I lovepreWO and throw a dose of mono in post.
Creatine is a naturally occurring compound derived from glycine and arginine and found primarily in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. It plays a key role in the body's energy system, and has many secondary roles. The average American gets about one gram of creatine per day from their diet, and one gram is produced in the body. Herring, salmon, tuna, and beef are all high in creatine, but you would have to eat very large amounts of these foods to get the benefits achieved through supplementation. Creatine is used primarily to increase athletic performance, but may also be useful in preventing various conditions affecting the brain, heart, and musculature.
2. What application does creatine have?
Creatine supplementation combined with strength training has been shown to cause dramatic improvements in muscle size and strength. A recent meta-analysis at the Medical College of Wisconsin of sixteen placebo-controlled trials on healthy adults showed creatine supplementation to increase the one rep maximum for bench press by an average of 15.07 lbs. (6.85 kg) and squat by an average of 21.47 lbs. (9.76 kg) with a 95% confidence interval (1). Additionally, creatine supplementation causes a significant increase in hypertrophy. A study that measured muscle fiber hypertrophy with creatine supplementation for 12 weeks found a 35%, 36%, and 35% increase in Type I, IIA, and IIAB muscle fiber cross-sectional areas, respectively, compared to 11%, 15%, and 6% in the placebo group (2).
3. How does creatine work?
After being ingested, creatine is absorbed into the bloodstream, most likely by the amino acid transporter (3), and usually reaches a maximum plasma concentration in less than two hours (4). While blood levels are elevated, the creatine transporter (CreaT) actively transports creatine into skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and the brain (3). At this point, there are a variety of mechanisms by which creatine may exert its ergogenic effects.
Modulation of energy metabolism - Creatine operates as an energy and pH buffer during exercise. Creatine kinase catalyzes a reaction between free creatine and phosphor ions (from the breakdown of ATP to ADP), resulting in phosphocreatine (PCr), which is locked into the muscle cell due to its strong negative charge. The PCr can then react with ADP to form ATP during exercise, and during rest periods more PCr is generated. All of this equates to more energy during sets and faster recovery between sets (3).
Increased protein synthesis - Supplementing with creatine has been shown to increase intracellular water retention (5). Not only does this have the benefit of making the muscles appear larger, it may have an anabolic effect as well. Hyperhydration stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown, and cell volume has a correlation with catabolism in a variety of ailments (6). Numerous studies have confirmed that creatine supplementation prevents protein catabolism (3, 7). There is also evidence that creatine increases satellite cell mitotic activity (8).
Reduced oxidative stress - In addition to direct effects on energy metabolism and protein synthesis, creatine also has indirect effects on them because it protects against tissue damage, thus increasing the body's ability to regenerate ATP (3) and synthesize protein and protecting against a variety of other harms caused by exercise-induced oxidation. Creatine primarily protects against the peroxynitrite and superoxide free radicals (9).
4. What are some further benefits of creatine use?
Neuroprotection - Creatine is found in high concentrations in the brain, and is being explored in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Creatine supplementation increases total creatine levels primarily in grey matter, white matter, the cerebellum, and the thalamus. Similar to its action in skeletal muscle, creatine operates through a variety of pathways in the brain, such as reducing oxidative stress and correcting mitochondrial dysfunction (3). A recent study on mice and rats showed creatine to provide a 36%-50% reduction in cortical damage caused by traumatic brain injury by improving mitochondrial function, decreasing reactive oxygen species, and maintaining ATP levels (10). This is a new area of research, so few human studies have been done on its neuroprotectant effects at this point. One study found that supplementation of creatine at 5 grams a day for 8 days decreased task-evoked mental fatigue and increased oxygen utilization in the brain (11).
Cardiac health - Since creatine is also found in high concentrations in the heart, its activity there has been studied as well. It protects the heart in a variety of ways, and has been shown to reduce the occurrence of arrhythmia (12), protect cardiac tissue from metabolic stress (13), and reduce plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (14).
I'm using Met-Rx creatine monohidrate , and its great
I'm using Met-Rx creatine monohidrate , and its great
I use ole fashion mono most of the time it works great for me.... I have been using bulk creatiune gluconate! It is cheaper then Size on and the same creatine that sizeon uses. everyone seems to loves sizeon. I didnt want to shellout that much cash for it. So if you are like me i would try the bulk first. It works for me but mono does to....
And PS gluconate doesnt seem to bloat me nearly as much as mono does.