Water Beats Ephedra For Weight Loss
- 03-20-2004, 05:48 PM
Water Beats Ephedra For Weight Loss
The conclusions are somewhat sketchy, but still viable to an extent.
Water Beats Ephedra for Weight Loss
by Dr. Mark J. Tallon
Water is without a doubt the most abundant substance in the human body yet it is still taken for granted by many fitness enthusiasts. Without adequate consumption of this vital nutrient we dehydrate?which leads to a rapid decline in physiological function and over the course of 3-4 days without fluid replacement, death. Consisting of around 65-70% of muscle weight it would be a misnomer to consider as an irrelevant substance for optimum athletic functioning. Water affects so many structures and macromolecules it?s truly mind-blowing. Nearly ever biological process needs water to carry out its function, as it is the primary transport system in the human body. It provides a solution for the absorption and transport of proteins, vitamins, and minerals as well as it helps breakdown and excrete many potential toxins.
A recent study has brought to light yet further evidence regarding just how important water is if we are to ever achieve the body we have always wanted. This cutting edge data reports directly the impact water consumption has on fat loss; the results may surprise you!
So, what is the latest on water & fat loss? Well, as most of us know, one of the prime control systems in fat loss is linked to the sympathetic nervous system and recent work has shown water consumption may influence this system. Increases in water consumption influences blood pressure by affecting the pressor response brought about by increased norepinepherine levels and also increased sympathetic nerve traffic (activity).
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases cellular glucose uptake and stimulates lipolysis (fat breakdown), just one of the prime goals for most of you reading this article. So, if water affects this system WHAT DOES IT MEAN to you?
? What effect would it have on whole body metabolic rate?
? What does this mean to your fat loss targets?
? Are women different from men in their response to water?
? Finally, how much water is enough?
In late 2003 Dr. Boschmann and his colleagues studied 14 healthy, normal-weight subjects (seven men and seven women), and assessed the effect of drinking 500 ml of water on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates (i.e. how much protein, fat, carbs are being burned). They also examined the effect consuming water would have on adipose tissue metabolism (release and utilisation). This was assessed via the release of glycerol?a part of fat?s structural composition. So what exactly did the study show us? In essence, that drinking 500 ml of water increased metabolic rate by a huge 30%. The increase also occurred within 10 min and reached a maximum after 30?40 min. The total thermogenic response was about 100 kJ of which 40% of the thermogenic effect originated from our bodies efforts in warming the water from 71.6 to 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.
The whole picture behind exactly what mechanisms elicit the sympathetic activation when we drink water remains unclear (Jordan, 2002). The pressor response does not seem to be influenced by water temperature (Jordan et al, 2000). We do know that part of the increase in energy expenditure may have been due to the energy required to heat the water from room temperature to body temperature (500 ml x 15 C =7500 cal = 30 kJ). However, the calculated energy expenditure attributed to heating the water closely matched the difference between the thermogenic effect of heating the 71.6F water to 98.6F, but does not account for the total effect. In fact, approximately 60?70% of the water-induced thermogenesis cannot be attributed to the heating of the ingested water alone. The researchers went onto suggest this gap may be explained, in part, through other systems such as Gastric distension (you know the feeling you get in your stomach when you have just crammed in too large of a meal) as this has been shown to increases sympathetic activity in humans (Rossi et al, 1998).
In men, lipids mainly fuelled the increase in metabolic rate. In women, glycerol measurements (the indicator of fat breakdown) did not change, yet carbohydrate oxidation did significantly change after consuming water. This suggests that in women carbohydrates were mainly used as the energy source. Men showed the opposite response i.e., that they burned mainly lipids and little carbs. Researchers had some other ideas regarding these differences but namely that these gender-specific effects of water on lypolysis (fat breakdown) might be related to differences in body composition or hormonal factors (Simoneau et al, 1985).
Based on the study results, it can be estimated that increasing water ingestion by 1.5 litres would augment/elevate daily energy expenditure by at least 200 kJ (possibly 300kJ). If we were to say 200 kJ to be on the extremely cautious side over a 1 yr period, energy expenditure would increase by 73,000 kJ (17,400 kcal), the energy content equivalent of an extra 2.4 kg adipose tissue burn just by optimising your daily water intake. In real terms, we can compare this to the ingestion of 50 mg of ephedrine three times daily. Shannon et al, (1999) showed that this amount of ephedrine increased energy expenditure approximately 320 kJ per day, so you can see how effective water really is as if YOU took in 2 litres a day caloric expenditure COULD surpass even ephedrine?s effects on fat loss.
Athletes in heavy training are recommended to use over 2 gallons of water per day as training in a state of dehydration can have drastic effects on performance. If you dehydrate your muscles by only 3% and you cause about 10% loss of contractile strength and an 8% loss of speed according to recent studies. Research conducted at Ball State University showed a 7% drop in speed over 10 kilometres by runners who were dehydrated by just 2%-3%. That's only 3-5 lbs. for a 165 lb. runner. So add this to the plausible benefits shown in the Shannon data and you can truly see the efficacious benefits of UPPING the water intake.
So, what are the final recommendations: Well, I suggest drinking 2 litres of water per day to augment energy expenditure by approximately 400 kJ (about 100 calories). Whether this expenditure comes from fat or carbs, in the end, it?s energy deficit that makes you lose the pounds, and before you go looking for research on how fat loss thermogenics affect weight make sure you check that the study controlled for the subjects water intake as that will surely affect the results. Therefore, the thermogenic effect of water should be considered when estimating energy expenditure, particularly during weight loss programs and be applied to your total nutritional program to enhance your performance and body changing goals.
- 03-29-2004, 11:15 AM
03-29-2004, 12:00 PM
Is PN going to start carrying h2o as a research product?
If the FDA finds out about this they will ban water for sure! LOL
What is next? Methyl-h2o maybe?
03-29-2004, 12:23 PM
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