Glucosamine- Know the Risks so, as with the other recent threads... here's the list
1.Role of the glucosamine pathway in fat-induced insulin resistance.
J Clin Invest 1997 May 1;99(9):2173-82
2.Activation of the hexosamine pathway by glucosamine in vivo induces insulin resistance in multiple insulin sensitive tissues.
Endocrinology 1997 Jun;138(6):2501-7
3.Activation of the hexosamine pathway by glucosamine in vivo induces insulin resistance of early postreceptor insulin signaling events in skeletal muscle.
Diabetes 1999 Aug;48(8):1562-71
4.Excessive hexosamines block the neuroprotective effect of insulin and induce apoptosis in retinal neurons.
J Biol Chem 2001 23;276(47):43748-55
5.Discovery of a metabolic pathway mediating glucose-induced desensitization of the glucose transport system. Role of hexosamine biosynthesis in the induction of insulin resistance.
J Biol Chem 1991 Mar 15;266(8):4706-12
6.Pre-exposure to glucosamine induces insulin resistance of glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscles. Study of mechanisms in muscle and in rat-1 fibroblasts overexpressing the human insulin receptor.
Diabetes 1993 Sep;42(9):1333-46
7.Glucosamine levels in people with ischaemic heart disease with and without type II diabetes.
Pol Arch Med Wewn 1998 Nov;100(5):419-25
8.Exercise-stimulated glucose turnover in the rat is impaired by glucosamine .
Diabetes 2001 Jan;50(1):139-42
9.Glucose transport by osmotic shock and vanadate is impaired by glucosamine.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Mar 29;292(2):308-11
10.Glucosamine regulation of glucose metabolism in cultured human skeletal muscle cells: divergent effects on glucose transport/phosphorylation and glycogen synthase in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects.
Endocrinology 1999 Sep;140(9):3971-80
11.Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans.
Diabetes 2000 Jun;49(6):926-35
12.Immunosuppressive effects of glucosamine.
J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 18;277(42):39343-9
13.High glucose and glucosamine induce insulin resistance via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Diabetes 2000 Jun;49(6):981-91
14.Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000 Jan;278(1):E103-12
15.The role of glucose metabolites in the activation and translocation of glycogen synthase by insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
J Biol Chem 1999 Sep 24;274(39):27497-504
16.Hexosamines and nutrient excess induce leptin production and leptin receptor activation in pancreatic islets and clonal beta-cells.
Endocrinology 2001 Oct;142(10):4414-9
17.Endothelin-stimulated glucose uptake: effects of intracellular Ca(2+), cAMP and glucosamine.
Clin Sci (Lond) 2002 Aug;103 Suppl 48:418S-423S
18.Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is caused by depletion of intracellular ATP.
J Biol Chem 1998 Aug 7;273(32):20658-68
19.Mechanisms of insulin resistance in non-oxidative glucose metabolism: the role of glycogen synthase.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1998;9(2-4):255-79
20.Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress.
J Biol Chem 2001 Aug 17;276(33):31099-104