The Effects of an Acute Dose of Rhodiola Rosea on Endurance Exercise Performance - AnabolicMinds.com

The Effects of an Acute Dose of Rhodiola Rosea on Endurance Exercise Performance

Page 1 of 2 12 Last
  1. JudoJosh's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2008
    Age
    29
    Posts
    8,849
    Rep Power
    2179970

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    The Effects of an Acute Dose of Rhodiola Rosea on Endurance Exercise Performance


    The Effects of an Acute Dose of Rhodiola Rosea on Endurance Exercise Performance

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute oral dose of 3mg/kg of Rhodiola Rosea (Rr) on endurance exercise performance, perceived exertion, mood, and cognitive function. Subjects (n=18) ingested either Rr or a carbohydrate placebo 1 h prior to testing in a double blind, random crossover manner. Exercise testing consisted of a standardized 10 min warm-up, followed by a 6-mile time trial (TT) on a bicycle ergometer. Perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 min during the TT using a BORG 10 pt scale. Blood lactate concentration, salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase were measured pre warm-up, 2 min post warm-up, and 2 min post TT (n=15). A Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and a Stroop's Color Test were completed pre-warm up and post TT. Testing was repeated 2-7d later with the other condition. Rr ingestion significantly decreased heart rate during the standardized warm up (Rr=136+17bpm; Placebo=140+17bpm; mean+SD; p=0.001). Subjects completed the TT significantly faster following Rr ingestion (Rr=25.4+2.7 min; placebo=25.8+3.0 min; p=0.037). The mean RPE was lower in the Rr trial (Rr= 6.0+0.9; placebo= 6.6+1.0; p=0.04). This difference was even more pronounced when a ratio of the RPE relative to the workload was calculated (Rr= 0.048+0.01; placebo= 0.057+0.02; p=0.007). No other statistically significant differences were observed. Acute Rr ingestion decreases heart rate response to sub-maximal exercise, and appears to improve endurance exercise performance by decreasing the perception of effort.
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates

  2. JudoJosh's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2008
    Age
    29
    Posts
    8,849
    Rep Power
    2179970

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Another one

    Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.


    Abstract
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and 4-week Rhodiola rosea intake on physical capacity, muscle strength, speed of limb movement, reaction time, and attention.

    METHODS: PHASE I: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized study (n= 24) was performed, consisting of 2 sessions (2 days per session). Day 1: One hour after acute Rhodiola rosea intake (R, 200-mg Rhodiola rosea extract containing 3% rosavin + 1% salidroside plus 500 mg starch) or placebo (P, 700 mg starch) speed of limb movement (plate tapping test), aural and visual reaction time, and the ability to sustain attention (Fepsy Vigilance test) were assessed. Day 2: Following the same intake procedure as on day 1, maximal isometric knee-extension torque and endurance exercise capacity were tested. Following a 5-day washout period, the experimental procedure was repeated, with the treatment regimens being switched between groups (session 2). PHASE II: A double blind placebo-controlled study (n = 12) was performed. Subjects underwent sessions 3 and 4, identical to Phase I, separated by a 4-week R/P intake, during which subjects ingested 200 mg R/P per day.

    RESULTS: PHASE I: Compared with P, acute R intake in Phase I increased (p <.05) time to exhaustion from 16.8 +/- 0.7 min to 17.2+/- 0.8 min. Accordingly, VO2peak (p <.05) and VCO2peak (p<.05) increased during R compared to P from 50.9 +/- 1.8 ml x min(-1) x kg(- )1 to 52.9 +/- 2.7 ml x min(-10) x kg(-1) (VO2peak) and from 60.0 +/- 2.3 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) to 63.5+/- 2.7 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) (VCO2peak). Pulmonary ventilation (p =.07) tended to increase more during R than during P (P: 115.9+/- 7.7 L/min; R: 124.8 +/- 7.7 L/min). All other parameters remained unchanged. PHASE II: Four-week R intake did not alter any of the variables measured.

    CONCLUSION: Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers. This response was not altered by prior daily 4-week Rhodiola intake.
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
  3. JudoJosh's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2008
    Age
    29
    Posts
    8,849
    Rep Power
    2179970

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    So not only is rhodiola rosea a steallar adaptogen (reduces the effect of perceived stress) but it looks like it may also be a decent performance enhancer
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
    •   
       

  4. baldwanus's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Posts
    1,230
    Rep Power
    69821

    Reputation Reputation

    intradasting finds, thanks for posting these up
    iForce Nutrition Online Representative Manager
    iTrain. iCompete. iDominate…iForce!
    www.iforcenutrition.com
  5. JonRubio's Avatar
    Stats
    5'7"  170 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
    Posts
    814
    Rep Power
    124005

    Reputation Reputation Reputation

    I definitely feel a difference when i supplement it.
    PES R&D
  6. StackedCop's Avatar
    Stats
    6'1"  220 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2010
    Posts
    5,720
    Rep Power
    135804

    Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Nice post judo

  7. mr.cooper69's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Posts
    10,483
    Rep Power
    5966607

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Yep Rhodiola actually has a ton of relevant research backing it. The issue is that companies often use poor extracts or doses.
    http://pescience.com/
    http://selectprotein.com/
    The above is my own opinion and does not reflect the opinion of PES
  8. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by mr.cooper69 View Post
    Yep Rhodiola actually has a ton of relevant research backing it. The issue is that companies often use poor extracts or doses.
    So what type of extracts/doses should we be looking for? 3-4% Rosavin?
  9. JudoJosh's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2008
    Age
    29
    Posts
    8,849
    Rep Power
    2179970

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    If I remember correctly, rhodiola rosea also increases creatine deposition.
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
  10. mr.cooper69's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Posts
    10,483
    Rep Power
    5966607

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    So what type of extracts/doses should we be looking for? 3-4% Rosavin?
    Around that, yes.

    Quote Originally Posted by JudoJosh View Post
    If I remember correctly, rhodiola rosea also increases creatine deposition.
    Yep, rhodiola is an activator of AMPK which facilitates glucos/creatine uptake in muscle.
    http://pescience.com/
    http://selectprotein.com/
    The above is my own opinion and does not reflect the opinion of PES
  11. rob112's Avatar
    Stats
    5'10"  216 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
    Posts
    5,352
    Rep Power
    333220

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    I remember reading that the endurance aspect of rhodiola is only effective in increments of something like 4 weeks or so. You come across anything like this? I would like to say I can find the article but not positive as I am posting from the phone, as usual
    http://anabolicminds.com/forum/workout-logs/231713-rob112-3-means.html
    "Train like a beast, think like a human"-RTS
  12. 3clipseGT's Avatar
    Stats
    5'8"  182 lbs.
    Join Date
    Aug 2005
    Posts
    9,969
    Rep Power
    1141120

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Interesting, never realized it had the other benefits as well.
    E-Pharm Rep... PM me with any questions or concerns
  13. p5sky's Avatar
    Stats
    5'7"  172 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Posts
    3,469
    Rep Power
    1867259

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    I might look into incorporating this into my triathlon training if it can benefit endurance training. I typically stick to basics in the month before my main races, last year I used BA, cordygen, cit mal, and creatine.
    -OMEGA RecoverBro-
    When an omega male is born it's game over


  14. rob112's Avatar
    Stats
    5'10"  216 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
    Posts
    5,352
    Rep Power
    333220

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by rob112 View Post
    I remember reading that the endurance aspect of rhodiola is only effective in increments of something like 4 weeks or so. You come across anything like this? I would like to say I can find the article but not positive as I am posting from the phone, as usual
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256690
    http://anabolicminds.com/forum/workout-logs/231713-rob112-3-means.html
    "Train like a beast, think like a human"-RTS
  15. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Picked up some bulk rhodiola (3% rosavin)

    With what dosages have people experienced success?
  16. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Bump for judo, rodja, coop, etc.

    Has anybody had experience with high extract rhodiola?
  17. bioman's Avatar
    Stats
    5'10"  180 lbs.
    Join Date
    Sep 2003
    Age
    42
    Posts
    7,697
    Rep Power
    513131

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    There's a big shift in effects going from low dose to high dose..and this depends both on the extract strength/quality as well as individual tolerance. Low dose will give lots of energy as well as a boost in endurance. High dose can be VERY sedating although apparently it gives a greater boost in endurance as indicated by the articles above. I think the sedative effects can be overcome with a decent stim.

    I used all sorts of doses and extracts of RR years ago, but stopped using it due to sleep disturbances as well as unpredictability of moods. It started off putting me in a great mood and was my solution for chronic depression, but it ended up not being stable for me. It definitely enhanced cardio for me.

    I've refined my depression treatment supps quite a bit over the years, so I may play with RR dosing again.
  18. saggy321's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2009
    Posts
    1,366
    Rep Power
    97234

    Reputation Reputation

    Yeah...I too noticed an improvement in endurance across all states and not just exercise. However, after a few days of daily use I developed insomnia and I didn't seem to tire at all. My body felt like it needed no sleep and I was able to go to work and function as normal without any shut eye. I stopped after a couple of days because I thought this cannot be good for my body and mind.
  19. kisaj's Avatar
    Stats
    6'0"  210 lbs.
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Age
    40
    Posts
    4,372
    Rep Power
    1190346

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Keep in mind that there can be significant differences in quality amongst brands- more than most other supplements. Ideally, you want a 3-4:1 ratio of rosavins. Also, I'd recommend starting with a low dose and working up because there is a fine line where it starts working as a sedative.

    I can only take 250-300mg at 3.5% rosavin. 500mg makes me very edgy and I tried to take 1g on several occasions looking for an athletic advantage and it ended up putting me to sleep.

    One of the best things about Rhodiola is the fact that it dramatically impacts your quality of sleep. Since starting to take it last year, I've dropped about an hour of sleep at night and wake up feeling much more refreshed.
  20. squatting's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2012
    Posts
    148
    Rep Power
    0

    Reputation

    Recommend a brand of the exact one y'all use thanks
  21. VaughnTrue's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    3,912
    Rep Power
    1018909

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    this is why we included Rhodiola in Compete!

    iForce Nutrition Compete (300g): Discount Compete Supplements
  22. Cordeen's Avatar
    Stats
    5'11"  182 lbs.
    Join Date
    Nov 2002
    Posts
    2,247
    Rep Power
    362728

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    I love the stuff. But too much and it makes me anxious. The opposite of what a lower dosage does.
  23. squatting's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2012
    Posts
    148
    Rep Power
    0

    Reputation

    I took Gaia Herbs Siberian Rhodiola Rosea and even tho I felt a increased in endurance it got me very dizzy, I dosed it another day where I didnt work out and got dizzy again.

    Alcohol Free Concentrated Extract Of:
    Rhodiola Rosea Root (Rhodiola Rosea) 400mg
    Standardized To Full Spectrum Profile
    Rosavins 12mg




    -----


    Now i got a bottle of the Rhodiola 500mg VitaminShoppe and wonder what are the chances im going to get dizzy off this one as well????

    RHODIOLA ROSEA EXTRACT (STD. TO 5.4% ROSAVINS 27 MG, 3.6% ROSAVIN 18 MG, 0.9% SALIDROSIDES 4.5 MG AND 36% POLYPHENOLS 180 MG)
  24. squatting's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2012
    Posts
    148
    Rep Power
    0

    Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by VaughnTrue View Post
    this is why we included Rhodiola in Compete!
    I take Compete and I never got dizzy off it, wonder if it's cause it's a lower dose.
  25. kisaj's Avatar
    Stats
    6'0"  210 lbs.
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Age
    40
    Posts
    4,372
    Rep Power
    1190346

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    You can never go wrong with Gaia, but the dosage may be a little low for some at 120mg. Their 120 is going to be better than others 200-300mg. I like Gaia, Solaray (what I am loving right now), and to some degree NOW. NOW seems to be a little strong for me.
  26. VaughnTrue's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    3,912
    Rep Power
    1018909

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by squatting View Post
    I take Compete and I never got dizzy off it, wonder if it's cause it's a lower dose.
    correct, we dosed it appropriately. Rhodiola can have VERY different effects based on its dosage, so we went with what we found to be the best for stress/endurance enhancement.
  27. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Rhodiola rosea is one of my favorites. Successful clinicals that established Rhodiola Rosea's adaptogenic properties used standardized extractions yielding 3% rosavins (rosavin, rosarin, and rosin) and 1% salidrosides, the same ratio available in the natural root. These rosavins and salidrosides must be collectively present for rhodiola rosea to produce desired effects. In otherwords, not all rhodiola are the same. More specifically, as already mentioned, the effective rhodiola used in clinical trials was/is Rhodiola Rosea, or Russian Rhodiola. You would need a minimum of 7.5mg Rosavins and 2.5mg Salidrosides daily to see results such as elevated phospho-creatine and ATP syntheses, improved endurance, cognitive function and perception, as well as enhanced immune support.
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  28. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    Rhodiola rosea is one of my favorites. Successful clinicals that established Rhodiola Rosea's adaptogenic properties used standardized extractions yielding 3% rosavins (rosavin, rosarin, and rosin) and 1% salidrosides, the same ratio available in the natural root. These rosavins and salidrosides must be collectively present for rhodiola rosea to produce desired effects. In otherwords, not all rhodiola are the same. More specifically, as already mentioned, the effective rhodiola used in clinical trials was/is Rhodiola Rosea, or Russian Rhodiola. You would need a minimum of 7.5mg Rosavins and 2.5mg Salidrosides daily to see results such as elevated phospho-creatine and ATP syntheses, improved endurance, cognitive function and perception, as well as enhanced immune support.
    How do you typically dose rhodiola, strategic?
  29. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    How do you typically dose rhodiola, strategic?
    Depends on how I feel. When I really need a boost in energy, alertness and focus, I take two capsules containing the amounts of rosavins and salidrosides I mentioned above (per capsule), on an empty stomach, about 30-45 minutes before breakfast, plus one capsule of Aswagandha (Sensoril® Ashwagandha standardised to 8% withanolide glycoside conjugates and 32% oligosaccharides]. On workout days, same dose about 45 minutes pre-workout (with or without Ashwagandha). Otherwise, on normal days, I take one capsule of Rhodiola rosea per day, on an empty stomach, before breakfast.
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  30. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    Depends on how I feel. When I really need a boost in energy, alertness and focus, I take two capsules containing the amounts of rosavins and salidrosides I mentioned above (per capsule), on an empty stomach, about 30-45 minutes before breakfast, plus one capsule of Aswagandha (Sensoril® Ashwagandha standardised to 8% withanolide glycoside conjugates and 32% oligosaccharides]. On workout days, same dose about 45 minutes pre-workout (with or without Ashwagandha). Otherwise, on normal days, I take one capsule of Rhodiola rosea per day, on an empty stomach, before breakfast.
    How long is your typical cycle with an adaptogen? I capped a bunch of rhodiola (3% and 1%) a while ago, but never got around to implementing it.
  31. jsals22's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Posts
    85
    Rep Power
    73

    Reputation

    Been taking NOW Rhodiola for 2 weeks pre workout and see def increase in endurance
  32. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    How long is your typical cycle with an adaptogen? I capped a bunch of rhodiola (3% and 1%) a while ago, but never got around to implementing it.
    8-12 weeks.
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  33. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    8-12 weeks.
    Thanks, a lot! You know what would go well with rhodiola? DomainATP would fit nicely

    I'm going to work rhodiola into my regimen for a few weeks.
  34. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    Thanks, a lot! You know what would go well with rhodiola? DomainATP would fit nicely

    I'm going to work rhodiola into my regimen for a few weeks.
    DominATP! That was a classic!
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  35. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    DominATP! That was a classic!
    Let's work to get it back!
    EvoMuse
  36. squatting's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2012
    Posts
    148
    Rep Power
    0

    Reputation

    rhodiola rosea extract (std. to 5.4% rosavins 27 mg, 3.6% rosavin 18 mg, 0.9% salidrosides 4.5 mg and 36% polyphenols 180 mg) 500 mg n/a*

    Is that a good ingredient panel or too much/little
  37. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    Let's work to get it back!
    As soon as we move more of our bulk products, DominATP will emerge from the shadows.
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  38. domore's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2012
    Posts
    1,922
    Rep Power
    966231

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    As soon as we move more of our bulk products, DominATP will emerge from the shadows.
    I think it would move extremely well on its own.
  39. strategicmove's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Posts
    10,754
    Rep Power
    774630

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by domore View Post
    I think it would move extremely well on its own.
    NutraPlanet is currently offering Versa-1 along with a few USPowders products for about $35. So, we might be getting closer to DominATP.
    Product Educator | USPowders
    Statements made by this online persona are the sole property of the owner, and do not necessarily reflect USPowders’ opinion as a whole.
  40. Distilled Water's Avatar
    Stats
    5'9"  191 lbs.
    Join Date
    Oct 2006
    Posts
    9,669
    Rep Power
    2038266

    Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation Reputation

    Quote Originally Posted by strategicmove View Post
    As soon as we move more of our bulk products, DominATP will emerge from the shadows.
    Ike....don't toy with my emotions like that.....I thought we were friends ;-)
    Serious Nutrition Solutions Representative
  

  
 

Similar Forum Threads

  1. Replies: 1
    Last Post: 01-20-2012, 01:23 AM
  2. Replies: 5
    Last Post: 10-11-2011, 12:01 PM
  3. RSS 17 -Alpha...too high of an Sd dose?
    By hard iron in forum Anabolics
    Replies: 33
    Last Post: 07-22-2009, 06:13 PM
  4. Effective Dosing of an ECA stack
    By fightercowboy in forum Supplements
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 01-30-2005, 09:28 PM
  5. Replies: 5
    Last Post: 12-23-2002, 10:13 AM

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
Log in
Log in