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Chromium Picolinate

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    Chromium Picolinate


    question. what's the best way to dose Chromium Picolinate for optimal insulin management?

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    Quote Originally Posted by beebab;
    question. what's the best way to dose Chromium Picolinate for optimal insulin management?
    Letters: Comments and Responses
    Chromium Supplementation Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity, or Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Supplementation in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance
    Response to Gunton et al.
    James Komorowski, MS and Vijaya Juturu, PHD

    Technical Services & Scientific Affairs Department, Nutrition 21, Inc., Purchase, New York

    Address correspondence to Vijaya Juturu, PhD, Nutrition 21, Inc., 4 Manhattanville Rd., Purchase, NY 10577. E-mail: vjuturu{at}nutrition21.com

    We read the recent article by Gunton et al. (1) with great interest and feel that it warrants comment. In this study, the authors stated that they "found no beneficial effect of chromium supplementation in the treatment of people with IGT [impaired glucose tolerance]." The results are in conflict with other clinical studies that showed chromium picolinate can enhance or normalize impaired glucose metabolism, as described in a recent review (2). The lack of effect described by the authors may be explained by the apparent low dose of elemental chromium used in the study.

    The authors stated that the chromium picolinate "dose (at 800 µg/day) was at the higher end of the ranges used in previous studies" (1). However, chromium picolinate administered at 800 µg per day yields a daily dose of 100 µg per day of elemental chromium (i.e., chromium picolinate contains 12.4% elemental chromium). An elemental chromium dose of 100 µg a day is half of the suggested minimum amount (200 µg) of elemental chromium previously shown to exhibit efficacy in glucose and lipid metabolism (2). A daily dose of 200–1,000 µg of elemental chromium, as chromium picolinate, is the efficacious dosage range used in previous studies.

    Bullivants Natural Health Products, the supplier of the study products used by the authors, stated that 400 µg of the chromium picolinate product they produce yields 50 µg of elemental chromium. The study was conducted in Australia, and the 50-µg elemental chromium dose is also the maximum daily dose allowed by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (3).

    It was also interesting to note that although the serum chromium levels significantly rose in the active group, the serum chromium levels were not significantly higher in the active group than in the placebo group after 3 months of supplementation (active group 5.2 ± 8.9 nmol/l, placebo group 4.4 ± 4.0 nmol/l). For these reasons, we believe study subjects in the active group may have been administered daily doses of 50 µg elemental chromium, twice daily.

    We recommend future studies be conducted in people with impaired glucose tolerance (following criteria defined by the American Diabetes Association) using daily doses of chromium picolinate providing ≥200–1,000 µg of elemental chromium for at least 90 days. We also recommend evaluating efficacy using the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with calculation of the area under the curve using the trapezoidal method.

    Footnotes

    The authors are employees of Nutrition 21, Inc., which manufactures products containing chromium.

    References

    1. Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R, Hams G, O’Sullivan C, Foster-Powell K, McElduff A: Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 28:712–713, 2005[Free Full Text]
    2. Cefalu WT, Hu FB: Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:2741–2751, 2004[Free Full Text]
    3. Complementary Medicines Evaluation Committee (CMEC), meeting 41, 1 August 2003, public recommendation summary [summary online]. Available at http://www.tga.gov.au/docs/html/cmec/cmecdr41.htm. Accessed 1 August 2003
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    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    Letters: Comments and Responses
    Chromium Supplementation Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity, or Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Supplementation in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance
    Response to Gunton et al.
    James Komorowski, MS and Vijaya Juturu, PHD

    Technical Services & Scientific Affairs Department, Nutrition 21, Inc., Purchase, New York

    Address correspondence to Vijaya Juturu, PhD, Nutrition 21, Inc., 4 Manhattanville Rd., Purchase, NY 10577. E-mail: vjuturu{at}nutrition21.com

    We read the recent article by Gunton et al. (1) with great interest and feel that it warrants comment. In this study, the authors stated that they "found no beneficial effect of chromium supplementation in the treatment of people with IGT [impaired glucose tolerance]." The results are in conflict with other clinical studies that showed chromium picolinate can enhance or normalize impaired glucose metabolism, as described in a recent review (2). The lack of effect described by the authors may be explained by the apparent low dose of elemental chromium used in the study.

    The authors stated that the chromium picolinate "dose (at 800 µg/day) was at the higher end of the ranges used in previous studies" (1). However, chromium picolinate administered at 800 µg per day yields a daily dose of 100 µg per day of elemental chromium (i.e., chromium picolinate contains 12.4% elemental chromium). An elemental chromium dose of 100 µg a day is half of the suggested minimum amount (200 µg) of elemental chromium previously shown to exhibit efficacy in glucose and lipid metabolism (2). A daily dose of 200–1,000 µg of elemental chromium, as chromium picolinate, is the efficacious dosage range used in previous studies.

    Bullivants Natural Health Products, the supplier of the study products used by the authors, stated that 400 µg of the chromium picolinate product they produce yields 50 µg of elemental chromium. The study was conducted in Australia, and the 50-µg elemental chromium dose is also the maximum daily dose allowed by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (3).

    It was also interesting to note that although the serum chromium levels significantly rose in the active group, the serum chromium levels were not significantly higher in the active group than in the placebo group after 3 months of supplementation (active group 5.2 ± 8.9 nmol/l, placebo group 4.4 ± 4.0 nmol/l). For these reasons, we believe study subjects in the active group may have been administered daily doses of 50 µg elemental chromium, twice daily.

    We recommend future studies be conducted in people with impaired glucose tolerance (following criteria defined by the American Diabetes Association) using daily doses of chromium picolinate providing ≥200–1,000 µg of elemental chromium for at least 90 days. We also recommend evaluating efficacy using the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with calculation of the area under the curve using the trapezoidal method.

    Footnotes

    The authors are employees of Nutrition 21, Inc., which manufactures products containing chromium.

    References

    1. Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R, Hams G, O’Sullivan C, Foster-Powell K, McElduff A: Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 28:712–713, 2005[Free Full Text]
    2. Cefalu WT, Hu FB: Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:2741–2751, 2004[Free Full Text]
    3. Complementary Medicines Evaluation Committee (CMEC), meeting 41, 1 August 2003, public recommendation summary [summary online]. Available at http://www.tga.gov.au/docs/html/cmec/cmecdr41.htm. Accessed 1 August 2003
    hmm very interesting. so this study is claiming that there is no significant improvement of insulin sensitivity whatsoever with daily chromium supplementation?

    i do believe that taking chromium picolinate over time may yield certain benefits. these studies taken from http://www.chromiumpicolinate.org/DI...supplement.htm show that after sustained supplementation with CP, individuals with diabetes or weight management problems experienced enhanced insulin management and glucose tolerance.

    here are a few...

    Insulin Resistance & Diabetes
    Here are a number of key, representative studies in this area using chromium picolinate.

    1999

    William T. Cefalu, Audrey D. Bell-Farrow, Jane Stegner, Zhong Q. Wang, Telle King, Tim Morgan and James G. Terry. “Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo,” Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 12:17-83, 1999.
    In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of chromium picolinate (CP) in 29 people at risk for developing type 2 diabetes, participants were given either 1,000 mcg per day of chromium as chromium picolinate (CP), or placebo, for eight months. The patients who received the chromium supplements showed a significant improvement (increase) in insulin sensitivity at four months and at eight months. These benefits were seen in the absence of significant changes in body fat distribution, suggesting that CP can beneficially affect insulin sensitivity independent of changes in weight or body fat percentage, thereby implying a direct influence on muscle insulin action. This study indicates that CP supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals who are clinically obese and pre-diabetic.

    Lois Jovanovic-Peterson, MD, FACN, Mario Gutierrez and Charles M. Peterson, MD. “Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 12:17-83, 1999.
    In this study, 20 women with gestational diabetes were divided into two groups, 10 of whom received 4 mcg of chromium as chromium picolinate daily per kg of body weight (mcg/kg) and 10 of whom received a dummy pill; 10 additional women received 8 mcg/kg of chromium as chromium picolinate daily. After eight weeks, the supplemented groups achieved significantly improved postprandial (after meal) glucose and insulin levels. The authors conclude that, “Chromium supplementation for gestational diabetic women improves glucose tolerance and lowers hyperinsulinemia.”

    my question is whether or not a normal person w/o an insulin problem will benefit from taking a modest amount of CP daily. if on a cutter, would taking a small serving of CP following a carbohydrate meal help improve the body's insulin sensitivity to that meal?
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    Quote Originally Posted by beebab View Post
    question. what's the best way to dose Chromium Picolinate for optimal insulin management?
    One study indicates that large amounts of chromium picolinate may cause chromosome damage...many other studies now also indicate it to be of questionable safety.

    A safer and more effective Chromium is niacin-bound chromium. Some studies have also shown that niacin is necessary for chromium supplements to be of benefit as it creates a biologically active form of chromium, which is more absorbable in the body. Chromium Polynicotinate is the niacin-bound supplement that enhances insulin sensitivity.

    An effective dose is 200 mcg of Chromium Polynicotinate taken with the Glucose Disposal Agent Vanadyl Sulfate at 10 mgs taken w/ a meal.

    This combo works very, very well. The Vitamin Shop sells Solgar Chromium Polynicotinate which is nice and potent.

    Does this work? Of course it does! Buy a glucometer and measure your blood sugar 30 minutes after a meal w/ carbs. The next time you have the same meal take the Glucose Disposal Agents and then measure your blood sugar 30 minutes after your last bite. You WILL see a lower reading.

    If you go back to Duchaine's Body Opus book you will see that there exists an insulin threshold above which you have a propensity to store nutrients in fat cells and below which muscle cells. That threshold in highly individual. I have also noticed that it is not just the rise in blood sugar post meal that is important but the amount of time blood sugar rises and peaks.

    Anyway I am going beyond your original question so I'll just say yes they work and you have the power to verify this for your own body and determine the blood sugar level you want to have post meal.
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    My question to you is: Why bother with it when ala has come so far (na-r-ala and k-r-ala) and is not only effective but also has a positive effect on your health?
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    Quote Originally Posted by B5150 View Post
    Thats why I test my own blood sugar. I get immediate results w/ 200mcgs of Solgar Chromium Polynicotinate & 10mcgs of Vanadyl sulfate taken w/ meals where I want to reduce blood sugar and control the insulin response. The glucometer is my objective measure and the mirror my subjective measure of effectiveness.

    I should add that my fasting baseline is solidly normal.

    Many other than myself use this approach to stay lean.
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    Quote Originally Posted by justreading View Post
    My question to you is: Why bother with it when ala has come so far (na-r-ala and k-r-ala) and is not only effective but also has a positive effect on your health?
    Because the combo is objectively effective. There is no reason why the glucose disposal agent you mentioned wouldn't be equally effective. Have you tested your own blood sugar w/ a glucometer w/ and w/o ALA usage?

    The VS actually begans to dispose of blood sugar BEFORE insulin rises significantly whereas the Chromium enhances insulin sensitivity. It is an effective combo. I'm curious as to what sort of results you are getting w/ ALA & your glucometer.
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    Quote Originally Posted by datBtrue View Post
    Thats why I test my own blood sugar. I get immediate results w/ 200mcgs of Solgar Chromium Polynicotinate & 10mcgs of Vanadyl sulfate taken w/ meals where I want to reduce blood sugar and control the insulin response. The glucometer is my objective measure and the mirror my subjective measure of effectiveness.

    I should add that my fasting baseline is solidly normal.

    Many other than myself use this approach to stay lean.
    I was neither endorsing or condoning it's use.
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    Quote Originally Posted by datBtrue View Post
    Because the combo is objectively effective. There is no reason why the glucose disposal agent you mentioned wouldn't be equally effective. Have you tested your own blood sugar w/ a glucometer w/ and w/o ALA usage?

    The VS actually begans to dispose of blood sugar BEFORE insulin rises significantly whereas the Chromium enhances insulin sensitivity. It is an effective combo. I'm curious as to what sort of results you are getting w/ ALA & your glucometer.
    I do not go to those lengths honestly and for myself berberdine is far more effective from an annecdotal viewpont. I only mention ALA because everyone is siting studies and ALA has tons of studies that show it to be effective through glut-4 mediation and also to be one of the best anti-oxidents on the planet. Since berberdine may or may not have proven safety long term (haven't done the leg work myself) and chromium has questionable long term safety (studies pointing both ways), when we take all the thing being spoekn about here into account, I think ALA is a strong alternative and provides a better safety profile.
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    Also I don't want to attack anything, glucose disposal is something that is VERY important to me as I suspect I may be insulin resistant (I have reasons for this but no medical test.)

    Right now I am thriving on near zero carbs eccept pre work out with berberdine but am open to new ways of glucose disposal.
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    Quote Originally Posted by justreading View Post
    I do not go to those lengths honestly and for myself berberdine is far more effective from an annecdotal viewpont. I only mention ALA because everyone is siting studies and ALA has tons of studies that show it to be effective through glut-4 mediation and also to be one of the best anti-oxidents on the planet. Since berberdine may or may not have proven safety long term (haven't done the leg work myself) and chromium has questionable long term safety (studies pointing both ways), when we take all the thing being spoekn about here into account, I think ALA is a strong alternative and provides a better safety profile.
    Chromium Polynicotinate is on the FDA's GRAS list ("Generally Recognized as Safe"). Chromium Picolinate is not.

    I agree with your caution on safety...it is really refreshing to see someone not throw caution to the wind. I don't have a prima facia preference of one GDA over another. I know from my blood work and that reported by others that VS & CPoly work.

    I am 41 years old w/ just about all the mass I want to carry and I maintain a bodyfat percentage in the single digits. I am not insulin resistant but I have always used a glucometer to monitor my blood sugar both the rise and duration of the elevation post meal...this information is helpful to me in keeping lean.

    Long ago I discovered that fiber is far more effective than fat at keeping a carbohydrate meal from raising the blood sugar. For instance the other day I had a sandwich and chocolate chip cookie at Paradise Bakery BUT I also had the salad greens. I measured by blood glucose 30 minutes post meal and it was only 105...40 minutes later it was creeping back down. WOW! The fiber kept the blood sugar from rising drastically even though I had all that sugar.

    Its not just about GDAs which really only have a place as a tool in carbohydrate meals, it is about constructing meals so as to grow and stay lean.

    You might want to consider buying a glucometer and run tests yourself. In my opinion the information is very valuable. You can get some objective numbers for meals with berberdine.

    Anyway you now have me interested in berberdine! What is the dosage you are using? Are you taking it before during or following the meal? Also what is the brand or is it bulk?

    I appreciate your input very much indeed.
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    Without providing links, how much does a quality glucometer go for? Any preferred brands/models I should look into?
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    Quote Originally Posted by rpen22 View Post
    Without providing links, how much does a quality glucometer go for? Any preferred brands/models I should look into?
    Glucometers are cheap. As cheap as $10. The problem is that the manufacturer charges a lot for test strips. So it is best to look at the price of the test strips for the machines.
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    Alright, thanks. I think I'm gonna pick one up since you've got me interested.
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    Quote Originally Posted by datBtrue View Post
    Glucometers are cheap. As cheap as $10. The problem is that the manufacturer charges a lot for test strips. So it is best to look at the price of the test strips for the machines.
    Damn, you weren't kidding. I looked into the strips for the One Touch brand, and they were like $26 for a box of 25.
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    both r-ala and chrom work in these respects, given the r-ala is timed release (otherwise its out of the body in 20 minutes). that said, they are both very different beyond that. chromium MANUFACTURES insulin (the absolutely strongest anabolic hormone) while increasing the amount of insulin receptors and improving insulin sensitivity. there are several products made using a certain chromium patent called albion chromium; this stuff is 100% elemental and is double chelated using a special process that
    a) stops chromium from suppressing other minerals (as all necessary carriers are present)
    b) stops other minerals from being suppressed by heightened chromium intake (since carriers arent exhausted therby
    c) is far better absorbed (the use of elemental chromium chelated to clycine which is the smallest amino carrier) on account that this product is small enough to be consumed by a cell while other mineral products are actually larger than the cell thats supposed to eat it

    anyway, if theres any debate as to which is better, and i dont know if id call it a contest, its chromium, as this mineral is essential and ala is produced in the body given we have adequate intake of the things we build it from like cysteine ect. i say chromium because as an essential nutrient it performs many essential functions and i would take an awesomely functional pancreas over a few squirts of ala a day. additionally, even the best chromium supplement is dirt cheap. sustained r-ala can cost 40bucks in 20 days

    that said, there is deep speculation into the dose; i for one suspect the 200mcg dose is intentionally small so as not to affect insulin sales; i mean, a few years ago all vitamin d was sold 400iu a cap, now its 5000 iu; why were these regulators so blind for so long?

    anyway, ive heard of diabetics working with doctors taking 4000mcg a day (thats like 20 chromium pills a day. i would definately not recomment this for albion chromium as it is insanely more potent

    at 9 albion chromiums a day, i have increased muscle hardness and balls to the wall weightlifting endurance. my pr's are also on the rise. there is something called exercise-induced chromium deficiency which i believe is something that happened to me after regular lifting and running for the past 12 years. its interesting to note that chromium is stored in tissue, thereby rendering bloodtests for chromium limited in scope. tissue levels have been examined in americans vs tribal people with the tribal people have a five fold increase in tissue chromium concentration.
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