Department of Clinical Biology, University of Bergen, Norway
Administration of tetradecylthioacetic acid (a 3-thia fatty acid) increases mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidative capacity and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity, but reduces free fatty acid and triacylglycerol levels in plasma compared to palmitic acid-treated rats and controls. The decrease in plasma triacylglycerol was accompanied by a reduction (56%) in VLDL-triacylglycerol. Prolonged supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid caused a significant increase in lipogenic enzyme activities (ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and diacylglycerol acyltansferase, but did not affect phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. Plasma cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels were reduced. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity was, however, stimulated in 3-thia fatty acid-treated rats compared to controls. In addition. the mRNAs of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and LDL-receptor were increased. Tetradecylthioacetic acid administration affected the fatty acid composition in plasma and liver by increasing the amount of monoenes, especially 18:1(n-9), mostly at the expense of omega-3 fatty acids. Compared to liver a large amount of tetradecylthioacetic acid accumulated in the heart, and this accumulation was accompanied by an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly 22:6(n-3) and a decrease in omega-6 fatty acids, mainly 20:4(n-6). The results show that the hypolipidemic effect of tetradecylthioacetic acid is sustained after prolonged administration and may, at least in part, be due to increased fatty acid oxidation and upregulated LDL-receptor gene expression. The increase in lipogenic enzyme activities as well as increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, may be compensatory mechanisms to maintain cellular integrity. Decreased level of 20:4(n-6) combined with increased omega-3/omega-6 ratio in cardiac tissue after tetradecylthioacetic acid treatment may have influence on membrane dynamics and function.
It seems like I remember that TTA is not fat soluble or maybe it's not water soluble or both anyway. If someone could help me out on the solubility of TTA it would be appreciated. I can't figure is TTA concentration in the heart is a good thing or a bad thing. I would think that an increase Omega 3 would be minutly beneficial, cardio protective I really just want to know how long TTA stays concentrated in the heart.
Edit: I had my O fats mixed up earlier and thought decreased 06 was bad. It still might be but I'll search more on that later. Woot Woot