TTA is a PPAR antagonist. PPAR stands for Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. PPAR’s are a group of transcription factors (proteins that transcribe genetic information from DNA to RNA) that play key roles in cell development, glucose metabolism, and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
There are different types of PPAR’s, but TTA relates to PPAR-alpha. The liver is the main site in which fatty acids are burnt as energy or stored dependant upon calorie intake and energy expenditure. When in a fasting state, the body generally switches from using carbohydrate and fats as an energy source to mainly fat. Fatty acids are released from adipocytes (the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue). These fatty acids are then either restored in adipocytes, go to cardiac and skeletal muscle to be burned as energy, or are broken down through beta oxidization to form ketones. PPAR-alpha mediates the genes that control fatty acid uptake, beta oxidization, and gamma oxidization – which are upregulated when in a fasting state. Therefore, with TTA being a PPAR-alpha antagonist, it activates these receptors allowing you to receive these benefits while in a fed state as well. PPAR-alpha also helps inhibit triglyceride hydrolysis, which further enhances lipid oxidization.
TTA also helps increase mitochondrial activity, which in itself provides numerous benefits. Mitochondria proteins function mainly to produce ATP (ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism).By enhancing mitochondria protein function, the body burns more ‘fuel’, which translates into fat loss. The more fat that someone is carrying, the more inhibition of mitochondrial function they generally have.
TTA also enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity. There is a strong link between insulin resistance and the reduction of glucose oxidization in the mitochondria and the subsequent build up for glycolysis byproducts.
TTA also helps in reducing free fatty acids and triglyceride levels.