My rule of thumb, is if you take it and you don't feel better, look better, orbetter, and it isn't Omega 3's, it's probably useless, if not for everyone than just for you. People utilize muuuch too many staple supplements in my opinion.
To be fair, saying it did nothing to increase strength over that time would also write off a huge majority of supplements on this forum.
Supplement A increases total test by X%
Supplement B increases GH by Y%
Supplement C decreases....
They are isolated results. Not results compared to a placebo over a period of time in regards to strength gains.
If 2g of glutamine increases GH concentrations by a factor of 5. Let's think how many supplements do the same type of thing but have fancy write ups with blood work from 5 testers. Does this mean if they compared it with a placebo group for 8 weeks they would increase their bench press percentages faster than the placebo? Completely different question.
Initially, glial cells release glutamine, which is then taken up into presynaptic terminals and metabolized into glutamate by glutaminase (a mitochondrial enzyme). Glutamate can also be produced by transamination of 2-oxoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric acid cycle.I also don't think that glutamate and glutamine are that closely related that a quote about glutamate can carry over to glutamine. I can easily be wrong on this, however.Glutamate is encountered mainly as an ingredient of monosodium glutamate, a substance used to enhance flavor.
From this study, it's apparent that the breakdown of BCAA is due to not having enough glutamine, and that the glutamine is being made by the breakdown of BCAA.According to Houston (2001), "Glutamine content in skeletal muscle and other tissues appears to have a regulatory role in whole body protein synthesis." Glutamine levels inside muscle govern protein synthesis and nitrogen balance and therefore muscle growth (VanAcker et al. 1999). The newly synthesized glutamine is created by using BCAA's obtained from muscle protein breakdown (Holecek, 2002).
I'm officially over my head and don't know enough about the chemistry and biology of this to really be a reputable source. So... in my closing remarks...
Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia
Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia[/QUOTE]
Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine.
Glutamine synthetase and glutamate aren't the same f*cking thing as glutamine, stop acting as though they are. If anything, your quote above shows why glutamine staves off muscle breakdown.
Because glutamine synthetase plays a roll in metabolism of nitrogen (I.E., muscle breakdown) in order to form glutamine, glutamine supplmentation should give the body enough glutamine so it doesn't need to break it down.
glutamate + ammonia = glutamine
Glutamate is synthesized by transamination of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, which are extensively decarboxylated in skeletal muscle. In this reaction, the branched chain amino acids react with α-ketoglutarate to produce α-ketoacids and glutamate in presence of the branched chain amino acid aminotransaminase enzyme. We may, therefore, predict that muscle glutamine synthesis does not only require intramuscular availability of branched chain amino acids for transamination but also an adequate flux of energy substrates through the pyruvate dehydrogenase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as an adequate source of carbon skeletons.
glutamine pass the gastric mucosal barrier???
break down what??? aminoacids???