1. Phosphatidylserine

    I am an endurance athlete, I gathered a lot of info on this forum regarding diet, training and supplements. Thank you guys! I never posted before, since everything I was looking for was on your forum! I came across something interesting for all endurance athletes out here.

    Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans.

    * Kingsley M.

    Department of Sports Science, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK. [email protected]

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is a ubiquitous phospholipid species that is normally located within the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. PtdSer has been implicated in a myriad of membrane-related functions. As a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, PtdSer is thought to be important in cell excitability and communication. PtdSer has also been shown to regulate a variety of neuroendocrine responses that include the release of acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline. Additionally, PtdSer has been extensively demonstrated to influence tissue responses to inflammation. Finally, PtdSer has the potential to act as an effective antioxidant, especially in response to iron-mediated oxidation.The majority of the available research that has investigated the effects of PtdSer supplementation on humans has concentrated on memory and cognitive function; patients experiencing some degree of cognitive decline have traditionally been the main focus of investigation. Although investigators have administered PtdSer through intravenous and oral routes, oral supplementation has wider appeal. Indeed, PtdSer is commercially available as an oral supplement intended to improve cognitive function, with recommended doses usually ranging from 100 to 500 mg/day. The main sources that have been used to derive PtdSer for supplements are bovine-cortex (BC-PtdSer) and soy (S-PtdSer); however, due to the possibility of transferring infection through the consumption of prion contaminated brain, S-PtdSer is the preferred supplement for use in humans. Although the pharmacokinetics of PtdSer have not been fully elucidated, it is likely that oral supplementation leads to small but quantifiable increases in the PtdSer content within the cell membrane.A small number of peer-reviewed full articles exist that investigate the effects of PtdSer supplementation in the exercising human. Early research indicated that oral supplementation with BC-PtdSer 800 mg/day moderated exercise-induced changes to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in untrained participants. Subsequently, this finding was extended to suggest that S-PtdSer 800 mg/day reduced the cortisol response to overtraining during weight training while improving feeling of well-being and decreasing perceived muscle soreness. However, equivocal findings from our laboratory might suggest that the dose required to undertake this neuroendocrine action may vary between participants.Interestingly, recent findings demonstrating that short-term supplementation with S-PtdSer 750 mg/day improved exercise capacity during high-intensity cycling and tended to increase performance during intermittent running might suggest an innovative application for this supplement. With the findings from the existing body of literature in mind, this article focuses on the potential effects of PtdSer supplementation in humans during and following exercise.

    PMID: 16869708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  2. welcome to AM. Good article, Thanks.

  3. I posted this before but here it is again

    Following info presents 2 sides to PS.
    Some info suggest that soy based PS is not effective in humans. The PS studies that have shown PS to be effective in humans was PS made from cow brains. However, PS is no longer animal based.

    Here is some info:
    "Phosphatidylserine, or PS for short, is a member of a class of chemical compounds known as phospholipids. PS is an essential component in all our cells; specifically, it is a major component of the cell membrane. The cell membrane is a kind of "skin" that surrounds living cells. Besides keeping cells intact, this membrane performs vital functions such as moving nutrients into cells and pumping waste products out of them. PS plays an important role in many of these functions.

    Good evidence suggests that PS can help declining mental function and depression in the elderly, and it is widely used for this purpose in Italy, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe. PS has also been marketed as a "brain booster" for people of all ages, said to sharpen memory and increase thinking ability. However, the evidence to support this use is contradictory.

    Recently, PS has been marketed as a sports supplement, said to help bodybuilders and power athletes develop larger and stronger muscles.

    Note: There is one major caveat to keep in mind regarding studies of PS. Virtually all such studies used animal-source PS, a product that is no longer available. Currently available PS products are made from plant products and might not function identically (see Sources below).

    Your body makes all the PS it needs. However, the only way to get a therapeutic dosage of PS is to take a supplement.

    PS was originally manufactured from the brains of cows, and all the studies described here used this form. However, because animal brain cells can harbor viruses, that form is no longer available. Most PS today is made from soybeans or other plant sources.

    There are reasons to expect that plant-source PS should function very similarly to PS made from cows' brains, and some animal studies suggest that it is indeed effective.1,5,43,45 However, in preliminary human trials, soy-based PS and cabbage-based PS failed to prove beneficial.7,46 The bottom line: at present, we do not know whether modern plant-source PS is actually effective."

    Studies against PS:
    7. Gindin J, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Rehovot, Israel. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research and Dept. of Geriatrics, Kaplan Hospital, 1995.

    46. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1996;42:47,54.


    "Weak evidence suggests that PS might decrease the release of the hormone cortisol after intense exercise.34 Among its many effects, cortisol acts to break down muscle tissue exactly the opposite of the effect desired by a strength athlete or bodybuilder. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 11 intensely trained athletes found that 800 mg of PS taken daily reduced the cortisol rise by 20% as compared with placebo.35 Another small study on 9 nonathletic males found that daily doses of 400 and 800 mg of PS reduced cortisol levels after exercise by 16% and 30%, respectively.36 Another study found that phosphatidylserine could relieve some overtraining symptoms, including muscle soreness, possibly due to effects on cortisol.37,39"

    35. Fahey TD, Pearl M. Hormonal effects of phosphatidylserine during 2 weeks of intense training. Abstract presented at: National Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine;June, 1998; Orlando, Fla

    36. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42:385-388.

    37. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42:385-388.

    38. Fahey TD, Pearl M. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 1998;15:135-144.

    39. Monteleone P, Beinat L, Tanzillo C, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology. 1990;52:243-248.

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