I just like to exapnd on this point:Originally Posted by krzna
From my Cell biology text.....
DNP destroys the membrane - or at very small concentrations desto___ - the proton gradient change I in the inner part of mitochondrial membrane. Cells continue to oxidize food molecules to feed electrons into the electron-transport chin, but H+ ions pumped across the membrane flow back into the mitochondria in futile cycle. Their energy cannot be tapped to drive ATV synthesis, and hence is released as heat. Patients who have been given small doses of DNP lose weight because their fat reserves are used more rapidly to feed the electron-transport chain, and the whole process simply “wastes” energy.
A similar mechanism of heat production I used by specialized tissue composed of brown fat cells, which is abundant in newborn humans and in hibernating animals. These cells are packed with mitochondria that leak part of their H+ gradient futilely back across the membrane for the sole purpose of warming up the organism. These cells are brown because they are packed with mitochondria, which contain high concentrations of pigmented proteins, such as cytochromes.
The DNP collapses the electrochemical proton gradient completely. H+ ions that are pumped to one side of the membrane flow back freely, and therefore no energy can be stored across the membrane.
An electrochemical gradient is made up of two components: a concentration gradient and an electrical potential. If the membrane is made permeable to K+ with migraine, K+ will be driven into the matrix by the electrical potential of the inner membrane ( negative inside, positive outside). The influx of positively charged K+ will abolish the membrane’s electrical potential . In contrast, the concentration component of the H+ gradient ( the PH difference ) is unaffected by ingrain. Therefore, only part of the driving force that makes it energetically favorable for H+ ions to flow back into the matrix is lost.