studies regarding not only its effectiveness for the liver, but also its numerous anti-carcinogenic properties with regards to the pancreas, breast, and prostate tissues, as well as treatment of chemical induced injury to the kidneys, milk thistles potential benefit to the nervous system and its immunostimulatory effects, AND inhibition of glucose-related insulin release... the list goes on much longer than I thought, as I was originally under the impression that it was primarily only a "liver protectant"... well, it's much more than that it seems... again, cheap and effective... more and more some of these herbal extracts are proving to be very effective, especially in conjuction with standard medical treatment. good stuff. make sure yours is standardizedextract (most are).
1.Analysis of the active components of silymarin.
J Chromatogr A 2003 Mar 21;990(1-2):239-45
2.Primary cultures of human hepatocytes as a tool in cytotoxicity studies: cell protection against model toxins by flavonolignans obtained from Silybum marianum.
Toxicol Lett 2003 Feb 3;137(3):201-12
3.Immunostimulatory effect of Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) extract.
Med Sci Monit 2002 ;8(11):BR439-43
4.Effect of silybin and its congeners on human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activities.
Phytother Res 2002 Nov;16(7):632-8
5.The use of alternative medicine in the treatment of hepatitis C.
Am Clin Lab 2002 May;21(4):19-21
6.Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on neurons in culture.
J Mol Neurosci 2002 Jun;18(3):265-9
7.Milk thistle and the treatment of hepatitis.
Gastroenterol Nurs 2001 Mar-Apr;24(2):95-7
8.The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases.
9.Preventive strategies in chronic liver disease: part I. Alcohol, vaccines, toxic medications and supplements, diet and exercise.
Am Fam Physician 2001 Nov 1;64(9):1555-60
10.Silibinin up-regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 expression and inhibits proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Res 2000 Oct 15;60(20):5617-20
11.Cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle as molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents.
Biochem Pharmacol 2000 Oct 15;60(8):1051-9
12.Inhibition of human carcinoma cell growth and DNA synthesis by silibinin, an active constituent of milk thistle: comparison with silymarin.
Cancer Lett 1999 Dec 1;147(1-2):77-84
13.Silymarin suppresses TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and apoptosis.
J Immunol 1999 Dec 15;163(12):6800-9
14.Stimulatory effects of silibinin and silicristin from the milk thistle Silybum marianum on kidney cells.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999 Sep;290(3):1375-83
15.Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: implications for prostate cancer intervention.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999 Jun 22;96(13):7490-5
16.A flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, inhibits activation of erbB1 signaling and induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, G1 arrest, and anticarcinogenic effects in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
Cancer Res 1998 May 1;58(9):1920-9
17.Anticarcinogenic effect of a flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB 468: induction of G1 arrest through an increase in Cip1/p21 concomitant with a decrease in kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinases and associated cyclins.
Clin Cancer Res 1998 Apr;4(4):1055-64
18.Silibinin, a plant extract with antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties, protects exocrine pancreas from cyclosporin A toxicity.
Cell Mol Life Sci 1997 Dec;53(11-12):917-20
19.Novel cancer chemopreventive effects of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin: inhibition of mRNA expression of an endogenous tumor promoter TNF alpha.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997 Oct 9;239(1):334-9
20.Inhibition of Kupffer cell functions as an explanation for the hepatoprotective properties of silibinin.
Hepatology 1996 Apr;23(4):749-54
21.Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.
J Hepatol 1989 Jul;9(1):105-13