(Sponsored) Martial Artist goes Focus-XT by SNS

Page 1 of 3 123 Last
  1. (Sponsored) Martial Artist goes Focus-XT by SNS

    Who I am: I am a 23 year old retired powerlifter and strongman. I had been competing in those sports since I was around 17 years old. I was also a grip fanatic for many years until I suffered some pretty bad issues with my wrists that I have been repairing for the past few years. I was quite well known on the grip circuit. I have moved into MMA for some very person reasons which I donít feel is necessary to discuss in relation to this log bit either way I am now an amateur mixed martial artists.

    The arts I study: I study a combination of Muay Thai, BJJ, Jujitsu, wrestling, submission wrestling, American boxing, Jeet Kune Do and Hung Ga Kung Fu both the internal and the external.

    My training implements: Kettlebells, Sandbags, Bodyweight exercises, and grip tools with the occasional dumbbell. If I can find a way to use I will use it though I believe in training something everyday. I have a strength workout everyday in the morning and MMA classes at night at ran by Shawn Terrance (Tinley Park Illinois), who is an amazing coach.

    I figure I can give you guys an idea of what will be in store for you when I start this log officially. I should be receiving the product in the mail soon.
    A workout:

    Warm Up Stretches:

    3 different shoulder stretches held for a 20 count

    1 pec stretch hold for a 20 count

    1 Quad stretch 20 count

    2 hip stretches 20 counts

    1 calf stretch]

    I also do a variety of dynamic motions to warm myself

    Static Work more commonly known as isometrics:

    Hung Ga Horse Stance 2 sets of 25 seconds

    Hung Ga Bow Stance 2 sets of 20 seconds

    Cat stance 2 sets of 10 seconds

    The stances teach rooting. An ability to not be taken down when someone tries to take you to the ground. I have done everything I could to take my Hung Ga coach to the ground and he does not budge. Despite him being much shorter than me and me being the better lifter, he is more rooted and body stronger.

    Kettlebell work:

    Circuit fun 1 arms: 10 row, 10 floor press, 10 overhead situp, 10 hammer curl, 10 swing, 10 clean and press, 10 over head squat, 10 snatchÖ One round

    Just to test out a new circuit idea... It wasn't bad but it wasnt easy I will be shooting for a few more rounds next time. When I test out an idea I usually only go through one round or so to see how it feels and to see what needs to be adjusted. I also think I can up the reps a little.


    Bridges 2 sets

    Front Bridges 2 sets

    Overall body strength

    Grip and teeth:

    Ivanko Gripper 20 reps

    NO CHALK hub squeeze hard 20 seconds

    Plate curl board 15reps

    Sand blasting: 20 reps

    Teeth lift 10lbs 1 min

    No chalk in combat no reason for chalk in training


    Abdominal and shin and forearmÖ I would gladly explain this guys but because it is a special thing I am being taught in confidentiality this is all I can say about it. If you have ever seen Shaolin Monks do Iron Body... Yeah thats it.

    Tonight BJJ and muay thai class

    In stand up work:
    A few rounds of shadow boxing to warm us up working on moving our bodies for defense.
    Partner drill on parrying. This does not seem to be a natural motion for me, but I feel it will become a very powerful tool in my arsenal once it is mastered.
    We did some rounds on the mitts focus on hitting fast and technique.
    Bag work working on keeping hands up and returning hands to the position.

    warm ups: bridging, bridge and reach, shrimping, and a weird drill I dont know the name of.

    Most of class we worked on escapes. I am very new to ground work and it is definitely a disadvantage for me. So it's good to start from the basics. Basically for over an hour I drilled escapes.

    Questions comments what ever, feel free.

  2. People may ask why do you Mr. SteelWolf need focus-xt. Well let me explain my good friends and grasp you into my own world. My strength workout (or Hung Ga technique depending on the day) is usually at around 5am. Now mind you I donít usually get to bed until 11-12 oíclock Monday through Thursday do to MMA classes. So my brain is in that nice little hazy fog in the morning. I used to take just plain old caffeine in the morning, but it wasnít doing me even near enough to get that engine firing at full gear. I just didnít have that powerful drive. Then at night training from 7 to 9:15-30 every night just beats me down even more. If training were the only things in my life and it was my career I could see it being not as bad, but that is not the case one bit. I am also a student and spend Monday through Friday at school from almost 9 to 5 perusing a double major and even most likely another minor on top of that. Itís a rough deal. To top it off I am a sponsored writer of a website and try to put out a few articles a week, and even more work a part time job. My life is a pretty hectic thing. So when it is finally time to hit the grind of the workout my mind is usually still going over the last thing I was doing. To sit down and focus and get that tunnel vision I cant just really on my mind to do it I need a little help. It was suggested to me by a good friend and rep for SNS to give Focus-XT a shot. Without skipping a beat I jumped at the opportunity and said lets give this a run.

    So hopefully from this log as it starts you will see the benefit of focus-xt, and maybe just maybe learn a little thing about training from MMA from a traditional arts perspective, after all, this isnít just combat its an art. And as both my coaches said both Shawn and Hung Ga mentor quoted Bruce Lee: take what works and get rid of what doesnít

  3. Subscribing to follow along. Hopefully you will be pleased.
    SNS and Competitive Edge Labs Black Friday Sales:

  4. So I went to wake up at 4am for my training session, but I just couldnít get that focus and energy I needed to get out of bed. I fell asleep at one and normally Iíd be fine, but today it just wasnít there at all. I am interested to see if Focus-XT will be able to get me ready to go on mornings like this. They do not happen all the time, but sometimes they do. I await my package in the mail.
    Since no one real has idea of how I train I will give another idea of the way I do things. Hung Ga Kung Fu days tend to rely more on isometrics as well as the Kung Fu aspect. Some conditioning may apply. In addition to the MMA workout at night. Here is an idea guys: this took aprox 47 minutes

    Various stretches to warm myself up help for 20 seconds a piece.
    Neck Bridges front and back 25 seconds
    At this point a do a variety of Kung Fu exercises unique to my teacher.
    Chi exercises
    Body conditioning follows
    Parry block 50
    High block 50
    Middle block 50
    Double middle block 50
    Low block 50
    Isometric 20lb kettlebell hold at top 1 minute
    Isometric kettlebell hold at middle 40 seconds
    Punch Pushup hold middle 30 seconds
    Punch Pushup hold top 30 seconds
    Punch Pushup 15

  5. as far as your focus dosing when ya get it, 1 scoop is pretty potent liek real potent. I like 1/2 lol, works slick.
    Serious Nutrition Solutions

  6. 1 scoop has 200mg caff but it is not like a stimmed out feeling. Your mind just gets a laser like sharpness and tunnel vision. The flavors don't suck either...
    Always open light. Itís not what you open with, itís what you finish with. Louie Simmons

  7. Since it is s till a bit before I shall receive my bottle of focus-xt in the mail I figured I would let you guys see all the different kinds of workouts I do. That way you have any idea of what is going with me before you see the results that focus-xt should bring. So far you guys have seen kettlebell endurance day, a Kung Fu and isometric day, and today you will see one kind of my sand bag routine. The sandbags I use are not traditional sandbags. They are sandbags from a big sandbag company that has all different kinds of handles on the bags. I also use any many different fillers as I can only filled half way so the sand has to shake around. So as the weights will sound light I would gladly invite you to come play with them and say the same. I do not really keep track of rest periods on these days I just go when I breath again.

    The workout was completed a little less than 40 minutes. This also includes two trips to the bathroom and one water refill.

    I started with my static stretching to loosen up my body. I will eventually add some dynamic flexibility, but for now static works. I have a list of Hung Ga dynamic warm-ups that I should be adding in soon once I can learn the movement pattern.

    I then proceed to do my neck work. A back bridge with nose to the ground and a front bridge with chin to the chest for 30 seconds. Then I rollout the neck to allow for maximum flexibility. Neck is usually a little tight after the bridges. The neck needs to be loose for ground work.

    I move on to the every day work for Hung Ga, which being the stances. Grounding is the most important thing to me as well as my Hung Ga coach. So I focus a lot of work on that. The Horse stance is held for 40 the bow stance each leg for 20 and the cat for 10. Because of these stances I really donít do much extra leg work.

    It is now time to hit those sandbags. I have a 70lb one and a 90lb one. As I said these ainít your daddyís sandbags.
    Bearhug the 90lb sandbag with a straight back for one minute
    Millitary press minimal back lean the 70lb for 10
    Row with the supergrip side handles for 10
    Floor press (which is pretty much a CG bench press for me) 11 reps 2 seconds bottom pause 2 second top pause.
    Cleans 70lb bag 10 reps. Hang clean style.
    Zercher squat 70lb for 10 reps.
    Overhead situps with 70lber for 2. (Lay down bench press the bag to full ext, then situp while keeping back overhead)
    Goodmornings wide while in bear hug 70lb bag for 10

    Then Bodyconditioning

    Finishup with that good old stretching

  8. As soon as I get this in the mail I will start it up. Looking forward to this guys, and thanks again for the opportunity. The expect days to see from me are tuesdays, thursdays, and weekends, and possibly friday. Monday and tuesday are usually to busy to get online.
  9. August 30, 2010

    Well my friends on August 30, 2010 I received my bottle of focus-xt from our lovely SNS crew. I knew as soon as the bell rang it had to be it, as it was the only package I was expecting to receive. It came much sooner than I expected which is totally awesome. I couldnít wait to find a use for it and thanks to our lovely friend GeekPoop I was able to use it as soon as I received it.
    Today was my first day of classes and was already given a complex assignment, and a little before needing to start it I just got in a terrible fight the girl I was kind of seeing. This being a fight where we will probably no longer be dating. So I do into the focus-xt and took out half a scoop to see what would happen. The first thing I noticed was the incredible taste. I got the lemonade flavor. To me it tasted like that old school country time lemonade I drank as a kid. It was amazing and I wanted to make myself another scoop, but I knew that would not be the smartest idea. Within about 15 minutes my mind started to go into this weird feeling. My thoughts seemed to slow down and began to I guess you would say channel. My body began to feel very relaxed as well. It was almost as if my body just knew what to do without even needing to really think about it. The answers that would normally thinking just came to me effortlessly. The work seemed to also go by extremely fast. Despite the fact I spend a good hour on the work it felt only like 10 or 15 minutes of work. This definitely made homework much easier especially on a half scoop it was incredible. A little bit later about 2 Ĺ hours my mind started to go start to go back to normal though at a very slow rate. When I took my next dose for training (Iíll explain) about 3 hours later I was still having some as they say tunnel vision.
    3 hours later I had to go to class so I mixed up another half a scoop. Again I wanted to make myself another scoop or at least add more water so I got more of the flavor. As I donít include country time lemonade or anything like it in my diet it was awesome to get that sweet tooth fix. I took it at 6:40 and class started at 7.
    At 7 we did 6 minutes of jump rope. I am really not that best at it, never been good, and with my weight it is hell on the ankles. My coach feels that doing the jump rope regardless of my weight is good for me but he wants me to practice landing softly which will help me in the ring. So I figured that works. The time seemed to pass very fast again that autopilot feeling. I know I was in control and I easily felt in control, but it was just such a relaxed but powerful feeling.
    Next we did 2 rounds of 3 minutes on shadow boxing with call out commands. For me everything seemed to move slow (which is exactly what I wanted) When he would call out a combo it felt like by the time he finished calling it I was already done. It felt as if I was moving a thousand times faster than I actually was, yet at the same time everything felt so much more under control.
    Onto the heavy bag. I donít even know how much time we did on this but it was a few rounds focusing on creating angles. This is where I am good. I am a very bad blocker, but I can bob and weave and create angles like no ones business. This felt much easier again on the focus-xt.
    Finally we did mitts. I worked one on with my coach. Despite what he called out I was always prepared and even moved a few times to fast for him.

    Over all todayís experience with focus-xt was hands down amazing. It surpassed what I expected. Canít wait to see what is going on tomorrow.

  10. As I type this now almost 3 hours later I am just starting to lose the focus affect from focus-xt. So this mornings training session was in interesting one I was operating on an extreme lack of sleep. Last night my best friend/ex girlfriend was going through a lot of difficulties in her life so I stayed up with her until late last night. Followed by that I needed to run into work for a bit, all of these factors leading to less sleep than I normally receive. My alarm buzzes for me at 4:00am and today I slept right through it. I woke up around 4:30. Seeing this I bolted out of bed got dressed for training and headed out to the kitchen to get my preworkout nutrition in. This is actually pretty simple 10 desicated liver tabs, and a full scoop today of focus-xt. I will say though that I personally believe one full scoop of focus-xt is much to strong for me personally. Though I know of many people who like a full scoop my body was just not able to handle it. Basically the focus ability just felt to much for me. Though there were some major upsides. Being on the lack of sleep this extreme focus was a good thing for todayís workout. It allowed me to wake up much more and get to business much faster. Normally I would just take 400mgs of caffeine to get myself going, but this was a much better wake up. Todayís workout overall was fantastic. It moved much quicker than I expected. I had no idea only aprox 25 minutes actually passed. It was an amazing feeling. Pretty cool actually.
    I decided to make a few changes and took out the neck work on Tuesdays and Thursdays. I decided that 3 days of neck work is much more than enough. Also since tonight I work with my Hung Ga coach I decided against practicing my stances today. I think that would be devastating on the legs. I believe in every day stimulation, but thatís just it stimulation.

    Workout aprox 25 minutes:
    Started out with stretching. Decided to add in another hamstring stretch as I am really needing it.
    All sandbag work was performed with my 70lb sandbag. As I said to those who think a 70lb sandbag is light, I invite you to try it the way I have mine set up. Much harder than you expect. I should also note I do not use a belt, well any equipment actually.
    Military Press 2 seconds hold at top 2 seconds pause at bottom 10 reps
    Row with a double over hand grip 2 second hold at top 2 second pause at bottom 10
    Floor press 2 second hold at top 2 second hold at bottom 8 reps today (I thought hard and why I got 3 less reps today, and then I realized it. On the first part Iím moving much faster through sets and in addition I added the pauses on the military press. This is going to take much more out of me. Itís a double hit.)
    Curls 2 seconds hold at top and 2 seconds pause at bottom. These were 5 reps.
    Combo lift time: One armed grab to chest, hold into chest with one arm, then squat for 5 reps a side.
    Forearm conditioning, shin conditioning, stomach conditioning.
    I was shot from this. I couldnít even figure out how many seconds of rest I was taking more or less how fast my sets were going but this was a heavy conditioning workout. I enjoyed it, if you can say that.

    Today was also grip day 9 minutes:
    Pegasus wrist curl 20lbs 15reps aprox 30 rest
    Pegasus reverse wrist curl 16.25lbs 15 reps aprox 30 rest
    Titans Telegraph key index and middle with thumb on top: 6.25lbs 10 reps
    Dynamic crushes on an extreme shaved gripper: 11
    Stretch flexors and extensors of each hand 20 seconds a piece

  11. SNS rep Geekpoop have been talking about my ideas on diet and supplement timing etc etc. So I decided I might as well put it here so he and others may see it.

    I use an idea based around carb cycling with very low fats when I diet. To high of fats will effect the absorption process of the carbs. So i keep the fats low while cycling the carbs daily. I have 3 low days 2 low days and 2 high days. As I tend not to just cheat I dont leave days open for it. I also do not need to cheat as I'm getting carb spikes which help to rest the metabolism. I do not believe you need eat every 3 hours your muscles fall off. I do it because I tend to get hungry pretty fast so I like being full. I am also happier full, but I have noticed no difference between eating 3 or 5 meals or even one meal. I just tended to get sick from eating to much in one sitting.

    Low Day:

    Meal 1:
    Cream of wheat 100 grams
    Shake 35 grams
    500mgs ginsing

    Meal 2:
    230grams liquid egg whites
    25 grams shake
    6 fish oil

    Meal 3:
    same as meal 2

    Meal 4:
    Barilla plus (legume pasta) 4 oz
    Shake 30 gram
    600mg ALA

    Meal 5:
    Barilla plus 2oz
    Shake 30gram
    600mg ALA

    500mgs ginsing

    Medium day:

    Meal 1:
    100grams WMS
    230 gram egg whites
    25 gram shake
    500mg ginsing

    Meal 2:
    110 gram cream of wheat
    36 gram shake
    600mgs ALA

    Meal 3:
    110gram cream of wheet
    36 gram shake
    600mg ala

    Meal 4 and 5:
    230 gram egg whites
    25 gram shake.

    High day:

    Meal 1:
    100grams wms
    230 gram eggwhites
    25 gram shake

    Meal 2, 3
    110 gram cream of wheat
    36 gram shake
    600mgs ala

    Meal 4:
    Barilla plus 4oz
    40 gram shake
    600mgs ala

    Meal 5:
    230 gram egg whites
    25 gram shake

    as you can see I dont really eat a lot of real food. i dont enjoy eating so I dont

  12. Very nice and descriptive friend, Im glad you seem to be enjoying it!! I dont got to much to say cuz we discuss stuff already lol
    Serious Nutrition Solutions

  13. I am guessing with the situations in my life this is the perfect timing for my log. My ex gf/best friend is still having issues going on in her life so I was up later into the night talking with her, and even later worrying about her. I pass out for some reason waking up a bit earlier than planned by a half hour. I lay in bed till around 4am (my standard waking time) and ponder why I got up early. Anyways I go to check my phone and notice she discovered one of my friends trashing the crap out of her do to her weight. So not even fully awake for more than 5 minutes and my stress levels are already shooting the rough. I do my best to calm myself down, but it just isnt working. At least not well. So I spend the next 20 minutes (till 4:20 yes laugh) trying to write messages to calm her as things that I said through text could be misconstrued as bei)ng shots at her weight in reality it was points of indifference. So at this point I have to move the cars outside to begin training. I take my half scoop which I started measuring at 5grams so an exact half dose. And head out to to move the cars. My car then my moms. So I head in to train and there is a rather large dragon fly trying to get out but cant. I wait for a good ten minutes then finally kill it with a kettlebell. I felt very bad, but if I didnt the dogs or my mom would.

    By this time *BING* my light switch is going on and I'm ready to rock and roll. The focus is starting the energy level is starting to build and my mind is ready to go. Realizing this is just a kung fu day made me a little sad, but then I realized the new things I was taught yesterday and I was ready to go.

    Started with our Hung Ga for those that wonder dynamic exercises. I bust those out pretty fast. Getting better at getting through all of them without much needed rest.

    Next I go to my stances and I work on a fluid transition between them all a few times. I have 3 basic stances down, but now my job is to let them flow naturally through them. power AND fluidity.

    Following the transition stance work I move on to holding stances for time. The time has changed up a bit as he wants me counting a different way. So that was good to go.

    Moving on to the dynamic tension exercises. Hung Ga is known for power and these help to root that power. I did these and was again good to go.

    Realizing how much strength and tiredness the dynamic tension exercises cause I decided to cut it there, and move bodyweight stuff in with my kettlebells.

    Then I stretched and stretched and stretched. Good flexibility means less likely to get injured.

    To top it off another good training session thanks to focus-xt. Good sharpness in the mind, but still a good calm feeling. Got me ready to go after being upset (which is a miracle) and kept me strong throughout the workout. Pretty nice stuff.

    Tonight I went to class and did some american boxing. Also took a half scoop of focus. Felt good felt powerful. My skill wasnt as good because I was exausted but thts just lack of sleep

  14. How far along are you in the Hung gar?

    I love the dynamic tension in the forms. Do you use brass rings?

  15. Quote Originally Posted by RenegadeRows View Post
    How far along are you in the Hung gar?

    I love the dynamic tension in the forms. Do you use brass rings?
    Very very new to it. My coach is extremely traditional and told me to expect to spend the next 10 years working with him. For his talent and ability I have no second thoughts about it. So far we have gotten into 3 stances, 4 different types of dynamic tension, 4 blocks, and a few chin na movements. Plus the standard warm up movements i have no idea what they're called but stuff like pushing heavens, and Buddhist walking. We still have not gotten into the rings yet. he says I am a while off from that. He is very big on preserving the art so he wants each part I do to be perfect before I move on. Though I was started on a bit of body conditioning since it takes so long to do. It has already started to work to some extent, but probably only like 2% of where it will be.

  16. Looking good man, loving the updates
    Serious Nutrition Solutions

  17. Well guys I ended up getting a pretty bad sinus infection hence lack of posts past two days. Weather, season change, combined with new girl I'm dating = sick. Gimmie a day or two and Ill be back good as new.a

  18. get well soon, i make u chicken noodle soup lol
    Serious Nutrition Solutions

  19. Well hey guys,

    Still haven't hit the gym yet 3 days later on antibiotics. I can get up and move and walk around still rather fatigued though. Spend Sat and Sun on teh bad end of the diet scale. Back to good today. Might do a good old flexibility workout and maybe some stretching later depending. Hopefully gonna try and be back at this tomorrow.

    I did get a chance to try out focus in a new setting. I work for my dad and decided to go in and catch up on some work today. I deal with money and keeping track of it as my job. My brain was a little foggy and was a little rough today, but I missed my normal sat sun work days so I came into today for a bit.

    Took down a 5gram shake and went to work. As I drove my mind started to clear up a little from the fog that I was experiencing. I wouldn't say I got the "focus" like I used to, but it lifted the massive fog I had for days. I went to work and was able to get most of I wanted to accomplish. I was a little slow but hey, I'm sick. I feel though that the focus did allow me to accomplish more than I would have though without it.

    It seems we have found another use for focus. So far we have: workouts, school, work, and I am still thinking that if done a certain way it may be able to help ward off over training.

  20. I used focus for training and like early AM classes when its hard to pay attention let alone stay awake, versitle stuff it is!
    Serious Nutrition Solutions

  21. Well I did do some grip work still running on a good feeling from the previous dose. Again cant say focus power, but I can say clear head. Which is a good deal for being sick.

    Pegasus normal
    pegasus reverse
    20lbs x5
    Overcrush gripper
    10lbs x3
    Sand blasting
    and done pretty fast

  22. Still pretty sick but decided to give it a shot today... Took my half scoop and headed to the training room. Still sick so not getting the intense focus, but definitely more alert and awake. Which is definitely a bonus. Cant wait til I can start healing up and getting a normal training day. Would be pretty nice. Though the focus is helping to get through these rough few days.

    Stretching out
    Stance work for time horse was up to 30 bow was up 20 same with cat
    Sandbag circuit: millitary, row, floor press, curl, side deads, zercher squat 6 reps a piece... Wanted to do more but with no nasal breathing kinda sucked.
    Dynamic tension work
    called it a day.

  23. if companies didnt put cancer causing dyes in their products like red#40...which btw has been linked to behavior probs in children like add and adhd..i would buy from them..but till then jack3d is my focus of choice..

  24. Quote Originally Posted by ohiostate2827 View Post
    if companies didnt put cancer causing dyes in their products like red#40...which btw has been linked to behavior probs in children like add and adhd..i would buy from them..but till then jack3d is my focus of choice..
    Please link studies to this. Peer reviewed, double blind studies... Coming from a biology background and also a psychological research based background I would love to see this. Because I really dont beleive it. Heck I will google it..

  25. Quote Originally Posted by Steelwolf View Post
    Please link studies to this. Peer reviewed, double blind studies... Coming from a biology background and also a psychological research based background I would love to see this. Because I really dont beleive it. Heck I will google it..
    A search through my schools database has come up with nothing. And even though I HATE google searches I also searched google. There are no proven studies to say this. There is some anecdotal evidence of kids behaving better when its taken out. But also things like high sugar and caffeine were being removed. Now for that aspect lets play the ADD and ADHD factor. Hmm the kids are acting better when the caffeine is removed. Well high sugar diets and high stimulants will also cause similar symptoms. Let us play more into this shall we... The kind of evidence means nothing at all. It is like saying subway makes you lose weight like Jarad. We are leaving out the fact he ate healthy and exercised but hey its subway that did it. The only proven evidence was on die#2 but the Russians in the 1970s which has been banned since the 1970s. Oh and btw ANYTHING can theoretically cause cancer.


Similar Forum Threads

  1. purebred's ZONING IN w/ SNS Focus XT (Sponsored Log)
    By purebred in forum Supplement Logs
    Replies: 65
    Last Post: 09-27-2011, 01:06 AM
  2. Trying To Get Some Work Done with Focus XT (Sponsored)
    By matt352 in forum Supplement Logs
    Replies: 74
    Last Post: 07-11-2011, 05:41 PM
  3. Focus XT Review by Tomahawk (sponsored)
    By Tomahawk88 in forum Supplement Logs
    Replies: 30
    Last Post: 01-04-2011, 10:39 AM
  4. Forced to Focus with IBE X-Force (sponsored)
    By coug42 in forum Supplement Logs
    Replies: 16
    Last Post: 09-30-2008, 10:39 PM
  5. Whats the perfect martial artist workout?
    By glaze1353 in forum MMA
    Replies: 12
    Last Post: 02-25-2008, 08:43 PM
Log in
Log in