Primordial Performance presents: EndoAmp Max! - AnabolicMinds.com

Primordial Performance presents: EndoAmp Max!

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    Primordial Performance presents: EndoAmp Max!









    What is EndoAmp Max
    ?


    EndoAmp Max is a naturally occurring phospholipid complex, designed to minimize the cortisol increase after exercise while amplifying the testosterone and growth hormone (GH) response.

    As a mild "nutty" tasting powder, EndoAmp Max can be taken by itself or mixed with a beverage. Each dose includes 800mg of pure phosphatidylserine and 600mg of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC). At the recommended dose, EndoAmp Max will last 29 days.

    EndoAmp Max is known as an "endocrine amplifier" because it can amplify the beneficial hormones such as testosterone & GH while preventing the unwanted spike in cortisol associated with exercise, so you can begin making progress towards building a harder, more masculine physique.


    How does EndoAmp Max
    work?


    EndoAmp Max works by supplying the body with vital phospholipids and neurotransmitters, thus reducing the requirement for cortisol following strenuous physical or mental activity and supporting higher testosterone and GH output. (11,21,37,38)

    Increased GH and testosterone levels help promote faster recovery, increased muscle growth and enhanced fat loss. (36)


    How does EndoAmp Max
    Support Testosterone production?


    The active ingredient phosphatidylserine (PS) prevents the exercise induced cortisol spike, and is a vital nutrient that supports testicular function and testosterone production. (11,37) Each serving of EndoAmp Max includes a clinically proven dose of 800mg of PS.

    A recent study examined the effects of 10 days of 600mg/day PS supplementation on testosterone and cortisol during and after exercise. (37) The researchers found that PS supplementation increased testosterone 78% over the placebo group, while completely blunting the cortisol response to exercise. When analyzed for the testosterone to cortisol (T:C) ratio and compared to placebo, the PS group had a 3,354% higher T:C!






    In another human study, hormone levels where examined during two weeks of intense weight training. The group receiving the 800mg of PS had higher testosterone levels and lower cortisol levels, compared to the group receiving the placebo. (11) Another study showed that 800mg of PS reduced cortisol levels 30% (compared to the placebo group) after intense cycling exercise. (21)

    It’s been hypothesized that PS supplementation minimizes cortisol secretion by providing the necessary phospholipids required for cellular membrane structure and regulatory functions, thus reducing the requirement for bodily breakdown and nutrient displacement. (17,25,36,40)

    Research also suggests that PS supports testosterone production by increasing the testes sensitivity to luteinizing hormone (LH) and increases testicular steroidogenesis - aka the creation of testosterone. (1-11, 19-26)

    Take this quote from Cooke et al (1989) about the important role of PS in the testes –

    "The requirement for specific phospholipid configurations for optimal steroidogenic activity suggests a regulatory role for these membrane components. It is possible that certain phospholipids [phosphatidylserine] may possess the most suitable configuration and charge distribution to optimize the binding of the steroid substrate to the active site of the enzyme. Alternatively, they may assist the catalysis by providing a more suitable microenvironment or electrochemical gradient for proton transfer between enzyme and steroid."¯

    In other words, EndoAmp Max creates a more conducive environment for testosterone synthesis in the testes by mitigating the damaging effects from cortisol and supplying the testes with the necessary phospholipids for testicular function.


    How does EndoAmp Max support Growth Hormone (GH) production?

    The active ingredient alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) increases the synthesis and release of an important neurotransmitter known as acetylcholine which enhances GH production following exercise. (38-43) Each serving of EndoAmp Max provides a scientifically proven dose of A-GPC.

    A recent study examined GH release in resistance trained men after supplementation with a single 600mg dose of A-GPC. When supplemented with A-GPC, GH levels peaked 68% higher than placebo following exercise. The peak bench press force was also 14% greater with A-GPC than placebo. (38)

    Similar results have been found in another human study with young and elderly subjects. In the young subjects (30-34 yrs), A-GPC lead to a 40% higher increase in GH over the non-A-GPC group. In the elderly subjects (80-82 yrs.), A-GPC caused a 140% higher increase in GH over the non-A-GPC group. (39)

    The research suggests that A-GPC amplifies the release of GH following growth-hormone-releasing-hormone (GHRH) stimulation. It was proposed that A-GPC supplementation increases acetylcholine levels in the brain, thus enhancing pituitary sensitivity and amplifying the release of GH from GHRH stimulation. (39)

    Another mechanism by which A-GPC may increase GH secretion is by improving the fluidity of pituitary membranes, thus increasing signal transduction at the pituitary level. (39-41)

    In laymen’s terms, EndoAmp Max increases the amount of GH secreted from exercise.


    What sort of effects should I expect from EndoAmp Max?

    Human research shows that EndoAmp Max can offer the following benefits –

    Improve the testosterone to cortisol ratio (11,21)
    Amplify GH levels following exercise (38,39)
    Increase resistance to stress & fatigue (19-23)
    Increase exercise capacity (22, 38)
    Speed recovery & reduce muscle soreness (23,24)
    Enhanced sense of well-being (19,23)
    Note: Although PS and A-GPC are naturally present in animal meat, most Americans are probably getting less than 120mg/day of PS & A-GPC combined through a Western diet (17,18,44). Therefore, supplementing with EndoAmp Max will ensure you get a sufficient amount of these highly valuable nutrients for the clinically proven benefits.


    What are some signs that my cortisol is too high?

    Excess fat distribution around the face and/or abdominal area (16)
    Low Libido (33,34)
    Low Testosterone* (2,3,10)
    Low GH (Growth Hormone) (12-14)
    Decreased insulin sensitivity (15)
    Suppressed immune system (12, 15)
    Mental depression (34)
    Easily fatigued or exhausted (34,35)
    Prolonged recovery from exercise (35)
    *Cortisol dominance is a primary cause of hypogonadism and male impotence.

    Keep in mind, it is normal and healthy to have elevated cortisol prior to waking from a night's rest, which is part of the body's natural regeneration process. However, it is not healthy to maintain elevated cortisol levels throughout the day.


    What if I already have low cortisol? Will EndoAmp Max still benefit me?

    Although seemingly contradictory, the answer is yes. Fortifying the body with the vital phospholipids and nutrients contained in EndoAmp Max will support the proper physiological structure & function of the body.

    Remember, insufficient cortisol production is generally brought upon by adrenal fatigue which generally originates from over production of cortisol. In order to revive the adrenal glands and restore normal cortisol secretion, you must remove the hyper-cortisol stimulus, and reduce the requirement for cortisol by providing the body with proper nutrition.

    What does it mean to “reduce the requirement for cortisol”?

    Cortisol is a catabolic hormone produced by the body to breakdown bodily tissue and free up vital nutrients for the repair and maintenance of the body. (12)


    Cortisol Secretion

    1. When the brain senses a low availability of vital nutrients (e.g., glucose, phospholipids, etc.), it releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which travels down to the adrenal glands.

    2. Once ACTH reaches the adrenal glands (above the kidneys), it stimulates the release of cortisol to begin breaking down bodily tissue. (12)



    When muscle tissue is damaged during intense exercise it creates a high demand for nutrients (e.g., amino acids and phospholipids) for the structural repair of muscle tissue. Therefore, if the body is not supplied with sufficient nutrition to repair and rebuild the damaged cellular tissue, it will release cortisol to breakdown other areas of the body for the nutrients it needs.

    Aside from breaking down muscle tissue for glucose and amino acids, research shows that cortisol also breaks down testicular tissue and reduces the body’s ability to produce testosterone, perhaps as a mechanism to free up phospholipid stores within the testes. (2-10)

    Research with over-trained and/or malnourished athletes has clearly shown that high cortisol levels are associated with low testosterone levels. This is known as a low testosterone to cortisol ratio and is highly correlated with decreased performance, slow recovery and inability to gain lean body mass. (45,46)

    Therefore, when the body is supplied with ample nutrients to repair itself, it reduces the requirement for cortisol.


    Can I stack EndoAmp Max with other testosterone support supplements?

    Yes, EndoAmp Max can enhance the effectiveness of other testosterone boosting supplements by amplifying the testes ability to produce testosterone.

    This synergistic effect makes EndoAmp Max an important addition to our Testosterone Recovery Stack. It also makes EndoAmp Max a vital part of post cycle therapy (PCT), when preserving muscle mass and restoring natural testosterone production is of the utmost importance.









    Supplement Facts
    Serving Size 2200mg (one scoop)
    Servings Per Container 29
    Amount Per Serving %DV
    ----------------------------------------
    SerinAid 1600mg*
    ----- Phosphatidylserine 800mg*
    ----- Phosphatidylcholine 154mg*
    ----- Phosphatidylethanolamine 128mg*
    ----- Phosphatidylinositol 68mg*
    AlphaSize (A-GPC) 600mg*
    (alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine)

    --------------------------------------

    *Daily Value not established






    Buy it, Here!: EndoAmp Max





    References –

    1. Identification and mechanism of action of phospholipids capable of modulating rat testicular microsomal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase activity in vitro
    GM Cooke
    Biol Reprod, Sep 1989; 41: 438 - 445.

    2. Testosterone levels during systemic and inhaled corticosteroid therapy.
    D Morrison, et al.
    Respir Med, October 1, 1994; 88(9): 659-63.

    3. Testicular function during prolonged corticotherapy
    JM Kuhn, et al.
    Presse Med, March 22, 1986; 15(12): 559-62.

    4. Glucocorticoid Induces Apoptosis in Rat Leydig Cells
    Hui-Bao Gao, et al.
    Endocrinology, Jan 2002; 143: 130.

    5. Role of glucocorticoid in the stress-induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats.
    Orr TE, Mann DR 1992
    Horm Behav 26:350 – 363

    6. Suppression of endogenous corticosterone levels in vivo increases the steroidogenic capacity of purified rat Leydig cells in vitro.
    Gao HB, Shan LX, Monder C, Hardy MP 1996
    Endocrinology 137:1714 – 1718

    7. Mutually independent effects of adrenocorticotropin on luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion
    DR Mann, et al.
    Endocrinology, Apr 1987; 120: 1542.

    8. Reciprocal changes in plasma corticosterone and testosterone in stressed male rats maintained in a visible burrow system: evidence for a mediating role of testicular 11ĆŸ-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
    Monder C, et al.
    Endocrinology 134:1193 – 1198

    9. The effect of stress-induced ligands on testosterone formation in Leydig cells.
    Cooke BA, et al. 1992
    West AP, eds. Stress and reproduction. New York: Raven Press; 135 – 144

    10. Acute suppression of circulating testosterone levels by cortisol in men.
    Cumming D, Quigley ME, Yen SSC 1983
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57:671 – 673

    11. HORMONAL EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE DURING 2-WKS OF INTENSE WEIGHT TRAINING
    [Annual Meeting Abstracts]
    Fahey, T. D.; Pearl, M.
    California State University, Chico

    12. Association of 24-Hour Cortisol Production Rates, Cortisol-Binding Globulin, and Plasma-Free Cortisol Levels with Body Composition, Leptin Levels, and Aging in Adult Men and Women
    Jonathan Q. et al.
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Jan 2004; 89: 281 - 287.

    13. Cortisol inhibition of growth hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated growth hormone release from cultured sheep pituitary cells
    JL Sartin, et al.
    J. Endocrinol., Jun 1994; 141: 517 - 525.

    14. Lowering cortisol enhances growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in healthy subjects.
    TG Dinan, J Thakore, and V O'Keane
    Acta Physiol Scand, July 1, 1994; 151(3): 413-6.

    15. Stress-Related Cortisol Secretion in Men: Relationships with Abdominal Obesity and Endocrine, Metabolic and Hemodynamic Abnormalities
    Roland Rosmond, Mary F. Dallman, and Per Bjorntorp
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Jun 1998; 83: 1853 - 1859.

    16. Visceral obesity: a "civilization syndrome".
    Bjorntorp P
    Obes Res. 1993 May;1(3):206-22.

    17. Brain caphalin, a mixture of phosphatides. Separation from it of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and a fraction containing an inositol phophatide.
    Folch J et al.
    J Biol Chem 1942 146(1):35-44

    18. Food composition and nutritional tables.
    Souci et al.
    Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 200

    19. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor.
    Benton D et al.
    Nutr Neurosci 2001, 4(3):169-178

    20. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans.
    Monteleone et al.
    Neuroendocrinology 1990, 52(3):243-248

    21. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men.
    Monteleone et al.
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992, 42(4):385-388

    22. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males.
    Kingsley et al.
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006, 38(I):64-71

    23. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of weight training-induced over-training.
    Fayey TD, et al.
    Biol Sport 1998, 15(2): 135-144

    24. The effects of phosphatidyl serine on markers of muscular stress in endurance runners.
    Fernholz et al.
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32(5):S321

    25. Phospholipids and sports performance.
    R Jager, et al.
    J Int Soc Sports Nutr, Jan 2007; 4: 5

    26. Effects of Phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running.
    Kingsley M et al.
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005 37(8):1300-1306

    27. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance.
    Ralf Jager et al.
    J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007; 4:23

    28. Changes in Financial Strain Over Three Years, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Cortisol Responses to Awakening
    Andrew Steptoe, Lena Brydon, and Sabine Kunz-Ebrecht
    Psychosom Med, Mar 2005; 67: 281 - 287.

    29. Perfectionism and the Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Men
    Petra H. Wirtz, et al.
    Psychosom Med, Apr 2007; 69: 249 - 255.

    30. Influence of dietary protein, energy and corticosteroids on protein turnover, proteoglycan sulphation and growth of long bone and skeletal muscle in the rat.
    ZA Yahya, et al
    Clin Sci (Lond), Nov 1994; 87(5): 607-18.

    31. Cortisol, testosterone, and free testosterone in athletes performing a marathon at 4,000 m altitude.
    Marinelli et al.
    Horm Res., 41(5-6), 225-229, 1994

    32. Usefullness of free testosterone/cortisol ratio during a season of elite speed skating athletes.
    Banfi et al.
    Int J Sports Med., 14(7), 373-379, 1993.

    33. Corticosterone Can Act at the Posterior Paraventricular Thalamus to Inhibit Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Activity in Animals that Habituate to Repeated Stress
    Azra Jaferi and Seema Bhatnagar
    Endocrinology, Oct 2006; 147: 4917 – 4930

    34. Steroids and depression
    Alexander Mitchell and Veronica O'Keane
    BMJ, Jan 1998; 316: 244

    35. Biological Markers of overtraining
    Fahey et al.
    Biol Sport 1997, 14:1-19

    36. Amino acids and proteins for the athlete.
    Di Pasquale
    CRC Press, 2007, Pg 309

    37. The effects of soy phosphatidylserine on cortisol, growth hormone and testosterone response to moderate intensity exercise.
    Starks, et al.
    University of Mississippi

    38. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to and peak force production during resistance exercise
    Ziegenfuss et al.
    J Int Soc Sports Nutr, Jun 2008 5(Suppl 1): P15

    39. Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH response to GHRH of young and elderly subjects.
    Ceda et al.
    Horm Metab Res, Mar 1992; 24(3): 119-21.

    40. Phospholipids as dynamic participants in biological processes.
    Hanahan et al.
    J lipid Res 1984, 25:1528-1535

    41. Biosynthesis of phospholipids
    Kennedy at al.
    Fed, Proc 16: 847-853 (1957)

    42. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia.
    R Di Perri, G Coppola, LA Ambrosio, A Grasso, FM Puca, and M Rizzo
    J Int Med Res, July 1, 1991; 19(4): 330-41.

    43. Behavioral effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine: influence on cognitive mechanisms in the rat.
    F Drago, F Mauceri, L Nardo, C Valerio, N Lauria, L Rampello, and G Guidi
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav, February 1, 1992; 41(2): 445-8.

    44. L--Glycerophosphocholine Contributes to Meat's Enhancement of Nonheme Iron Absorption
    Charlotte N. Armah, Paul Sharp, Fred A. Mellon, Sandra Pariagh, Elizabeth K. Lund, Jack R. Dainty, Birgit Teucher, and Susan J. Fairweather-Tait
    J. Nutr., May 2008; 138: 873 - 877.

    45. Overtraining and elite athletes: Review and directions for the future.
    Kuipers et al.
    Sports Med. 1988, 6:79-92

    46. Resistance exercise overtraining and overreaching neuroendocrine responses .
    Kraemer et al.
    Spots Med. 1997, 23(2):106-129

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    whats the difference between this and regular endo amp?
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    Quote Originally Posted by TexasLifter89 View Post
    whats the difference between this and regular endo amp?
    We've added 600mg of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC). This will increase GH releasing effects.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Trauma1 View Post
    We've added 600mg of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC). This will increase GH releasing effects.
    I noticed that you guys added alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine to the new endo-amp. Is there by any chance that Eric could give me a link to a study showing the affects of this compound in accordance to gh release. I know acteyl-choline is known for this but, I have not heard of A-GPC.
    doing my own thang!
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    Quote Originally Posted by andrew732 View Post
    I noticed that you guys added alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine to the new endo-amp. Is there by any chance that Eric could give me a link to a study showing the affects of this compound in accordance to gh release. I know acteyl-choline is known for this but, I have not heard of A-GPC.
    38. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to and peak force production during resistance exercise
    Ziegenfuss et al.
    J Int Soc Sports Nutr, Jun 2008 5(Suppl 1): P15

    39. Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH response to GHRH of young and elderly subjects.
    Ceda et al.
    Horm Metab Res, Mar 1992; 24(3): 119-21.

    40. Phospholipids as dynamic participants in biological processes.
    Hanahan et al.
    J lipid Res 1984, 25:1528-1535

    41. Biosynthesis of phospholipids
    Kennedy at al.
    Fed, Proc 16: 847-853 (1957)

    42. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia.
    R Di Perri, G Coppola, LA Ambrosio, A Grasso, FM Puca, and M Rizzo
    J Int Med Res, July 1, 1991; 19(4): 330-41.

    43. Behavioral effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine: influence on cognitive mechanisms in the rat.
    F Drago, F Mauceri, L Nardo, C Valerio, N Lauria, L Rampello, and G Guidi
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav, February 1, 1992; 41(2): 445-8.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hank Vangut View Post
    38. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to and peak force production during resistance exercise
    Ziegenfuss et al.
    J Int Soc Sports Nutr, Jun 2008 5(Suppl 1): P15

    39. Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH response to GHRH of young and elderly subjects.
    Ceda et al.
    Horm Metab Res, Mar 1992; 24(3): 119-21.

    40. Phospholipids as dynamic participants in biological processes.
    Hanahan et al.
    J lipid Res 1984, 25:1528-1535

    41. Biosynthesis of phospholipids
    Kennedy at al.
    Fed, Proc 16: 847-853 (1957)

    42. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia.
    R Di Perri, G Coppola, LA Ambrosio, A Grasso, FM Puca, and M Rizzo
    J Int Med Res, July 1, 1991; 19(4): 330-41.

    43. Behavioral effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine: influence on cognitive mechanisms in the rat.
    F Drago, F Mauceri, L Nardo, C Valerio, N Lauria, L Rampello, and G Guidi
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav, February 1, 1992; 41(2): 445-8.

    Very nice, hank. I'm going to compile some studies with links for you guys in the coming days.

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    nice addition. i believe this will be a great reformulation
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    I added a few things to the write-up, everyone.

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    I noticed serving size is one scoop for 2200mg where as old endoamp was 2 scoops for 1600mg. Is this correct as it appears that there are almost the same number of servings per container 29 in max vs 30 in normal?

    Also noticed sponsor10 coupon code not working with endoamp max, any reason why?
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    How long can you run EndoAmp Max?
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    Quote Originally Posted by buff18 View Post
    How long can you run EndoAmp Max?
    As long as you like.

    -Eric
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    Quote Originally Posted by buff18 View Post
    How long can you run EndoAmp Max?
    It's really a very solid staple supplement overall. I think you'll really enjoy the effects you get from this product.

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    Quote Originally Posted by scb2121 View Post
    I noticed serving size is one scoop for 2200mg where as old endoamp was 2 scoops for 1600mg. Is this correct as it appears that there are almost the same number of servings per container 29 in max vs 30 in normal?

    Also noticed sponsor10 coupon code not working with endoamp max, any reason why?

    The new container is 66gm and the old was 48gm… the servings are all there... even though the actual bottle is smaller.

    SPONSOR10 should still be working for EndoAmp... Ill have them fix that.

    -Eric
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    Hey guys...just got a quick question. This product helps with GH release and testosterone support. You would want to take this postworkout for it's cortisol blunting properties correct?? If that is so, what would you do or how would you dose around your postworkout shake? Carbs, more specifically, insulin blunts GH release. Carbs postworkout --> insulin release. Any help with this?
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    Quote Originally Posted by BurghHardcore View Post
    Hey guys...just got a quick question. This product helps with GH release and testosterone support. You would want to take this postworkout for it's cortisol blunting properties correct?? If that is so, what would you do or how would you dose around your postworkout shake? Carbs, more specifically, insulin blunts GH release. Carbs postworkout --> insulin release. Any help with this?
    If you follow Pasquale’s diet (like myself) then you shouldn’t be taking in carbs after workouts, but instead protein.

    By taking in carbs PO you reduce insulin sensitivity and basically fill your muscles glycogen stores, while reducing the muscle's ability to take in amino acids. (protein)

    Muscles are starving after a workout… you should give them protein instead of carbs.

    Eitherway, the GH burst only last for about 90 minutes after exercise, so you can still reap the benefits of this and take your carbs about 60 minutes after exercise if you really wanted to.

    -Eric
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    Quote Originally Posted by Primordial Perf View Post
    If you follow Pasquale’s diet (like myself) then you shouldn’t be taking in carbs after workouts, but instead protein.

    By taking in carbs PO you reduce insulin sensitivity and basically fill your muscles glycogen stores, while reducing the muscle's ability to take in amino acids. (protein)

    Muscles are starving after a workout… you should give them protein instead of carbs.

    Eitherway, the GH burst only last for about 90 minutes after exercise, so you can still reap the benefits of this and take your carbs about 60 minutes after exercise if you really wanted to.

    -Eric

    Thanks for answering my question. I got ya

    I was always of the understanding though that:
    1. replenishing glycogen stores was a good thing, the sooner the better.
    2. my post-w drink is approx. 30g waxy maize with 10g BCAA and another 5-7g of Leucine. Wouldn't the carbs help pull the amino acids into the muscle? Or have I missed something big here.

    I will check out the diet you are talking about. I got something to read about tonight!!

    Luckily I workout in the A.M., so technically I guess I have all day to replenish glycogen stores. I tend to overtrain easily though and wouldn't want to stumble down that road.
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    Quote Originally Posted by BurghHardcore View Post
    Thanks for answering my question. I got ya

    I was always of the understanding though that:
    1. replenishing glycogen stores was a good thing, the sooner the better.
    2. my post-w drink is approx. 30g waxy maize with 10g BCAA and another 5-7g of Leucine. Wouldn't the carbs help pull the amino acids into the muscle? Or have I missed something big here.

    I will check out the diet you are talking about. I got something to read about tonight!!

    Luckily I workout in the A.M., so technically I guess I have all day to replenish glycogen stores. I tend to overtrain easily though and wouldn't want to stumble down that road.

    Give this a look-over. It has some good information in general that may answer some of your questions:


    Growth Hormone and Blood Sugar

    The most important point in regards to growth hormone (GH) and diet is that "Growth hormone levels increase significantly when insulin levels are low" (Jamieson, p. 85). "More precisely, the cause of growth hormone inhibition is not high insulin levels but rather high blood sugar (which, because insulin is secreted to bring down blood sugar level, overlaps in time with high insulin levels)" (Faigin, p.201).

    To explain further, "… glucose inhibits the secretion of growth hormone by acting on specific areas of the hypothalamus. Consequently, during the day, when food is consumed periodically, growth hormone secretion by the pituitary is suppressed, and insulin release by the pancreas is increased" (Dean).

    But it should be noted that it is not just any food that causes a rise in blood sugar and the consequent insulin release, but primary carbohydrates. And some kinds of carbs cause a greater blood sugar increase than others. This issue is discussed in the article *The Glycemic Index.

    I won't repeat all the details of that article here, but the important point is that low glycemic foods will not increase blood sugar as much as high glycemic foods. And eating a large amount of carbs at once will cause a greater increase in blood sugar levels than eating a small amount of carbs. Also, eating fat with carbs will blunt the rise in blood sugar.

    What this means is, consuming a large amount of high glycemic carbs by themselves could completely halt growth hormone release. Or more generally, a high carbohydrate, low fat diet is absolutely devastating to growth hormone levels. This is one of the reasons why many people trying to lose weight on such a diet "plateau" after a period of time. Their inability to continue to lose weight is partly due to suppressed GH levels.

    Moreover, a study comparing a group of boys consuming meals composed of high-glycemic index (GI) foods verses low GI foods found, "There were higher levels of the hormones insulin, noradrenaline, and cortisol after the high-GI meals" (Brand-Miller, p.230). So a rapid rise in blood sugar and insulin can lead to a rise in cortisol, with its attendant catabolic and lipogenic properties.

    However, "… we need insulin to promote the benefits of growth hormone. Studies show that GH fails to cause growth in animals lacking a pancreas and it also fails if carbohydrates are restricted from the diet" (Jamieson, p.56). The reason for his could be that a strict low carb diet would lead to chronically low insulin levels, and insulin, as indicated above, is needed to drive amino acids into the muscle cells.

    Moreover, IGF-1 is produced in the body through the combined actions of GH and insulin. And IGF-1 "… is at least as powerful an anabolic agent as either of its parents" (Faigin, p. 90). But a low carb diet would lead to a reduction in IGF-1 levels. So a low carb diet is not the answer either. In fact, this relationship of insulin, growth hormone, and IGF-1 is one reason why those following a low carb diet also often plateau after a period of time.

    There is a relationship with thyroid hormone here as well. "Raising GH has a profound effect on normalizing thyroid function … " (Jamieson, p.100). However, "Studies also show that diets that continuously restrict carbohydrate (like the Atkin's diet, for instance) cause a reduction in T3, and that administering carbohydrate can restore T3 levels after they have declined" (Faigin, p.139). This reduction in T3 is another reason people will often plateau on low carb diets.

    So an ideal GH enhancing diet would include some carbs, but not an excessive amount. And the focus would be on low glycemic carbs.


    Growth Hormone and Protein

    Next to be considered is the relationship of GH to protein intake. "GH is released after the consumption of protein. This might signify to the body that it is now an opportune moment to build" (Creatine Newsletter).

    Moreover, "Hormonally, protein intake is positively correlated with growth hormone, IGF-1, and glucagons. These hormones, collectively, exert an anabolic and lipolytic effect" (Faigin, p.156).

    This article is about diet, not supplements. But the following paragraph would apply to raising GH levels via diet as well as via supplements:

    People are curious why others get better results for their HGH supplementation. When we looked into why, we discovered that growth hormone supplementation increases the need for protein and people who supply the additional protein did better with their HGH supplementation program" (HGH Magazine, "Whey Protein").

    So there is a synchronicity going on here. Increased protein intake will increase GH levels, and increased GH levels will increase the need for protein. Moreover, frequent protein feedings will increase absorption of protein and produce frequent GH spikes.

    So an ideal GH raising diet would include frequent feedings of high quality protein.



    This is the whole article if you're interested:

    http://www.fitnessforoneandall.com/n...s/part_one.htm

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    That's really some great info Trauma, and thank you much for posting. It's much appreciated. I really just wanted to know b/c I plan on doing a stack of Sustain, EndoAmp, and Toco-8 along w/ Phyto-Test in the near future and wanted to iron out all the wrinkles.
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    Quote Originally Posted by BurghHardcore View Post
    That's really some great info Trauma, and thank you much for posting. It's much appreciated. I really just wanted to know b/c I plan on doing a stack of Sustain, EndoAmp, and Toco-8 along w/ Phyto-Test in the near future and wanted to iron out all the wrinkles.
    Not a problem.

    That sounds like a great stack. Link us when you get that going.

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    Quote Originally Posted by BurghHardcore View Post
    That's really some great info Trauma, and thank you much for posting. It's much appreciated. I really just wanted to know b/c I plan on doing a stack of Sustain, EndoAmp, and Toco-8 along w/ Phyto-Test in the near future and wanted to iron out all the wrinkles.
    Yeah, that will be a very nice all-natural stack.

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    Quote Originally Posted by BurghHardcore View Post
    That's really some great info Trauma, and thank you much for posting. It's much appreciated. I really just wanted to know b/c I plan on doing a stack of Sustain, EndoAmp, and Toco-8 along w/ Phyto-Test in the near future and wanted to iron out all the wrinkles.
    So when are you gonna give this a go??
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    Bumping this for some feedback.

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    I gotta get my hands on some of this for my next PCT. Looks yum yum.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Royd The Noyd View Post
    I gotta get my hands on some of this for my next PCT. Looks yum yum.
    yes you do
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    Quote Originally Posted by Royd The Noyd View Post
    I gotta get my hands on some of this for my next PCT. Looks yum yum.
    You'll likey.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Royd The Noyd View Post
    I gotta get my hands on some of this for my next PCT. Looks yum yum.
    EndoAmp actually does taste good.
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    That's good. I have heard it's a nutty flavor?
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    Very nice looking product. I'm actually more interested in the nootropic effects than anything. I'm definitely looking forward to giving this one a try.

    Quote Originally Posted by Royd The Noyd View Post
    I gotta get my hands on some of this for my next PCT. Looks yum yum.
    Quote Originally Posted by Primordial Perf View Post
    EndoAmp actually does taste good.
    That's good to hear. NOW liquid lecithin is a pain in the ass to take...almost like thick molasses.
    Advanced Muscle Science
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    Quote Originally Posted by Royd The Noyd View Post
    That's good. I have heard it's a nutty flavor?
    Yes sir
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    Quote Originally Posted by testosteronet View Post
    Best time of day to take endoamp max?
    We recommend that you take it early on in the day (morning.) The purpose of the EndoAmp Max is to mitigate huge fluctuations in cortisol over the course of the day (they typically occur during periods of stress of physical workload); it's not going to destroy cortisol overall, though. If you dose early on in the day, you're allowing for a more stable basal serum cortisol concentration. This will equate to better gains in the end.

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    Some more reading material:

    The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise

    http://www.jissn.com/content/5/1/11


    Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise


    http://www.jissn.com/content/5/S1/P15


    Phospholipids and sports performance


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    I had wanted to make an extensive post about the glucocorticoid:Cortisol, but here is an excellent article that covers it:



    Muscle Breakdown: Is Cortisol Leading You Down the Catabolic Pathway?
    by Rehan Jalali



    Walk into any so-called "hardcore" gym these days, and you’ll likely see ‘em by the dozens. They’re easy to spot… they’re the guys who spend hours on end pushing up plates, searching for supreme physical perfection, yet rarely finding it. They are the hopelessly overtrained, and they’re afflicted with that old Protestant work ethic: a little training is good, so a whole lot must be better.

    The very idea of producing a peak physique leads to a perverse temptation among these fellows to do all but pitch tent in the weight room and camp out there 24/7. "There’s no such thing as overtraining," they declare. Indeed, they know a lot of clichés and can spout them off with machine-gun repetition—No Pain, No Gain… If the Bar Ain’t a Bendin’, You’re Just Pretendin’… Go Heavy or Go Home. But ask them anything specific about exercise physiology or the dynamics of muscle-fiber hypertrophy and repair, and they’re as quiet as Tori Spelling playing Trivial Pursuit.

    The bottom line is, if you’re among the band of hard-and-heavy lifters, cortisol may be literally eating away at your muscle-building potential. Weight training enthusiasts must declare all-out war on this catabolic hormone if they have any aspirations of building muscle. But before we attack all of your cortisol problems, some background on this intriguing subject is in order. After all, understanding leads to solutions (or was it madness?). Anyways, here goes….

    Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid. It is a natural hormone of the adrenal glands. Although cortisol's precise actions are not completely understood, we know that it is essential for life. Cortisol is necessary to maintain important processes in times of prolonged stress. Most of its effects are not directly responsible for the initiation of metabolic or circulatory processes, but it is necessary for their full response.


    Cortisol Synthesis: Cholesterol--> Pregnenolone--> Progesterone -->

    17-Hydroxyprogesterone-->11-Deoxycortisol --> Cortisol.



    Cortisol can exert its effects on peripheral tissue. Once in circulation, cortisol is typically bound to a specific glucocorticoid-binding alpha2-globulin called transcortin. About 75% of cortisol is bound to transcortin, 15% to 20% bound less tightly to albumin, and 5% of circulating cortisol is unbound (1). This is an important factor to take into consideration when measuring cortisol levels. The 24-hour urinary excretion of unmetabolized cortisol is one of the best ways to accurately gauge cortisol levels. This helps take into account bound and free cortisol. Exogenous cortisol has a half-life of about 70 to 90 minutes. Cortisol can be converted to its 11-keto analogue cortisone (you know, the stuff you take when you have some bad swelling or inflammation).

    The major catabolic effects of cortisol involve its facilitating the conversion of protein in muscles and connective tissue into glucose and glycogen (cortisol may increase liver glycogen). Gluconeogenesis involves both the increased degradation of protein already formed and the decreased synthesis of new protein. Cortisol can also decrease the utilization of glucose by cells by directly inhibiting glucose transport into the cells (1). A cortisol excess can also lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity. Cortisol also reduces the utilization of amino acids for protein formation in muscle cells. A cortisol excess can lead to a progressive loss of protein, muscle weakness and atrophy, and loss of bone mass through increased calcium excretion and less calcium absorption. That is one of the reasons long-distance runners tend to have skinny physiques. With the amount of stress that runners place on their bodies, they have high levels of free radicals as well as cortisol. Excess cortisol can also adversely affect tendon health. Cortisol causes a redistribution of bodyfat to occur through an unknown mechanism. Basically, the extremities lose fat and muscle while the trunk and face become fatter. Some of the signs of overtraining include higher cortisol levels, which may cause depression-type effects. Cortisol excess can also lead to hypertension because it causes sodium retention (which can make you appear bloated) and potassium excretion. In other words, excessively high cortisol levels may turn you into a girly man! So the real challenge becomes how can cortisol levels be controlled but not inhibited completely because of cortisol's necessary anti-inflammatory effects?

    One way is to take anti-cortisol supplements in the morning upon rising and then before bedtime, as these are two times that cortisol levels seem to be raised. Timed release would not be an option here because this may suppress cortisol levels over too long of an extended period. The key is to suppress elevated levels of cortisol, not decrease normal physiological levels of this hormone because as I mentioned earlier, a small amount is needed for it's anti-inflammatory and other effects.

    Another one of cortisol's undesirable effects for athletes is it causes insulin resistance by decreasing the rate at which insulin activates the glucose uptake system, likely because of a post-insulin receptor block (2). Any type of stress that occurs to the body signals the nervous system to relay this to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then responds by initiating the stress-hormone cascade starting with CRF (corticotrophin releasing hormone) followed by ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) release, and finally glucocorticoid production (pretty intense, huh?). Stress to the human body can include trauma, anxiety, infections, surgery, and even resistance training and aerobics. Recent research has shown that increased cortisol levels also increased protein breakdown by 5% to 20%. (3) Even mild elevations in serum cortisol can increase plasma glucose concentration and protein catabolism within a few hours in healthy individuals. (4) Cortisol increases with increasing time of intense exercise. In overtrained individuals, cortisol levels increase while testosterone levels decrease. That is why one measure of overtraining is the testosterone: cortisol ratio. By the way, overtraining is defined as an increase in training volume and/or intensity of exercise leading to a decrease in performance. Cortisol can increase bodyfat levels especially when it’s increased dramatically in the body. Increased cortisol levels have an adverse effect on testosterone levels. In fact, one of the primary anti-catabolic effects of testosterone and anabolic steroids is it's decreasing muscle cortisol metabolism. (5) That is one reason why many athletes can completely overtrain when taking anabolic steroids and still increase lean body mass and strength.

    Some research indicates that cortisol response to resistance training normalizes after about five weeks and that the testosterone: cortisol ratio is not adversely affected after long periods of resistance training. (6) This suggests that the body has an adaptive response.

    Cortisol can inhibit growth-hormone levels by stimulating the release of somatostatin (a growth-hormone antagonist). It may also reduce IGF-1 expression (IGF-1 is one of the most anabolic agents in the body and is the substance that is responsible for most of growth hormone’s positive effects because GH converts into IGF-1 in the liver).

    Cortisol has other hormone-modifying effects. Cortisol can directly inhibit pituitary gonadotropin and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). (7) By doing so, it can make the target tissues of sex steroids and growth factors resistant to these substances. It may also suppress an enyme known as 5' deiodinase, which converts the relatively inactive thyroid hormone T4 to the active one known as T3 or triiodothyronine. This can decrease metabolic rate and make it harder to lose bodyfat (it's already hard enough for people and anything making it harder definitely needs to be kicked to the curb).

    There are different stages in sleep and during one stage, cortisol levels are elevated because protein is being re-cycled. This is one reason that cortisol-suppressing supplements should be taken before bedtime to help minimize excess cortisol production during sleep.

    Cortisol also seems to play a role in various disease states. It is found in higher-than-normal levels in diseases ranging from AIDS and multiple sclerosis to Alzheimer's. Prolonged high levels of cortisol can throw the immune system into chaos and ravage the human body. A growing number of researchers believe that many of the worst, and least-understood, diseases will soon be identified as caused by high cortisol, and subsequently treated with cortisol- reducing drugs or supplements.

    There was an anti-cortisol conference (the second one ever conducted) held in Las Vegas in 1997 and headed up by Steroidogenesis Inhibitors Inc. and Dr. Alfred T. Sapse. This conference had many researchers involved in anti-cortisol research. Abstracts were presented on various supplemental and drug therapies for decreasing cortisol levels, especially in excessive cortisol-production disorders. In particular, there was an abstract presented by Dr. Sapse that mentioned some nutritional supplements to lower cortisol levels in the body. These included gingko biloba, Vitamin A, Zinc, and acetyl l-carnitine (8). Other abstracts presented there discussed the role of DHEA and its metabolites in helping to decrease cortisol levels. (9) Some abstracts presented looked at the progression of cortisol-induced diseases. Overall, the conference was very informative and helped researchers answer many questions on cortisol and anti-cortisol therapies as well as opened the door for further anti-cortisol research.

    Cortisol suppression may be an essential part in the recovery process for athletes involved in a rigorous training program. In fact, one of the signs of overtraining syndrome is high cortisol levels. Moderating (not completely diminishing) cortisol levels is an essential factor in allowing weight-training individuals to completely recover from their exercise session and maximize results (something we would all like to do).

    It may be a very good idea to get cortisol levels tested by a qualified physician (when I say qualified, I mean one who has done this sort of thing before and has been to medical school) on a regular basis. One of the best times to test cortisol levels is first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. This reference value or proper range for cortisol first thing in the morning should be between 4 mcg/dl and 19 mcg/dl with the sample being taken from blood. The normal range for free cortisol levels measured from urine is between 10 pg/ml and 110 pg/ml. There is also another way to measure cortisol through a salivary cortisol screening. The normal range for cortisol with this test first thing in the morning is between 100nmol/L and 300nmol/L. These tests may not have the final say in determining high cortisol levels but, it will certainly give you an idea about where your cortisol levels stand.



    Controlling Cortisol Levels
    Here are some solid tips to help control cortisol levels:



    1) Diet: Make sure you are supplying your body with all the essential nutrients you need to prevent deficiencies and for optimal function. This includes plenty of high-quality protein, complex carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, and vitamins and minerals. Try not to restrict calories continuously as some research suggests that restricting normal caloric intake by 50% can lead to a subsequent increase in cortisol levels by 38%. (10)

    2) Do not overtrain: Try not to work out three or more days in a row without taking a day off. Keep workouts to under an hour at the most and train efficiently and intensely. I know this phrase has been beaten to death but LISTEN TO YOUR BODY!

    Take enough rest days between workouts - If you are really sore, then wait an extra day to train until your body fully recovers from your previous workout. Remember, less may be more in this case.

    4) Relax and try not to get stressed out easily: Take an evening walk with a loved one or take a nap when you get a chance.

    5) Try to get at least eight hours of sleep per night: Sleep is crucial to the recovery and recuperation process.

    6) Spike Insulin levels after a workout: Insulin actually interferes with cortisol and may enhance cortisol clearance from the body. Spiking insulin levels after a workout (by consuming a high-glycemic index carbohydrate) may help minimize excessive cortisol levels since cortisol levels are elevated significantly post resistance training.










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    Supplements that may help control increased cortisol levels secondary to intense exercise:


    Phosphatidylserine (PS):This phospholipid, which has been known mainly for its cognitive effects, seems to have cortisol-suppressive properties. Recent research shows that 800 mg Phosphatidylserine given in two divided oral doses helps suppress cortisol secondary to intense weight training. (11) In fact, in this same study, the individuals using PS experienced less muscle soreness as well. Earlier research by Monteleone confirms these results. By decreasing cortisol levels, the testosterone: cortisol ratio can increase possibly relating to anabolic effects. PS seems to only decrease cortisol levels when they are elevated and does not seem to decrease cortisol levels below normal. Decreasing cortisol levels or suppression of cortisol production is not desired in many instances as it may cause adverse effects such as a decrease in reaction time to wounds and healing mechanisms in the body. There are two forms of PS available: a brain cortex derivative and a soy lecithin derivative. The brain cortex PS has been used in most of the studies and shown to be effective.

    Acetyl-L-carnitine: This is basically the acetylated ester of L-carnitine. This supplement may help prevent the decline in testosterone that occurs during and after an intense resistance training session. It seems to lessen the response to stress.

    L-Glutamine: This is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle tissue. (12) It seems to play a very important role in protein synthesis and is very important to weight-training athletes. Some research suggests that glutamine levels may be a good indicator of overtraining or overreaching. (12) In other words, athletes who were overtrained generally had low levels of glutamine along with high levels of cortisol. One study actually showed that glutamine directly prevents the cortisol-induced degradation of muscle contractile proteins.(13) Some of its positive effects include enhancing protein synthesis; increasing GH levels, which can counteract some of the catabolic effects of cortisol; potent cell-volumizing effects, which can create an anabolic environment in muscle cells; and partially determining the rate of protein turnover in the muscle. An oral glutamine supplement can help athletes prevent some of the symptoms of overtraining. It may also enhance glycogen synthesis through an unknown mechanism. It also helps provide a source of fuel for the small intestine and may enhance anti-inflammatory function. It has been shown to boost immune function. I hope you get the point -Glutamine is a vital nutrient for weight-training athletes.

    Vitamin C: This vitamin, mainly known for it's anti-oxidant properties, may also have some anti-cortisol effects. A study done by Stone entitled "Effects of Vitamin C on Cortisol and the Testosterone: Cortisol Ratio" showed a decrease in cortisol levels in 17 junior elite weight lifters. This study also showed that the individuals taking Vitamin C (an extra gram a day) improved their testosterone:cortisol ratio by over 20%. This type of decrease in cortisol can lead to increased muscle and connective-tissue hypertrophy and enhanced recovery from training. Since Vitamin C also decreases your chances of suffering from a cold or flu infection by 30% (14) and may aid in collagen synthesis, it would be wise to take some extra vitamin C when involved in an intense weight-training program.

    Zinc: A mineral that is an essential cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body including testosterone synthesis and steroid hormone production. Getting enough zinc may make the difference between making great gains and only making average gains in a weight training program.

    Vitamin A: This vitamin, which is often times used for healthy skin function, may also minimize cortisol levels according to Dr. Sapse. He suggested this in an abstract he presented at the 1997 conference on cortisol and anti-cortisols. (8)

    Gingko Biloba: This herb is mainly used for its excellent cognitive effects by increasing blood flow and oxygen to the brain, which can lead to greater mental focus and concentration. It may also have additional benefits of decreasing cortisol levels according to an abstract presented at the 1997 conference on cortisol and anti-cortisols. (15) The anti-stress and neuroprotective effects of ginkgo biloba in this study were due to its effect on glucocorticoid biosynthesis. The EGb 761 standardized gingko biloba extract was used in this study and many of the studies showing that it enhances cognition.

    DHEA: This natural hormone of the adrenal glands that declines after the age of 30 seems to have some powerful anti-cortisol effects. Many abstracts presented at the 1997 conference on cortisol and anti-cortisols discussed DHEA's role in decreasing cortisol levels. DHEA is fat soluble so it can cross the blood-brain barrier and have some effects on cognition as well.

    Androstenedione: This prohormone is a direct precursor to testosterone, which may explain its anti-cortisol effects since increases in testosterone can blunt elevated cortisol levels secondary to intense weight training. Different metabolites of androstenedione and testosterone, such as 4-androstenediol, 5-androstendiol, and nornadrostenediol, may also exert some anti-cortisol effects. However, more research needs to be done in this area to make this clear!

    Androstenetriol: This steroid metabolite, which is chemically known as Delta 5-androstene-3b,7b,17b,triol, was shown in an abstract presented at the 1997 conference on cortisol and anti-cortisols to counteract the immunological effects of glucocorticoids. (16) This is an interesting compound that definitely needs to be looked at further.


    Conclusion


    This is a subject that will be studied thoroughly in the future. Studies investigating supplemental strategies against cortisol may help weight trainers get the most out of their workouts and help enhance the recovery and recuperation process. Now before you think suppressing cortisol levels can make you Hercules, remember, cortisol levels are one piece to a large and complex puzzle. It takes a combination of proper training, nutrition, and supplementation to achieve your true muscle-building potential. However, getting cortisol levels checked by your doctor and implementing strategies against cortisol may be a good idea, especially during a calorie-restrictive dieting phase. So, the next time you feel tired, sluggish, or sore for an abnormally long time in your weight-training program, and you don't know why, look into cortisol levels, and you might find the answer.



    References
    1. Griffin J, Ojeda S. Textbook of endocrine physiology, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
    2. Rizza, et al., "Cortisol-induced insulin resistance in man. Impaired suppression of glucose production and stimulation of glucose utilization due to a post receptor defect of insulin action," J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54 (1982) : 131-138.

    3. Brillon, et al., "Effect of cortisol on energy expenditure and amino acid metabolism in humans," Am J Physiol 268 (1995) : E501-13.

    4. Simmons, et al., "Increased proteolysis: an effect of increases in plasma cortisol within the physiological range," J Clin Invest 73 (1984) : 412-420.

    5. Hickson, et al., "Glucocorticoid antagonism by exercise and androgenic- anabolic steroids," Med Sci Sports Exerc 22 (1990) : 331-340.

    6. Fry, et al., "Resistance exercise overtraining and overreaching. Neuroendocrine responses," Sports Med 23.2 (1997) : 106-129.

    7. Chrousos, et al., CRH, Stress and Depression: An Etiological Approach (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997)

    8. Sapse, et al., Anticortisols in the Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997)

    9. Baulieu, et al., Anticortisols: Their Potential Usefulness (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997)

    10. Kelley, et al., "Energy restriction and immunocompetence in overweight women," Nutrition Research 18.2 (1998) : 159-169.

    11. Fahey, et al., Hormonal Effects of Phosphatidylserine (PS) during two weeks of intense weight training (Orlando, Fl : ACSM Conference, 1998)

    12. Rowbottom, et al., "The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining," Sports Med 21.2 (1996) : 80-97.

    13. Hickson, et al., "Glutamine prevents down regulation of myosin heavy chain synthesis and muscle atrophy from glucocorticoids," Am J Physiol 268 (1995) : E730-E734.

    14. Anderson, et al., "Vitamin C and the common cold: A double-blind trial," J Canadian Med Assoc 107 (1972) : 503-508.

    15. Papadopoulos, et al., Regulation of Glucocorticoid Synthesis by the Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb 761 and isolated Ginkgolides (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997)

    16. Norbiato, et al., In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects of Delta 5-Androstene-3b,7b,17b Triol (AET) in Hypercortisolemic Patients (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997)

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    Really is interesting and maybe bought a tub of Endo Amp Max but I got a question for how long time I can use this stuff and can use with any other stuff like burners, amino`s, shakes proteins, test boosters etc….?
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    Quote Originally Posted by MAxximal View Post
    Really is interesting and maybe bought a tub of Endo Amp Max but I got a question for how long time I can use this stuff and can use with any other stuff like burners, amino`s, shakes proteins, test boosters etc….?
    There really is no set time frame per-se. You can use it as long as you want to acquire the benefits. This product can be stacked with everything you've posted here as well. It's a great product to compliment your goals of either fatloss or muscle gain.

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    I will be using this and was going to take it in the morning on non-w/o days but, on w/o days is it better pre or post w/o?
    Always open light. It’s not what you open with, it’s what you finish with. Louie Simmons
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    Quote Originally Posted by AZMIDLYF View Post
    I will be using this and was going to take it in the morning on non-w/o days but, on w/o days is it better pre or post w/o?
    1hr post workout.

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    Always a pleasure sir..Thanks Eric!
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