WHY??? FD&C Red #40, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Yellow #5, FD&C Yellow #6
- 11-13-2009, 07:35 AM
WHY??? FD&C Red #40, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Yellow #5, FD&C Yellow #6
Was about to order HGH UP then saw all these artificial colors on the label... is it just me or do other guys here want the manufacturers to at least slow down with these additives ..... do adult men really need pretty colored capsules....
some of those powdered pre/post workout drinks would stain my blender bottle!! Bodybuilding is also about health and I really dont think 5 or 6 artificial colors for a capsule based product is really necessary... any thoughts???
- 11-13-2009, 08:42 AM
I'm sorry you feel this way. Colors help produce appeal, appeal is necessary is someone has never heard of a product before to differentiate it from the millions of others. I know people on the forums know what HGHup is, but many OFF the forums most likely do not.- Join Me: Tex89 M-Sten RX Log... Dicing that iron -
- 11-13-2009, 09:12 AM
My comment was nothing personal against HGH Up or App Nut at all.... was just using that as an example.. there are many more examples
I admit the caps do look appealing but there are some studies linking these artificial dyes and colors to ADD, behavioral problems etc... just thought there might be more natural alternatives ... again this was NOT a personal swipe against App Nut I just thought it was a shame to have to ingest 5 chemical dyes to get the active ingredients
11-13-2009, 09:14 AM
11-13-2009, 09:43 AM
i could do without all the pretty colors and some days i feel like i am going to o.d. on niacin and caffine.
11-13-2009, 09:56 AM
11-13-2009, 10:36 AM
I just wish there were healthier alternatives, not saying a few mg's of red dye #4 will kill you but when you start tallying up the amounts from 3 or 4 supplements you may start getting into unhealthy territory over time... Also wish Stevia would be used more often compared to Aspartame and sucralose as I find most powders over sweetened anyway but that will vary widely from person to person
11-13-2009, 02:37 PM
my buddy's allergic to one or two of those artificial colors, so he can't eat or take a sh*tload of products...
11-13-2009, 06:36 PM
IMO I don't care if the pill is pretty...I'm ingesting it anyway and it's all the same when it come out the other end.
11-13-2009, 07:37 PM
My same sentiments regarding the artificial dye's and food colorings though, im sure there are natural colors/nature identical colors out there that can be used if the companys wanted to......right?
I feel a little worried when I have to take 3-4 different products in one month. And yeh i guess another option is to open up the caps, but isn't that something that can simply made unnecessary if companys used natural colorings instead of the dye's and stuff? Not only would it show that they are making a step to protect the consumers health, the health of the very consumers that line the pockets of the companys (dont mean this in a rude way) Just stating as when we Had a family business our grandfather always used to remind us to respect our customers and their health since we had a food store since they are the ones who pay our wages.
Bump For this thread
11-13-2009, 08:40 PM
come on texas, do you honestly think people buy supps because they are pretty?
11-14-2009, 06:59 AM
I don't need to consume a pre-workout powder and feel like I'm drinking a liquid pixie stick and then need to soak my blender bottle to get the purple/blue/red coloring off the inside of it... are we grown men or 10 yr old kids???
Aspartame is a 100% dealbreaker for me and Sucralose is not far behind.. ill pay 2$ more per tub for Stevia and a natural food based coloring
11-14-2009, 08:21 AM
if they keep making it look like kool aid. how long before a kid drinks it and some mom is on opra crying they are targeting kids with this poison. then the man will put a end to supplement.
11-14-2009, 09:09 AM
Actually, companies are probably in the right here. There have been studies (which I have no link to ATM) the show the impact of the placebo effect is stronger depending on the color and size of the pills being used. A big red pill with nothing in it would make a more effective stimulant type of product than a small blue one. So coloring could allow some companies to develop worse formulations than they would otherwise need in order to get the desired effect.
11-14-2009, 09:24 AM
What really strikes me is that companys put so much effort into making their formulations, and carrying out extensive research on each ingredients and blends, but then "somehow" ignore the risks that may be involved with the artificial colorings in the pills? I dont quite get how that works. The same goes for the artificial sweeteners. They only have to put in some effort once and for all to find a safe natural alternative to coloring these pills, and then just use them. Its not like they need to spend days upon days on research for the colorings for each and every product they use. Just find a good natural alternative, and end of story I guess?
If im not wrong there was an issue about the dangers of these colorings with some companys just a few years back in the UK in regards to sweets, the info was available on bbc news' website. Not sure what was decided in the end, but even in this case clear dangers were pointed out.
11-14-2009, 09:37 AM
Interesting peice of info if anybody is interested in reading it...
FD&C Blue Dye # 1 & 2: Are you eating crude oil for breakfast?
These dyes are artificial colorings often found in familiar toothpaste brands and a wide variety of other products. Recent studies indicate that FD & C Blue Dyes 1 & 2 can trigger a wide number of behavioral, learning, and health problems. FD&C color dyes may also cause potentially severe allergic reactions, asthma attacks, headaches, nausea, fatigue, nervousness, lack of concentration, and cancer. (From “Formation of carcinogenic aromatic amine from an azo dye by human skin bacteria in vitro” & “Skin discoloration with blue food coloring”)
Using FD & C Blue Dyes 1 & 2 is just like ingesting crude oil as it too, is synthesized from petroleum. These dyes were originally made from coal tar oil, which is a black, sticky tar by-product of steel making and petroleum distillation, and is a source of numerous complex chemicals. Through repeated human exposure, some of these isolated coal tar components
were classified as active carcinogens, ultimately leading to government regulations and restrictions.
Nowadays, coal tar dyes are synthetically engineered rather than extracted from actual coal tar, thereby greatly reducing the possibility of being contaminated with carcinogenic residuals from the coal itself. However, the dyes still contain carcinogenic properties. Over several decades of use, some of these synthetic dyes have come under greater scientific and government scrutiny due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Because of this, they are still referred to in the industry as “coal tar dyes,” according to the FDA. (From U.S. Food & Drug Administration. “Color Additives Fact Sheet.”)
11-14-2009, 10:41 AM
wow very interesting thanks
11-14-2009, 10:43 AM
Food coloring gets you Jacked and high.
11-14-2009, 10:48 AM
Now don't get me wrong, I do agree with you all from the consumer standpoint and I'm sure some natural dyes can be put in place, but I don't know for sure. As stated I will bring this up to the guys and see what they think.
- Join Me: Tex89 M-Sten RX Log... Dicing that iron -
11-14-2009, 11:33 AM
I blame the movie The Matrix. Do you think it would be as cool as saying "Do you want to take this colorless pills or that colorless pill? Oh crap! I forgot which one I put where!" and just like that he might have taken the blue pill and the movie industry as we know it would have collapsed in oblivion.
11-14-2009, 12:16 PM
i blame dumb people that need bright colors to be entertained.
11-14-2009, 03:28 PM
Interesting dialogue- and I understand the point that is trying to be made- but, in our defense these are all FDA and EPA-Approved additives under CFR 21 Ch. 1 Part 74, and are found in 1000's of different prescription and non-prescription entities, with no proven toxicity (please, no conspiracy theories or things you read on the internet or in a magazine, facts based on scientific research). Here are some links to information where you can educate yourself about the additives, and make your own decisions. I urge you to get the facts before consuming any type of consumer product (including ours):
As for staining the inside of a shaker cup, a lot of natural products will do that as well- especially quercetin and beta-carotene, and those are non-toxic at reasonable dosages.......
Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
11-14-2009, 07:10 PM
I agree there is no need for artificial flavors and colors. It's more for bling effect and cost.
11-14-2009, 09:30 PM
Pre-Max by Primordial Performance seems to have possibly started to turn the tide:
Haven't tried it bit the ingredient profile is how I wish more products looked:
Ingredients: Organic freeze-dried pomegranate, PeptoPro® brand hydrolyzed casein protein isolate.
Other ingredients: Natural flavors, malic acid, tapioca flour, silicon dioxide, stevia extract, lou han guo extract.
No artificial sweeteners or colors
No added sugars
11-14-2009, 09:34 PM
Again this is NOT bashing App Nut .. HGH up was only used as an example, there are dozens more and I am not endorsing Pre-Max as I have never used, only using the ingredient as an example that it can be done
11-15-2009, 12:08 AM
11-15-2009, 12:25 AM
11-15-2009, 07:39 AM
Could be an interesting trend- Biomend (our anti-oxidant formula) is made up of several superfood ingredients (Acai Berry Ext., Strawberry Ext., Blueberry Ext.), and it seems to be extremely helpful, especially in cold and flu season.
I personally don't recommend supps as a replacement for whole foods- only to augment (I know, kinda weird for someone who owns a supp. company). Eating fruits and vegetables every day will genuinely make you feel better, and get sick less, and, in a nutshell, that is what this game is about.
Interestingly enough- there are differences between chemically-synthesized vitamins, and vitamins from natural sources (although very subtle). The enantiomers and isomers on some of the molecules are different, and, as we know, this can completely change the structure and function of said substance......
My thoughts: everything in moderation, and you will be just fine- and cycle on and off when it comes to supps (even everyday staples). Experiment, and you will find what works best for you, b/c every person is different in terms of brain and body chemistry. Honestly, once you do find what works, you will know it, almost right away- took me 10 years, but I found it about 2 years ago- and remember, it has to tie into both long- and short-term goals.....
Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
11-15-2009, 09:49 AM
And god help us if things like cell phones are linked to brain tumors and years or decades from now there will be a whole generation of 30-40 yr olds with problems from those... I'm 41 and I just feel like you need to be proactive with your own health, do your own research and not just blindly believe that just because FDA says it is ok that it is ok 100% of the time for all people
Im very proud that Bodybuilding, for the lack of respect we get as a sport as a whole, has always been at the forefront of new health trends and maybe we can eventually lead the change with this.... It won't happen overnight but hopefully gradually we can put HEALTH near the top along with 18 inch arms and rock hard abs!!!
11-15-2009, 10:39 AM
If i knew a product worked i wouldnt care about appeal i understand texaslifters idea that its not about us more educated people but the less educated which is true its a business so they have to be attractive products. But i still feel that having a attractive box or attractive bottle is much more eye catching then an attractive pill as i dont open my bottles and say eww these pills look pale i dont want this anymore.
11-15-2009, 11:37 AM
11-15-2009, 12:04 PM
I can see the oprah show now and the new grassroots group, "Moms Against Supplements" ..
i bet a group like that already exists
my kid died from prohormones
my kid died from too many vitamins
because their kids are idiots
11-15-2009, 12:10 PM
11-15-2009, 12:17 PM
Well thats America for you
you can sue anyone for anything
even if your robbing someones house and you get hurt at the house your robbing; you can sue the people for not making their house safe for you to rob.
11-15-2009, 12:43 PM
Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Feb 1;43(3):597-603.
Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water.
Benotti MJ, Trenholm RA, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC, Stanford BD, Snyder SA.
Applied Research and Development Center, Southern Nevada Water Authority, P.O. Box 99954, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-9954, USA.
The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L), TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source, finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.
p Sci. 2008 Jul;31(12):2182-8.
Simultaneous determination of macrolides, sulfonamides, and other pharmaceuticals in water samples by solid-phase extraction and LC-(ESI) MS.
Pedrouzo M, Borrull F, Marcé RM, Pocurull E.
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
This paper describes a method for determining 11 pharmaceuticals in various water sources by SPE followed by LC-(ESI) MS. SPE was carried out with Oasis HLB and the recoveries were 33-67% for 250 and 100 mL sewage water, 55-77% for 500 mL river water and 72-98% for 1 L tap water, with the exception of sulfamethoxazole and omeprazole which showed lower recoveries in all kinds of sample. The LODs in river water were of 5 ng/L for sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and ranitidine and 10 ng/L for the other compounds. The highest concentrations found in river waters were for sulfamethoxazole (50 ng/L). In influent sewage waters, ranitidine was the most commonly detected compound with a maximum value of 0.24 microg/L.
Sci Total Environ. 2003 Jul 20;311(1-3):135-49.
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada.
Boyd GR, Reemtsma H, Grimm DA, Mitra S.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA. email@example.com
A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada. The analytical method provides for simultaneous extraction and quantification of the following broad range of PPCPs and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: naproxen; ibuprofen; estrone; 17beta-estradiol; bisphenol A; clorophene; triclosan; fluoxetine; and clofibric acid. Naproxen was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 81-106 ng/l and Louisiana and Ontario surface waters at 22-107 ng/l. Triclosan was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 10-21 ng/l. Of the three surface waters sampled, clofibric acid was detected in Detroit River water at 103 ng/l, but not in Mississippi River or Lake Pontchartrain waters. None of the other target analytes were detected above their method detection limits. Based on results at various stages of treatment, conventional drinking-water treatment processes (coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation) plus continuous addition of powdered activated carbon at a dosage of 2 mg/l did not remove naproxen from Mississippi River waters. However, chlorination, ozonation and dual media filtration processes reduced the concentration of naproxen below detection in Mississippi River and Detroit River waters and reduced clofibric acid in Detroit River waters. Results of this study demonstrate that existing water treatment technologies can effectively remove certain PPCPs. In addition, our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining data on removal mechanisms and byproducts associated with PPCPs and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water and sewage treatment processes.
viron. 2006 Aug 31;367(2-3):544-58. Epub 2006 May 12.
Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada.
Lishman L, Smyth SA, Sarafin K, Kleywegt S, Toito J, Peart T, Lee B, Servos M, Beland M, Seto P.
Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, P. O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6. Lori.Lishman@ec.gc.ca
Over the last ten years there have been reports of pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) residuals in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The principle goal of this study was specifically to expand and in some cases establish a Canadian database for the presence of selected acidic drugs, triclosan, polycyclic musks, and selected estrogens in MWWTP influent and effluent. The impact of treatment configuration (e.g. lagoons, conventional activated sludge (CAS), and CAS followed by media filtration (CAS+filtration)) was also examined. For CAS systems, the most prevalent treatment type, the effect of operating temperature and SRT was evaluated. Selected PPCPs included ten acidic pharmaceuticals (i.e. a group of pharmaceuticals that are extractable at a pH of 2 or less), triclosan, five polycyclic musks and two estrogens. The pharmaceuticals and musks were selected on the basis of levels of use in Canada; reported aquatic toxicity effects; and the ability to analyze for the compounds at low levels. Twelve MWWTPs discharging into the Thames River, the second largest river in southwestern Ontario, were surveyed. The only common characteristic of acidic drugs is their extraction pH as they differ in their intended biological function and chemical structure. Many organics degraded by WWTP processes benefit from warm temperatures and long SRTs so the impact of these variables warranted additional attention. Influent concentrations and reductions for acidic drugs reported by this study were compared to other Canadian studies, when available, and European investigations. The data of this study seems consistent with other reports. Ten acidic drugs were considered by this study. Three were consistently present at non-quantifiable levels (e.g. CLF, FNP and FNF). Additionally, one analyte, SYL, presented results that were so inconsistent that the values were not analysed. The remaining six acidic pharmaceuticals were placed into three categories. IBU and NPX members of the first category had consistently high reductions. At the level of reduction achieved (i.e. median reduction of greater than 93%) and any effect of treatment type or operating characteristics would be subtle and non-discernable given the analytical noise. In the second group are KTP and IND, and definitive comments are difficult to make on the impact of treatment type and operational considerations due to a sparse data set (i.e. many influent values were at non-quantifiable concentrations). Median reductions were in the 23% to 44% range. In the last category are GMF and DCF which have median reductions of 66% and -34%, respectively. Several negative reduction values in the data set (i.e. twelve of twenty six sampling events) suggest that DCF may be deconjugated under certain conditions. This warrants further evaluation when analytical methods for measuring human metabolites of DCF are available. For both GMF and DCF, reduction does not appear to be strongly influenced by SRTs up to 15 days, while SRTs over 30 days were associated with more frequent non-quantifiable effluent levels of DCF. This would suggest that better treatment would be provided by lagoons and CAS systems with extended aeration. Preliminary data suggests that temperature does not play a strong role in the reduction of these compounds. Triclosan (TCL) was detected at concentrations of 0.01-4.01 microg/L in influent samples and 0.01-0.324 microg/L in effluent samples. Reduction of TCL ranged from 74% to 98%. Lagoon treatment seems to be the best TCL reduction as it was present in the influent and effluent at quantifiable and non-quantifiable concentrations, respectively, on nine of nine sampling occasions. Influent and reduction values of five polycyclic musks (e.g. ADBI, AHMI, ATII, HHCB, and AHTN) were examined over the course of this study. AHMI was predominantly present at non-quantifiable concentrations. HHCB and AHTN were present at the highest concentrations. A comparison between Canadian values and those of European studies indicate that in general polycyclic musk concentrations in Canadian MWWTP effluents are 5-10 times lower. More extensive European and Canadian databases would be useful in confirming this initial observation. Median reductions for the five remaining musks range between 37% and 65% in CAS systems. CAS+filtration systems would be expected to have higher reductions if musks were bound to the effluent solids. This trend is not apparent but this may be due to the small size of the data set. In lagoon systems, musk reduction for HHCB and AHTN are approximately 98-99%. For ADBI and ATII musk, there are no numerical reduction values as most often the effluent concentration was non-quantifiable. In some instances, both the influent and effluent concentrations were non-quantifiable. The hormones 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were detected at concentrations of 0.006 to 0.014 and 0.016 to 0.049 microg/L, respectively. E2 was not detected in any effluent samples (<0.005 microg/L) whereas E1 was detected in effluent samples from CAS treatment plants (median of 0.008 microg/L), and in one sample from lagoons. These data demonstrate that there are detectable levels of PPCPs entering Canadian waterways at trace levels, and that only some of these compounds are being reduced in a significant proportion by municipal wastewater treatment processes.
Chemosphere. 2007 Jan;66(6):1057-69. Epub 2006 Aug 1.
Simultaneous quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Mississippi river water, in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Zhang S, Zhang Q, Darisaw S, Ehie O, Wang G.
Armstrong Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 10 Dan Road, Canton, MA 02021, USA.
An effective analytical method for simultaneously determining 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has been developed to measure their concentrations in the Mississippi river waters in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The method involves the simultaneous extraction of the selected PAHs, PCBs, and PPCPs, from the aqueous phase by solid phase extraction using two-layer disks consisting of C(18) and SDB-XC, and collection of suspended solid in water samples by 0.2-0.6 microm filter in a single step. Target compounds adsorbed on the extraction disks were eluted with methanol, acetone, and dichloromethane. The suspended particles retained by the filter were sonically extracted using the same solvents. GC/MS was used for quantification of PAHs and PCBs directly and of PPCPs after derivatization. The analytical method was used in a 6-month field study of the Mississippi river water for contamination by PAHs, PCBs, and PPCPs and the following concentrations (ng/l) have been obtained: clofibric acid (3.2-26.7), ibuprofen (0-34.0), acetaminophen (24.7-65.2), caffeine (0-38.0), naproxen (0-135.2), triclosan (8.8-26.3), bisphenol A (0-147.2), carbamazepine (42.9-113.7), estrone (0-4.7), 17beta-estradiol (0-4.5), total PAHs (62.9-144.7), and total PCBs (22.2-163.4).
arm Bull. 2008 Oct;31(10):1902-5.
Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and their disinfection.
Oie S, Kiyonaga H, Matsuzaka Y, Maeda K, Masuda Y, Tasaka K, Aritomi S, Yama****a A, Kamiya A.
Department of Pharmacy, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube 755-8505, Japan.
We evaluated the microbial contamination of 17 types of vegetable and 10 types of fruit after 30-s washing with tap water with and without subsequent disinfection by 10-min immersion in 0.01% (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite. The mean microbial contamination level of 9 types of leafy vegetable was 2.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after washing with water and 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 8 types of nonleafy vegetable was 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.0 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 10 types of unpeeled fleshy fruit was 9.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The contaminants in vegetables and unpeeled fruit were similar after washing and after washing followed by disinfection, including Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination did not markedly decrease even after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite. However, the flesh of each type of peeled fruit showed no or only low levels of contamination (<or=10 CFU/g), probably caused by the transfer of microorganisms from the skin of fruit via fruit knives.
Food Prot. 2008 Dec;71(12):2514-8.
Impact of wash water quality on sensory and microbial quality, including Escherichia coli cross-contamination, of fresh-cut escarole.
Allende A, Selma MV, López-Gálvez F, Villaescusa R, Gil MI.
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain.
The influence of wash water quality on the microbial load and sensory quality of fresh-cut escarole was evaluated. Additionally, the degree of Escherichia coli cross-contamination between inoculated and uninoculated products after washing was also studied. Three types of wash water, i.e., potable water, diluted recirculated water, and recirculated water, containing different microbial counts and organic loads, were used. Results showed that microbial load (P > or = 0.02) and sensory quality (P > 0.625) of the product were not influenced by the water quality after washing and storage. Cross-contamination between inoculated and uninoculated products was observed after washing, as there was significant transmission of E. coli cells from the product to the wash water (P < 0.001). When fresh-cut escarole was contaminated at a high inoculum level (5.1 log CFU/g), wash water quality influenced the level of cross-contamination, as the highest E. coli load (P < 0.001) was shown in uninoculated fresh-cut escarole washed with recirculated water. However, when fresh-cut escarole was contaminated at a low inoculum level (3.2 log CFU/g), the wash water quality did not influence the level of cross-contamination, as E. coli slightly increased, although not at a statistically significant level, after the uninoculated product was washed with recirculated water (P > 0.035). Therefore, the contamination level may impact the effectiveness of water quality to reduce pathogen concentrations. It was clearly observed that cross-contamination of fresh-cut escarole with E. coli occurs, thereby suggesting that small amounts of contamination could impact the overall product and indicating the necessity of using wash water sanitizers to eliminate pathogens.
Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
11-15-2009, 04:27 PM
11-15-2009, 07:57 PM
- Join Me: Tex89 M-Sten RX Log... Dicing that iron -
11-15-2009, 08:33 PM
Can I buy these colors in bulk? I would like to start coloring my protein shakes.
11-15-2009, 09:13 PM
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