% of the RDA. Additionally, since the consumption of nutrient
    dense foods such as vegetables is severely restricted during the week,
    these foods should be consumed during the carbohydrate loading phase so
    that absolute reliance on supplements is not required.
    Another thing that deserves mention is this: the high dietary fat intake
    necessitated by the ketogenic diet is such that increased free radical
    production could potentially occur. However, this area requires further
    direct study before any conclusions can be drawn. As with other potential
    health concerns, this further underscores the need for an individual to
    closely monitor their health status before and while beginning such a
    dietary regime.

    The issue of ketoacidosis
    A final criticism that arises relative to ketogenic diets is the extreme
    danger of uncontrolled ketoacidosis. KB's are acidic in nature. The
    uncontrolled buildup of KB's would lower pH levels of the blood causing
    death. However, we must differentiate between ketosis as it occurs in
    diabetics and ketosis as it occurs in non-diabetics. Recall that ketosis
    occurs when insulin levels drop and glucagon levels rise. In diabetics,
    this can occur even with high blood sugar levels due to the inability of
    the pancreas to secrete insulin. In this situation, glucose production is
    augmented but peripheral utilization is reduced. Blood sugar rises to
    exceedingly high levels of 300 to 2000 mg/dl (normal blood glucose
    concentration is 80-120 mg/dl). But, due to the low insulin to glucagon
    ratio, ketogenesis is also stimulated. However, due to the presence of
    high blood glucose levels, ketoacid use is prevented. Thus, KB
    concentration increases to high levels, eventually lowering blood pH and
    causing diabetic ketoacidosis and eventually death. Contrast this to
    ketosis as it occurs in conditions such as fasting, or carbohydrate
    restricted/high fat diets. In this case, blood sugar levels are subnormal
    and KB's do not buildup in the bloodstream as they will be utilized by
    peripheral tissues for energy (2).
    Additionally, ketoacidosis in diabetics seems related to a defect causing
    increased production. Normally, there is a negative feedback loop whereby
    excess ketones prevent further production. The slight difference in KB
    clearance versus KB appearance corresponds to urinary excretion which is
    always below 10% of total turnover. (1)
    As further evidence, exercise, which is ketogenic in nature, does not
    cause the expected increase in KB concentrations so a negative feedback
    loop appears also to be present. (6) This suggests that out of control
    ketoacidosis should not occur in normal individuals but, again, there is no
    real long term data on this aspect of the diet. Regular checks of urinary
    KB concentration (utilizing Ketostix), blood glucose (using a glucometer),
    and other indicators of potential problems are highly recommended.
    In conclusion, with the available data, the cyclical ketogenic diet may
    have merit for certain applications. The carbohydrate restriction coupled
    with the induction of ketosis seems to promote a hormonal mileu conducive
    to fat loss. The carbohydrate loading process on the weekend is the least
    understood (and least researched) aspect of this dietary approach and much
    further elucidation of the possible anabolic processes is required before
    any definite conclusions can be drawn. The long term health effects in
    healthy individuals of this dietary approach are unknown. The only
    studies over four weeks in length were conducted on populations which do
    not allow extrapolation to healthy individuals. Again, more research is
    needed to establish the safety of this dietary approach in the long term.
    In the very short term (4 weeks), it seems well tolerated except for the
    afforementioned cognitive effects.
    Regular blood work (including before commencing the diet to establish a
    baseline) as well as regular checks for urinary ketone concentration are
    highly recommended. Any metabolic abnormalities occurring in either tests
    should be taken as a sign that the dietary approach should be abandoned.
    Finally, due to effects on mental clarity during the first few weeks of a
    ketogenic diet, this approach is not suitable for individuals involved in a
    job or activity requiring high amounts of mental acuity.

    References:

    1. Balasse, EO and F. Fery. "Ketone body production and disposal: effects
    of fasting, diabetes, and exercise. [Review]" Diabetes - Metabolism Reviews
    5(3): 247-70, 1989.

    2. Berne, Robert M. and Matthew N. Levy. Physiology. St. Louis, MS: C.V.
    Mosby company, 1988.

    3. Biolo G. et. al. "Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein
    synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal
    muscle." J Clin Investigation 95(2): 811-9, 1995.

    4. Cutler, D.L. "Low-carbohydrate diet alters intracellular glucose
    metabolism but not overall glucose disposal in exercise-trained subjects."
    Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 44(10): 1364-70, 1995.

    5. John M. Freeman, Kelly, M. and Freeman, Jennifer. The epilepsy diet
    treatment: an introduction to the ketogenic diet. Freeman, Kelly, Freeman,
    1994.

    6. Fery, F. and EO Balasse "Response of ketone body metabolism to exercise
    during transition from postabsorptive to fasted state." Am J Physiology
    250 (5 Pt 1): E495-501, 1986.

    7. Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B.
    Saunders Company, 1996.

    8. Mark Hargreaves, ed. Exercise Metabolism. Champaign, IL: Human
    Kinetics 1995.

    9. Haussinger D. "Control of protein turnover by the cellular hydration
    state." [Review] Italian J Gastroenterology 25(1): 42-8, 1993.

    10. Haussinger D. et. al. "Cellular hydration state: an important
    determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease." Lancet 341
    (8856): 1330-2, 1993.

    11. Henriksson, J. "Influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity. [Review]"
    J Cardiovascular Risk. 2(4): 303-9, 1995.

    12. Kather, H. et. al. "Influences of variation in total energy intake and
    dietary composition on regulation of fat cell lipolysis in ideal-weight
    subjects." J Clin Investigation. 80(2): 566-72, 1987.

    13. Kinsman SL. et al. "Efficacy of the ketogenic diet for intractable
    seizure disorders: review of 58 cases." Epilepsia 33(6): 1132-6, 1992.

    14. Lambert EV et. al. "Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during
    moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat
    diet." Eur J App Physiology & Occup Physiology 69(4): 287-93, 1994.

    15. Mitchell GA et al. "Medical aspects of ketone body metabolism.
    [Review]" Clinical & Investigative Medicine 18(3): 193-216.

    16. Nebeling, N.C. et. al. "Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism
    and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports."
    J American College of Nutrition 14(2): 202-8, 1995.

    17. Phinney SD. et. al. "The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis
    without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capacity
    with reduced carbohydrate oxidation." Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental
    32(8): 769-76, 1983.

    18. Phinney SD. et. al. "The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis
    without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation."
    Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 32(8): 757-68, 1983.

    19. Shephard, R.J. and P-O Astrand. ed. Endurance in Sport. Oxford,
    England: Blackwell Scientific Publishing, 1992.

    20. Sidery, MB. et. al. "The initial physiological responses to glucose
    ingestion in normal subjects are modified by a 3 d high-fat diet." British
    J Nutrition 64(3): 705-13, 1990.

    21. Wing RR, et. al. "Cognitive effects of ketogenic weight-reducing
    diets." Int J Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 19(11): 811-6, 1995.

    Copyright 1996. Lyle McDonald, CSCS
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  2. I am faster than 80% of all snakes
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    Part 2


    Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Part 2
    Copyright Lyle McDonald 1996

    Last issue I presented a short review article of some research behind
    the cyclical ketogenic diet (hereafter CKD). This time I'd like to take
    that research and discuss proper application for those bodybuilders who
    have chosen to try the diet. The CKD can be used both for muscle gain with
    minimal fat gain or for maximum fat loss with minimal muscle loss. The
    primary difference in applications of the CKD would be in:

    1. Training structure
    2. Calorie levels
    3. Amount and type of cardiovascular training
    4. Length and quality of the carb-up phase

    In this article, I only want to discuss the application of the CKD for fat
    loss prior to and leading up to a contest. The typical problem with
    pre-contest dieting is the invariable loss of muscle mass which occurs.
    The CKD helps to solve this problem in two ways. First, ketogenic diets
    appear to spare muscle tissue loss during dieting. Second, the carb-up
    phase seems to promote anabolism to rebuild any lost muscle. I'll divide
    the application of the CKD for fat loss into three sections: the no-carb
    phase, the carb-up, and training structure.

    The no-carb phase:
    ----------------------------
    >From a dietary standpoint, to establish and maintain ketosis, two criteria
    must be met:
    1. Carbohydrate intake must be kept below 30 grams. However, there is some
    indivduality in this number. Some individuals can handle more
    carbohydrates while others may have difficulty establishing ketosis at this
    level. If you can't get into ketosis and everything else is in place, try
    cutting your carb intake to 20 grams or less. Also, many individuals choose
    to consume as few carbs as possible (zero) until ketosis is fully
    established and then increase carbs slightly (celery and cucumber are both
    good and add some nice texture to an otherwise bland diet) at that point.
    2. The ratio of fat to protein should be 1.5 grams of fat *minimum* for
    every gram of protein and carbs in the diet. This is a 75% fat, 25%
    protein ratio with trace carbs. So, if you plan to eat 200 grams of
    protein, you need to eat at least 300 grams of fat. In most cases, the
    easiest way to meet the fat requirements of the diet is to pick your
    protein food first (most protein foods have some fat in them) and then
    balance the meal out with the proper amount of whole fat food such as
    vegetable oil, cream cheese, or mayonnaise and heavy cream (a great dessert
    is heavy cream with protein powder and Equal. Mix it up in a bowl and
    you've got pudding!)

    Calorie levels: Calories should be set at maintenance or 10-20% below
    depending on how quickly you need to drop fat. If you don't know your
    maintenance calorie level, start with 12 calories per pound (or 11 calories
    per pound of lean body mass) and gauge from there. If you're dropping more
    than 2 lbs of fat per week, increase calories. If you feel that fat loss
    isn't happening quickly enough, lower them slightly or increase
    cardiovascular training. For the sake of example, let's say that your
    caloric intake during the no-carb phase is 2000 calories.

    75% fat = 2000*.75 = 1500 calories / 9 calories/gram = 166 grams of fat
    25% protein = 2000*.25 = 500 calories / 4 calories/gram = 125 grams of protein.

    These calories would be divided into three or four meals.

    Training structure:
    The other key to establishing and maintaining ketosis as rapidly as
    possible is that blood glucose (normal is 80-120 mg/dl) must be lowered to
    50-60 mg/dl. At this point, insulin levels decrease and glucagon levels
    (which are responsible for ketogenesis) rise. Simple carbohydrate
    restriction will cause ketosis to occur in three or four days. But proper
    training can put you in ketosis within 36-48 hours of stopping carbs. And,
    the more time you are in ketosis, the more fat you can lose.
    Now, a typical pre-contest dieting practice has been to lower the weights
    on all exercise and use higher reps to 'cut' up the muscle. This is a
    fallacy and is about the worst thing a natural lifter can do while dieting.
    Heavy weights are necessary to maintain muscle mass while dieting. What
    should be loweredis training volume (i.e. number of total sets and days of
    training) as overtraining becomes more likely on restricted calories.
    This point can't be too emphasized: while dieting for fat loss, it is
    almost impossible to gain muscle so don't knock yourself out trying. The
    best a natural can do is keep all the hard earned muscle he or she has
    built through heavy training. To keep that muscle, heavy training must be
    maintained, just at a lower volume.
    Now, the key to dropping blood glucose quickly is to perform sufficient
    metabolic work. At first glance, this seems to contradict the suggestion
    to cut training volume. However, the amount of metabolic work done (which
    impacts how much glucose is pulled out of the bloodstream into the muscles)
    is dependent on the size of the muscle used. So, to rapidly establish
    ketosis, make sure to work at least the large muscles of the body (legs,
    chest and back) in the first 2 days of carbohydrate restriction. An
    example training week be:
    Monday: chest and back
    Tuesday: legs and abs
    Friday: shoulders and arms

    Alternately, the entire body can be worked across Monday and Tuesday.
    This has the added benefit of allowing for muscle soreness to dissipate
    prior to the carb-up. Muscle damage causes short term insulin
    insensitivity which can impair carbing.
    This would look like:
    Mon: legs, back, biceps
    Tue: chest, delts, tris, abs
    Fri: high rep, circuit depletion workout

    The depletion workout comes from Dan Duchaine's book, "Bodyopus". The
    rationale is that the further you deplete muscle glycogen, the greater an
    anabolic response you will get during the recarb. On the Monday and
    Tuesday workout, do 2-3 heavy sets of 6-8 reps to failure for 1-3 exercises
    per body part (larger muscles like back need more exercises than smaller
    ones like biceps). On Friday, a giant loop type of circuit seems to work
    best. For example: squat, bench press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder
    press, pulldown, calf raise, triceps pushdown, barbell curl, abs, low back
    and alternate movements each cycle (flat vs. incline bench, seated vs.
    standing calf raise) to hit as many different fibers as you can.

    Do 10-20 semi-fast, but controlled, reps per exercise and go nowhere even
    close to failure. A weight around 50% of the weights you used for your
    sets of 6-8 on Mon and Tue seems to work about right. Take 1' rest between
    sets and about 5' rest between circuits. You want to continue doing
    circuits until you feel your strength decreasing (trust me, you'll know
    when you get there). This indicates your glycogen stores are becoming
    depleted. However, realize that not everyone has found the depletion
    workout to be necessary for good results. Again, experimentation and good
    record keeping is the key. I suggest you try both methods suggested above
    and see what happens.
    Prior to the depletion workout, it is important that you get out of
    ketosis by consuming 50 grams of carbs (fruit is ideal) about 2 hours
    before the workout. The rationale is this: while in ketosis, the body will
    prefer ketones to glucose for fuel. To achieve maximal glycogen depletion
    in all muscle fibers, you need to exit ketosis. Fruit (which will
    preferentially refill liver glycogen) is the ideal way to do this.
    This will allow for maximal glycogen depletion during the workout. The
    carb-up should begin immediately after the final Friday workout and
    continue from 24-36 hours at which point you should switch back to low carb
    intake.

    Cardiovascular training:
    One nice thing about ketogenic diets is that you are burning more bodyfat
    for fuel at rest than on a high carb diet. Additionally, due to fuel
    inefficiency of ketones (they provide 7 calories/gram vs. 9 calories/gram
    for fat), you will burn up more grams of fat for a given caloric deficit.
    This means that less cardio training is necessary. For those who want to
    ensure maximal fat loss, doing 20-30 minutes of light cardio (60-70% of
    maximum heart rate) on Wednesday and Thursday (or after training) can help.
    Additionally, 10' of easy cardio prior to the Monday and Tuesday workout as
    well as 10' of easy cardio afterwards will help to lower blood sugar levels
    and induce ketosis. Do not overdo cardio though as this is a guaranteed
    way to lose some hard earned muscle.

    The carb-up phase:
    ----------------------------
    This is probably the most critical part of the CKD. The carb up phase
    accomplishes two things:
    1. rebuilds any muscle that might be lost during the week due to the
    anabolic processes related to cell hydration
    2. refills muscle glycogen stores for the first workouts of the next week
    allowing you to train intensely enough to avoid muscle loss while on low
    calories

    There are two approaches to the carb-up phase:
    1. Subjective approach: with this approach, you simply carb to your hearts
    content UNTIL you begin to feel yourself spilling water over to the skin
    (i.e. you'll get bloated and smooth). This indicates that muscle glycogen
    stores are full and additional carbs will go to the fat cells. The types
    of carbs you consume (simple sugars vs. complex carbs) will, to a great
    degree, determine how quickly your muscle cells become full.
    This approach also allows you to dial in your pre-contest carbing up to
    see how your body will respond and what type of carb-up will make you look
    the best. To enhance fat loss, it is recommended that you do not carb for
    more than 24-36 total hours. This turns the diet into 6 days of low carb
    and 1 day of carbing. And, again, more days in ketosis means more fat
    lost.
    For those who need to lose fat very quickly, carbing every other weekend
    can have very positive results although it's not as much fun. In this
    case, I'd suggest one concentrated carb meal one hour in length right after
    Friday's workout and then go immediately back to low carbs. Unless you
    really overdo it, you will probably spike yourself back into ketosis by
    Saturday morning. The training structure for this approach might be:
    Mon: chest and back
    Tue: legs and abs
    Wed: cardio
    Thu: delts and arms
    Fri, Sat, Sun: cardio (have your once concentrated carb meal on one of
    these days)
    Mon: legs, back and bis
    Tue: chest, delts, tris, abs
    Wed: cardio
    Thu: cardio
    Fri: high rep depletion workout, begin carbing

    The benefits of such an approach are relatively greater fat loss since you
    spend proportionally more time (10 days out of 14 vs. 8 days out of 14 if
    you carb every weekend) in ketosis. The cons are that it's rather boring
    and there may be a greater potential for muscle loss. Again,
    experimentation (and frequent body composition measures are key).

    2. Objective approach: this approach is much more specific. After glycogen
    depletion, the muscles can handle 16 grams of carb/kg of lean body mass
    during the first 24 hours and 9 grams of carbs/kg lean body mass during the
    second 24. In terms of amounts and quality of carbs, you should emphasize
    lots of high glycemic index carbs at the beginning of the carb load and
    shift to lower amounts of lower glycemic index carbs towards the end. For
    very specific recommendations as to quantity and quality of carbs during
    the carb-up, check out Dan Duchaine's Bodyopus book.

    During the carb-up phase, several other things are important:
    1. Protein: you should consume 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight
    (or per pound of lean body mass) divided evenly across each 24 hours.
    2. Fat: you should consume approximately 15% of your total calories as
    essential fatty acids (flax oil, olive oil and walnuts are good sources)
    especially near the end of the carb up to slow digestion.
    3. Water: for every gram of carbs you consume, you need to consume 3-4
    grams of water for optimal refilling of the muscles. This works out to 10
    cups of water for a carb intake of 600 grams per day. Unless you're doing
    the final carb-up for your contest, I suggest drinking as much water as you
    can put down.

    Supplements such as vanadyl, chromium and magnesium may help the carb-up
    as they have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and can help to
    lower blood glucose. Also, using Hydroxycitric acid (trade name Citrimax)
    at 750 mg three times per day helps to shuttle carbs into the muscle cells
    and prevent spill over to fat cells. Finally, creatine monohydrate taken
    during the carb-up phase should, in theory, lead to more cellular
    hyperhydration and possibly cause more anabolism. Definitely useful for
    the contest in any case.

    Pre-contest week:
    --------------------------
    Ideally, you should be pretty close to contest ready one to two weeks out
    from your show. This allows you to do the final dialing in of your
    physique without being rushed. The final countdown to the show begins 8
    days out (this assumes a Saturday morning contest).
    During the next 6-7 days, it's important to keep water intake high.
    Beginning water restriction too early will cause the body to upregulate
    aldosterone, the hormone which makes the body retain water. Only on Friday
    and the day of the show should water intake be limited. Additionally,
    sodium loading and or restriction isn't recommended unless you've proven it
    works well for you. Don't go out of your way to add sodium, but don't go
    crazy trying to avoid it. Adequate sodium is needed for a proper carb-up
    anyhow. Calories on the low carb days should be kept at maintenance or
    even a bit higher. You should already be as lean as you're going to get by
    this point so don't risk any muscle loss by panicking. The countdown to
    contest looks more or less like this:

    Friday: last heavy day of training, low carbs
    Saturday: do cardio if necessary, stay in low carbs through this weekend
    Sunday: last day of cardio if necessary, stay low carbs
    Monday: low carbs, no training
    Tuesday: take in 50 grams of fruit 2 hour pre-workout, do depletion workout
    in morning, begin carbing with liquid simple carbs, goal is 16g carbs/kg
    lean body mass in the first 24 hours.
    Wednesday: continue carbing switching to complex carbs, 9 g carbs/kg lean
    body mass during the second 24 hours
    Thursday: continue carbing if not completely filled out yet, hard to say
    just how many carbs to consume but go by your condition. If you're flat,
    eat slightly more (stick with complex though). If you're full enough, cut
    back to small amouts of fibrous carbs.
    Friday: go back to mostly protein and fat with small amounts of carbs
    (perhaps 20%) at each meal, take a herbal diuretic (such as buchu leaves)
    as required but make sure that all carbing is finished
    Saturday: hit the sauna in morning if you're holding water and go kick tail
    at your contest

    I feel that carbing prior to the contest should be similar to what you did
    each week. With good record keeping, you should have a good feel for how
    your body responds to different types of carb-ups. And, as the saying goes
    "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" Whatever carb-up got you in your best
    condition during dieting is the carb-up you should follow.

    Bio: Lyle McDonald, CSCS received his BS in physiological sciences from
    UCLA. He has spent the past 25 weeks on a CKD and if he has to eat another
    meal of pink salmon in mayo for lunch, he may kill somebody. Or turn into
    a fish.
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    Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Part 3
    Copyright Lyle McDonald 1997

    Since it's the off season, more people than not are probably in
    a mass-gaining phase, non-pre contest phase of training. I mean, hey,
    it's winter and everything is covered up anyhow so it's a good time
    to allow some fat gain and bulk up a bit. The nice thing about
    cyclical ketogenic diets is that, for a given calorie level (above
    maintenance), you will gain much less bodyfat than if you were eating
    a high or moderate carb diet. Still, it's best for you not to go
    much above 10-12% bodyfat for men and 15% bodyfat for women or it
    will take too long to cut down to contest shape. I mean, nobody
    wants to diet for 16 weeks anyhow. So, instead of just haphazardly
    getting fat in the off season, keep it under control.

    A ketogenic mass gaining cyclical diet is essentially the same
    type of thing as the pre-contest/fat loss phase: 5 days of low carbs
    followed by a carb-up. The biggest difference from a pre-contest
    approach will be in:

    1. Training structure
    2. Calorie levels
    3. Amount and type of cardiovascular training
    4. Length and quality of the carb-up phase


    Training structure:

    Training structure and training modes are a very personal
    thing. There are so many different systems out there to say
    unequivocally which one is the best. I feel that everyone is
    individual anyhow and to give everybody a generic program is a
    mistake. All you can hope to do is find a system that will work best
    for you and for you alone. If that means a very low volume HIT
    approach, great. Hardgainer, periodization, etc. all are good
    philosophies that are time tested. But, I won't be so crass to give
    training advice without knowing more about each individual.

    However, some general training comments are in order. First
    and foremost I think athletes in most sports are drastically
    overtrained. While I have reservations about some of the extremely
    low volume approaches being endorsed by some groups, I think three to
    four days lifting per week is about the maximum even the most gifted
    natural lifter can handle. Sure, the pros may lift more but they are
    using certain, umm, supplements that just aren't approved for
    naturals.

    Additionally, many people spend far too LONG in the gym when
    they do show up. As Strength Guru Charles Poliquin has said "if
    you're spending more than an hour in the gym, you're making friends,
    not lifting." I agree with him 100%. More IS NOT better when it
    comes to training for natural athletes. I think most athletes will
    find that, up to a point, less is better when it comes to both
    training frequency and volume. Supposedly, Eastern European studies
    have found that anabolic hormones like GH and testosterone begin to
    drop after 1 hour but I've yet to see the actual data. But, if you
    can't get your workout done in under an hour, you need to seriously
    re-evaluate your program.

    In terms of exercise selection, I'm a firm believer in the
    basics because they, well, basically work. I see so many truly goofy
    exercises in the gym from day to day, I have to wonder how we forgot
    our roots in heavy squats, benches, deadlifts, rows, etc. More
    muscle has been built with squats than any number of sets of leg
    extensions. Not to say that some isolation exercises don't have
    their merit at times but the off season (as well as most others) is
    the time to concentrate on the basics.

    In terms of sets and reps, I can argue it many different ways.
    Growth hormone (GH) release is optimized with longish sets (50-60
    seconds in length) and short rest periods (45-60 seconds). But,
    I've yet to see any really convincing data that GH is that anabolic
    unless it's at supraphysiological (i.e. needle in butt) doses.
    Testosterone release is optimized when you use basic exercises
    (squat, deadlift, bench), heavy sets (85% of maximum and above), and
    long rest periods (3-5 minutes). I think the core of an off-season
    workout should be based on this type of training regardless of the
    actual details of the training plan. Perhaps a combination of low
    rep, heavy sets to stimulate testosterone followed by higher rep sets
    to stimulate GH, followed by very high rep sets to stimulate
    capillary growth (i.e. holistic training) is a nice compromise.

    Additionally, you will be strongest on Monday following the
    carb-up so this is a time to really hammer in the gym and work on any
    weak points. The Friday workout, coming before the big anabolic rush
    of the carb-up is another good place to put some weak point work.
    Your mid-week workouts will be the hardest so put areas that you just
    want to maintain on those days.

    Calorie levels:

    As discussed last article, the dietary format is the same
    whether cutting or massing. Dietary fat should be kept at 1.5 grams
    of fat per gram of protein OR carbs and total carbs per day should be
    kept below 30 grams. The difference is just in how much you are
    eating.

    As mentioned, a nice benefit of ketogenic diets is that excess
    calories (esp. fat calories) tend to be excreted as ketones rather
    than stored. So, calorie levels can be very high during the week. In
    fact, many ketogenic dieters find their hunger blunted so much that
    they can't consume enough calories during the week. Just make fatty
    red meat (I love hamburger with cheese and mayo but toss the bun),
    fish, etc. the core of your diet and eat as much as you can put down.

    For those who like numbers, 20% above maintenance calories or
    around 25+ calories per pound of bodyweight is a good place to
    start. You can adjust calories based on how much fat and muscle
    you're gaining each week. Planned correctly, you can put on a good
    bit of muscle with only a couple pounds of fat and be ok.

    Amount and type of cardiovascular training:

    Aerobics should be minimized if not eliminated outright during
    a mass building phase. Numerous studies have found that aerobic
    training can severely limit the strength gains seen from a lifting
    program. Many trainees try to add aerobics to avoid putting on too
    much fat during their mass phase but this will only limit muscular
    gains. Just keep your diet in check and keep your body composition
    under control and you'll be ready to contest diet. Doing 5-10'
    before and after workout to warm-up/cool down makes total sense and
    is a good way to keep your aerobic level high enough. As discussed,
    cardio training should be kept to a bare minimum during an off-season
    mass gaining phase.

    Length and quality of the carb-up phase:

    As with pre-contest dieting, there are again two approaches to
    the carb-up. One is to just eat everything you can lay your hands on
    and accept a relatively greater fat gain during the off-season. This
    is ok if you know your body responds to dieting well and you know
    that you can drop the fat later. For most of us, starting the carb
    up with lots of high glycemic index (i.e. simple) carbs and then
    progressing gradually to more complex carbs (starches) is probably
    the way to go. As always, experimentation and record keeping should
    be your goal. But, you should always stop your carb-up when you
    start to feel yourself smoothing out as this indicates that further
    caloric intake will lead to fat gain. Which can be in as little as
    24 hours if you eat donuts and Pop-tarts and 48 hours or more if you
    eat pasta and bagels. Me, I'll take the donuts and Pop-tarts.

    One other thing should be discussed relative to carbs and that
    is the mid-week carb spike. Basically, this is an option that I
    suggest you try to promote anabolism. You are allowed up to 1000
    calories of carbs with some protein in the morning on Wednesday (you
    should ideally have a training session later that morning or in the
    evening so that ketosis can be reestablished) but then have to go
    back to low carb eating. With proper carb-choices (i.e. glucose
    polymers), it's possible to spike yourself back into ketosis with
    this meal alone. Me, I'll keep my donuts handy.

    Supplements:

    Certain supplements may be useful during a mass gaining phase.
    Probably the most important of these is creatine monohydrate.
    Although taking creatine during the week is a bit of a waste, taking
    twice the normal dosage (i.e. about 40 grams) on the weekends is a
    good way to further promote cellular volumizing and anabolic
    processes. Insulin boosters like chromium (800 mcg/day) and vanadyl
    sulfate (up to 120 mg/day) can be useful as well. 2 grams of
    l-glutamine thirty minutes prior to training may be useful as it has
    been shown to increase GH release and promote anabolic processes.
    And, of course, a basic soluble protein powder, carb repletion drink
    and basic stuff like vitamins and minerals.

    So, go get big, don't get too fat, and try to come in to your
    next contest bigger and better than you were before. If, as a
    natural, you accomplish that, you've won regardless of where you
    place.
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    I win for longest posts of the year!


    Overall I agree with most of the things he says but some I don't. In any case, its a great read for those wanted to know about the CKD.
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    thank you, Bobo.
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    Nice post Bobo....

    I'm just wondering if you'd be kind enough to enlighten the rest of us with the flaws that you see in the diet, or the things that you disagree with, so that the rest of us can tweak the diet optimally and become Bobofied....
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    You know what I would love to see is 2-3 weeks of daily meal intake detailed out so it is easy to follow. No matter how much you can comprehend from reading the articles, which are very good BTW, having something that can get your through your first 2-3 weeks would be invaluable in teaching someone.

    Is there such a beast?
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    That's all great information, but even Lyle himself has changed his philosophy regarding CKDs since he finished those articles six years ago.

    From last month:

    "CKD's have gotten a way overblown reputation. Despite Dan's comments (and stuff I probably echoed many years ago), you're not going to lose fat that much faster on a CKD compared to any other diet at the same calorie level. It's not magic. You might get a little more fat loss than predicted in the first week or two but after that it comes down to calories.

    It's a good diet that helps eliminate some food cravings issues for many people and the refeeds help limit muscle loss (and raise leptin with all that entails). Frankly, an Isocaloric diet with a weekly refeed works just about as well ASSuming you don't have food/carb control issues."
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    good stuff Bobo. that's interesting though Demon, I didn't realize he backed away from it a few years later... regarding the diet posting, maybe I could get together with Scotty and post a few example diets for the initial few weeks, if Bobo doesn't beat us to it.
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    Originally posted by Biggin
    good stuff Bobo. that's interesting though Demon, I didn't realize he backed away from it a few years later... regarding the diet posting, maybe I could get together with Scotty and post a few example diets for the initial few weeks, if Bobo doesn't beat us to it.
    Lemme know, bro. I'm in. What exactly would you like to see Jake?
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    Just a complete day to day breakdown for 2 weeks of what you would eat. Basically, lets write up something that could be published in a book at sometime I just want something I could follow that would help me figure out the ins and the outs of the day to day reality.
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    Originally posted by Biggin
    good stuff Bobo. that's interesting though Demon, I didn't realize he backed away from it a few years later... regarding the diet posting, maybe I could get together with Scotty and post a few example diets for the initial few weeks, if Bobo doesn't beat us to it.
    Bump! I'd be willing to give a hand if it's needed. I've done CKD and may even have my old diet on this board somewhere.
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    Originally posted by windwords7
    Just a complete day to day breakdown for 2 weeks of what you would eat. Basically, lets write up something that could be published in a book at sometime I just want something I could follow that would help me figure out the ins and the outs of the day to day reality.

    *BUMP* Mad karma to whoever posts a detailed 2 week plan. I know a ton of people would love to be able to reference such a thing, myself included.

    -B
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    Originally posted by 2demon2
    That's all great information, but even Lyle himself has changed his philosophy regarding CKDs since he finished those articles six years ago.

    From last month:

    "CKD's have gotten a way overblown reputation. Despite Dan's comments (and stuff I probably echoed many years ago), you're not going to lose fat that much faster on a CKD compared to any other diet at the same calorie level. It's not magic. You might get a little more fat loss than predicted in the first week or two but after that it comes down to calories.

    It's a good diet that helps eliminate some food cravings issues for many people and the refeeds help limit muscle loss (and raise leptin with all that entails). Frankly, an Isocaloric diet with a weekly refeed works just about as well ASSuming you don't have food/carb control issues."
    Yes I agree for the most part but the thing I do not agree on is the amount of muscle lost compared to other diets. In fact if some do it correctly you can maintain all or gain som LBM if your lucky. With the inclusion of a high amount of fat in the diet, gluconeogensis is reduced drastically hence the chance of muscle wasting is reduced. This is a major benefit for BB'ers. I still think I lose fat faster with a CKD since fat is being used as a fuel 24/7 and insulin spikes are a minimum. But once you get to a really low bf%, there isn't much difference. THe body just refuses to give much up in the way of fat stores.
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    Originally posted by Sheesh
    Nice post Bobo....

    I'm just wondering if you'd be kind enough to enlighten the rest of us with the flaws that you see in the diet, or the things that you disagree with, so that the rest of us can tweak the diet optimally and become Bobofied....
    1. My ratios are different. I usually have a higher protein intake.

    2. Fat is eliminated during my refeed. All carb/protein.

    3. I consume pre and post workout carbs (oatmeal) and still can maintain ketosis with around 60+ carbs.

    4. I watch what type of fat I consume. I try to steer away from a lot of saturated fat.

    5. I taper down my refeeds...start at every 14 days, then 10, then 7, then 5, then 3, etc..... At 3 my refeed is usually 5-6 hours post workout. This is usually when your bf% becomes very low.

    THose are the basics...
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    Here's a 26 week of Lyles experience with the BodyOpus diet. He doesn't really go into detail about what he eats though but its still a good read.

    http://low-carb.org/lylemcd/week00.htm



    If I posted my diet, you would go running away screaming. Its the most boring, bland diet in history.

    You can tell when I'm on it. I get really moody. Well more than usual.
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    ckd


    bump for windwords idea, i actually read bobo's post last night at work (around 2:00am) and decided hell i will give it a shot, now keep in mind that i have done a kinda similar diet using animalbolics, but thats a different story, well i start my ckd diet today

    Wed.

    worked till 3:00am last night so i didn't get up till around 8:00am and done cardio, last night i had my last meal at around 9:00pm wich was 2 cans of tuna and greenbeans, woke up at 8:00am and took 2 xenadrine and a cup of coffee and done 40 minutes of cardio (tread mill ) at about 10:00am i had a whey protein shake with natural p-butter = about a tablespoon and a half , took my pit to the vet then at noon i had 8 eggs (2 yolks) and cheese and turkey bacon 4slices, at  1:30 i had 2 more xenadrine then at 2:00pm had another whey protein shake and p-butter(whey protein is 40 grams of protein) and then took a shot (1ml) of kynoselen. will post rest of meals later.
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    Originally posted by windwords7
    Just a complete day to day breakdown for 2 weeks of what you would eat. Basically, lets write up something that could be published in a book at sometime I just want something I could follow that would help me figure out the ins and the outs of the day to day reality.
    A detailed 2 week plan would vary by individual. A quick breakdown for me looks like this. Multiply bodyweight X 12. Take 10% of that number and subtract it from original number. Eat lbm in protein, the rest fat. All carbs will be incidental(cheese, bacon, etc.) I have a post w/o shake with 33g whey, 32g dex. The rest of your diet will be a lot of adding(it is for me, anyway.) I basically eat eggs, beef, sausage, cheese, and a lot of flax. A typical day would look like this:

    Meal 1(pre w/o)
    3 eggs, 1oz cheese, 2 strip bacon

    Post w/o shake
    33g whey/32g dex

    Meal 2(1 hr later)
    1 can tuna, 3 tbsp mayo

    Meal 3
    4oz 80%lean ground beef, 1oz cheese, 2 strip bacon, spinach or broccoli

    meal 4
    2 sausage links, 1oz cheese, spinach

    meal5
    4oz beef, 1oz cheese, 2 strip bacon, spinach

    Meal 6
    protein blend w/flax, and/or heavy cream

    This usally adds up to about 210g protein, 210g fat.
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    Lyle's Book


    Is Lyle's Book, The Ketogenic Diet worth the money? Any of you guys read it? Recommendations?
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    Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by Ibanez
    Is Lyle's Book, The Ketogenic Diet worth the money? Any of you guys read it? Recommendations?
    Absolutely. Duchaine's book is excellent as well.
  21. Hal
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    It can be hard to stick to since meals are, well, less than interesting. There are some good recipe sites out there...look at http://www.atkinsfriends.com/recipes/beef.shtml
    I like fahitas with romaine lettuce leaves instead of tortillas. Tuna with homemade mayo (made with flax oil) is pretty good too. I eat more cheese and sausage than I should, but unless your looking at ketosis as a lifestyle rather than a few weeks I don't think it matters.
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    Re: Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by scotty2


    Absolutely. Duchaine's book is excellent as well.
    Does Duchaine's book focus on keto specifically? Or are there various areas with not just keto in it?
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    Duchaine's is more isocaloric (which I'm doing now).
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    I did a CKD for like 4+ months. I have it all in fitday.com, except refeeds. Pretty boring, all I ate was:

    Chicken, tuna, meat, eggs, whey, flax oil, extra virgin olive oil and peanuts.
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    Re: ckd


    Originally posted by b-boy
    bump for windwords idea, i actually read bobo's post last night at work (around 2:00am) and decided hell i will give it a shot, now keep in mind that i have done a kinda similar diet using animalbolics, but thats a different story, well i start my ckd diet today

    Wed.

    worked till 3:00am last night so i didn't get up till around 8:00am and done cardio, last night i had my last meal at around 9:00pm wich was 2 cans of tuna and greenbeans, woke up at 8:00am and took 2 xenadrine and a cup of coffee and done 40 minutes of cardio (tread mill ) at about 10:00am i had a whey protein shake with natural p-butter = about a tablespoon and a half , took my pit to the vet then at noon i had 8 eggs (2 yolks) and cheese and turkey bacon 4slices, at  1:30 i had 2 more xenadrine then at 2:00pm had another whey protein shake and p-butter(whey protein is 40 grams of protein) and then took a shot (1ml) of kynoselen. will post rest of meals later.
    4:00 pm i had a can of tuna with mustard and 2 teaspoons of flax oil, 7:00 pm i had 6 scrambled eggs with 2 slices of cheese (2 yolks) and nat. p-butter, and at 9:00pm i had fillet mingon..spell check..LOL o yea i had my third dose of xenadrine at 6:00pm, will use EFA for two weeks (just came off two weeks of clen) then clen for two weeks, May 1st i will start 500mg test enth.wk, 500mg EQ.wk, for 10 weeks, with winny at 50mg ed last 5 weeks.                   UNLEASH THE FREAK BABY!!!!
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    Originally posted by bachovas
    I did a CKD for like 4+ months. I have it all in fitday.com, except refeeds. Pretty boring, all I ate was:

    Chicken, tuna, meat, eggs, whey, flax oil, extra virgin olive oil and peanuts.
    I've been wondering just how much bf everyone lost on this diet, did anyone use calipers before and after?
    How about some rough estimates of cycle length, kcal ingested, and work output which resulted in x amount of bf loss?
  27. Keto Jedi / HomeBrew Advocate
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    Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by Ibanez
    Is Lyle's Book, The Ketogenic Diet worth the money? Any of you guys read it? Recommendations?
    Worth every penny IMO. Especially if you want to learn about the science of how this all works, not just here's a plan, go do it.

    Dan's book is also top rate.




    PEACE
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    Re: Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by chi_town


    Worth every penny IMO. Especially if you want to learn about the science of how this all works, not just here's a plan, go do it.

    Dan's book is also top rate.




    PEACE
    A welcome cameo. You should drop by more often, my friend.
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    Re: Re: Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by scotty2


    A welcome cameo. You should drop by more often, my friend.

    I plan on it.
    I miss some of the intellectually stimulating people that take refuge here.

    PEACE
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    Re: Re: Re: Re: Lyle's Book


    Originally posted by chi_town



    people that take refuge here.

    PEACE
    We call it........home.
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    wow...and i wonder why lots of people have questions about the keto diet! excellent find though!
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