What Is The Best SERM

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  1. I have read several studies suggesting that Torem doesnt increase LH output contrary to other serms (clomid comes to mind) but torem in other regards ACTS like clomid (minus the sides) while being a structural relative of tamox....the more I read into it all the more confusing it gets. Like LMD said, theres just too much more to it than simple LH boosting. That can be done WITHOUT a serm... I have found raloxifene to work VERY well for me. after a 19 week injectable. (well first 3 weeks PCT torem, then switched to ralox but as soon as I did I felt 2000 times better, libido and all). This doesnt really prove anything because it could have been an accumulated affect of torem, or it could have been from the ralox.... who knows.


  2. Quote Originally Posted by pudzian2 View Post
    I have read several studies suggesting that Torem doesnt increase LH output contrary to other serms (clomid comes to mind) but torem in other regards ACTS like clomid (minus the sides) while being a structural relative of tamox....the more I read into it all the more confusing it gets. Like LMD said, theres just too much more to it than simple LH boosting. That can be done WITHOUT a serm... I have found raloxifene to work VERY well for me. after a 19 week injectable. (well first 3 weeks PCT torem, then switched to ralox but as soon as I did I felt 2000 times better, libido and all). This doesnt really prove anything because it could have been an accumulated affect of torem, or it could have been from the ralox.... who knows.
    Exactly. Lurking variables play a large part in every day life and they can't be overlooked. Take everything you read with a grain of salt. This is one of the reasons why I stress the lipid improving effects of toremifene over everything else.
    PharmD
    •   
       


  3. Quote Originally Posted by LakeMountD View Post
    Exactly. Lurking variables play a large part in every day life and they can't be overlooked. Take everything you read with a grain of salt. This is one of the reasons why I stress the lipid improving effects of toremifene over everything else.
    I agree. I am going to try a torem/ralox combo for my next PCT and see how that works....if nothing else torem will benefit lipids and exert selective estrogen modulating benefits, and ralox will do it's part. then again.... combining the two may cause each to have totally different actions in the body... I will see. I am leaning towards using both together for the first week only and then using one for the rest.

    then again I am designing my futurecycles to require little, if any PCT (in the form of SERM/AI use)

  4. Quote Originally Posted by TheNoid View Post
    What exactly in my post is wrong?



    You are right there....but are they relevant to PCT? If you have some by all means shoot.


    Good save, maybe you should go outside the world of AM once an d realize this is by far the most SERM happy recommending board/information source out there. Am I saying that is wrong? No, but I expected nothing less than a response such as this...

    Here is an abstract that partially supports your opinion, but it relates to low sperm count and never states improvements on LH:



    But do you recommend 60mg's to users for 3 months? I dont see jack about sides mentioned either. User weight, drugs, and cycle length should all be reviewed before recommending a blind dosage. None of which is mentioned....Lake perhaps you have full access?

    Here is an actual study dont with clomid/nolva:

    http://www.medibolics.com/ScallyVergelAstractHPGA.pdf

    The OP asked "which is the best SERM" frankly there is no answer to that imho. My opinion is useless b/c I only have 4 posts or whatever though....

    Im sorry noid my post was made in regards to you throwing out the brotelligence quip.

    The posts made by the fellows here are made on multiple variables not JUST htpa restart, he asked for the best SERM not which had the most research regarding HTPA restart. We gave him valuable info based on studies done on more then JUST htpa namely improving the lipids and the lack of toxicity.

    He didnt ask for doses either and I didnt give him a specific blind dosing regimin, since as you said there are multiple factors that should be taken into account.

    I would love to say there was as much applicable studies out there regarding Toremifene as there are for a clom/nolva combo but bottom line is there is not. Ther is however a multitude of other studies done regarding the safety of torem over tamox while providing better results in the studies varied applications. Not to mention a lot of user feedback and bloodwork done showing the restoration of values to norm or better then norm ranges using toremifene, these cannot just be ignored and considered useless.

    I dont think you can come in here and make the accusation of all the advice being pure "brotelligence" without reading te many similar threads that have been discussed as of late and most certainly the posting history of those giving the advice. If you had done so before your 2 posts you would have realized your quip was unfounded and is totally deserving of my response.

    I too applaude your questioning and want for more info but the fact is it could be done with more tact and less insults.

  5. Quote Originally Posted by TheNoid View Post
    None of which is mentioned....Lake perhaps you have full access?

    Here ya go....








    The beneficial effects of toremifene administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and sperm parameters in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia

    Dimitrios Farmakiotis M.D.a, Christos Farmakis M.D.a, David Rousso M.D.a, Anargyros Kourtis M.D.Corresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Ilias Katsikis M.D.a and Dimitrios Panidis M.D., Ph.D.a
    aDivision of Endocrinology and Human Reproduction, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Received 8 August 2006; revised 22 December 2006; accepted 22 December 2006. Available online 6 April 2007.

    Objective

    To evaluate whether toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), has a beneficiary effect on all three main sperm parameters.
    Design

    Prospective interventional clinical study.
    Setting

    University hospital.
    Patient(s)

    One-hundred subfertile men with idiopathic oligozospermia.
    Intervention(s)

    Toremifene (60 mg daily) was administered to all men for 3 months. At baseline and at the end of each month, serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. At baseline and at the end, semen analysis was performed and sperm concentration, spermatozoal motility and normal sperm forms were determined.
    Main Outcome Measure(s)

    Gonadotropin, testosterone, inhibin-B levels, total sperm count, sperm morphology and motility.
    Result(s)

    Toremifene administration resulted in a significant increase in FSH, testosterone, SHBG, and inhibin B levels, as well as in sperm concentration, percentage motility and normal sperm forms. Twenty-two men's partners achieved pregnancy within 2 months of the end of treatment. At the end of the third month, serum FSH levels were significantly higher in the men whose partners did not achieve pregnancy, and total sperm count and normal sperm forms were significantly lower compared with the group of men whose partners achieved pregnancy.
    Conclusion(s)

    Toremifene administration for a period of 3 months in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia is associated with significant improvements of sperm count, motility, and morphology, mediated by increased gonadotropin secretion and possibly a direct beneficial effect of toremifene on the testes. The above findings are also indicative of a better testicular exocrine (improved sperm parameters) response to treatment in men whose partners achieved pregnancy compared with those who did not. Further randomized, placebo-controlled trials should be conducted to determine whether this particular selective estrogen receptor modulator can be useful as an initial approach in men with oligozoospermia.

    Key Words: Toremifene; oligozoospermia; male infertility; SERM

    Article Outline

    Materials and methods

    Patients
    Study Protocol
    Hormonal Measurements
    Semen Analysis
    Statistical Analysis

    Results

    Effect of Treatment
    Differences between Men Whose Partners Achieved Pregnancy and Those Whose Partners Did Not

    Discussion
    References


    A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) is a compound that can act as an estrogen agonist or antagonist, depending on the specific target tissue (1). At present, four SERMs are approved for clinical use: clomiphene, raloxifene, tamoxifen, and toremifene. Three of these compounds belong to the triphenylethylene family: clomifene, tamoxifen, and toremifene. Raloxifene belongs to the benzothiophene family (2).

    Most of the unique pharmacology of SERMs can be explained by three interactive mechanisms. The first is differential estrogen-receptor expression in a given target tissue. The second consists of the differential estrogen-receptor conformation on ligand binding. The third is the differential expression and binding to the estrogen receptor of coregulator proteins (3).

    In women, at least three SERMs have been shown to increase circulating levels of gonadotropin. The exact mechanism for this effect is based on the estrogen antagonistic properties of SERMs at the hypothalamic and pituitary level (4). In addition, SERMs have been shown to increase sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) levels, which can be attributed to the estrogen agonist activity of SERMs in the liver (2) and (3).

    There have been relatively few studies of SERMs in males. Clomiphene citrate and tamoxifen have been proposed for the management of male factor infertility (1). Tamoxifen citrate was introduced 30 years ago as an empiric treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia because of its stimulatory action on gonadotropin secretion and its postulated direct effects on Leydig cell function and 5α-dihydrotestosterone production in seminiferous tubules and epididymis (5). The main effect of tamoxifen on spermatogenesis is stimulatory, resulting in a twofold increase in spermatozoa concentration. Such an increase in spermatozoa concentration may be important because a change of this magnitude at the low range of spermatozoa concentrations found in oligozoospermic men has been associated with disproportionately higher fecundity. However, this particular SERM has not been shown to induce any marked changes in motility and morphology (6) and (7).

    The effect of treatment with tamoxifen citrate on cumulative achievement of pregnancy over a long period of time is similar to that of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) (8) and (9). On the basis of these results (6), (10) and (11), tamoxifen citrate was proposed by a World Health Organization working committee as the first line of treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia (12).

    Because tamoxifen increases spermatozoa concentration but has no marked effect on spermatozoa motility and morphology, this study was designed to evaluate whether another SERM, toremifene, has a beneficiary effect on all three main semen parameters. To the best of our knowledge, no previous data have been reported concerning the effect of this specific SERM on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and semen parameters in men with idiopathic abnormalities in one or more of the three main semen parameters.
    Materials and methods
    Patients

    One hundred subfertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, mean ( SEM) age 20 to 47 years (33.53 0.5 years), were consecutively recruited from the fertility center of our department. All of the men were characterized as subfertile because they had been unsuccessful in achieving pregnancy with their partners for 12 months, although their partners did not show any of the known causes of female subfertility.

    Idiopathic oligozoospermia was defined as quantitative and/or qualitative aberrations of sperm variables according to World Health Organization criteria (12). Men with known or demonstrable causes of oligozoospermia (varicocele, infections, autoimmunity, stress, chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, or epididymitis) were excluded.

    Careful clinical examination showed that all of the men had complete development of the secondary sex characteristics, with a mean ( SEM) right testicular volume of 18.45 0.39 cm3 and mean ( SEM) left testicular volume 17.80 0.41 cm3 (mean testicular volume 18.14 0.39 cm3). Total testicular volume was assessed by comparison with a standard value on orchidometry. None of the men had received any medication during the 6-month period preceding the study.
    Study Protocol

    All of the men received toremifene as monotherapy at a dose of 60 mg daily for a period of 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of the first, second, and third month of treatment, blood samples were collected at 9 am after an overnight fast.

    All samples were centrifuged immediately, and serum was stored at −70C until assayed for FSH, testosterone, inhibin B, and SHBG. Sperm was examined at baseline and at the end of the third month of treatment. All participants were properly informed about the purpose of the study and gave informed written consent. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the hospital.
    Hormonal Measurements

    We measured FSH (IU/L) using the FSH IRMA kits from Biosource Technologies (Vacaville, CA). Total testosterone (ng/dL) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kit, LI7603; Linear Chemicals). The serum levels of SHBG (nmol/L) were measured by ELISA (SHBG ELISA, MX 520 11; IBL, Hamburg, Germany). Inhibin B levels were measured using ELISA kits from Oxford Bio Innovation DSL Ltd (Upper Heyford, Bicester, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom).
    Semen Analysis

    Semen was collected by masturbation into sterilized glass containers after a 3- to 6-day abstinence. After evaluation of liquefaction and measurement of viscosity and volume, motility was measured, at room temperature (22 to 25C), 1 hour after ejaculation, as previously described elsewhere (12), (13), (14) and (15).

    Sperm morphology was evaluated from Papanicolaou-stained smears, and the classification of abnormal sperm forms was made according to the guidelines of the WHO (12). One hundred spermatozoa were studied from each semen specimen, and the same individual (D.P.) evaluated all smears. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was measured by the subjective method at room temperature (22 to 25C), and sperm concentration was determined in an undiluted semen specimen with the use of Makler's Counting Chamber (16) and (17).
    Statistical Analysis

    Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software, v. 13.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Two-tailed statistical significance was set at 5%. Categorical parameters (smoking status) were compared with Fischer's exact test. The normality of distribution was assessed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S) test. Values that did not fit the normal distribution were log-transformed.

    Mean was compared at baseline with Student's t-test and during treatment with general linear model–based two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA); time (treatment) was set as the within-groups factor and achievement of pregnancy as the between-subjects factor. Within-groups post hoc analysis was performed after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Between groups post hoc analysis was based on model parameter estimates.

    For those parameters where statistically significant or borderline differences or interactions between the men whose partners achieved pregnancy and those who failed were observed, binary logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess prognostic value.
    Results

    The basal epidemiologic and anthropometric features of the men studied are presented in Table 1. Twenty-two men had partners who achieved pregnancy within 2 months from the end of treatment (22%; 95% CI, 15.0–31.1%). The hormonal features before and during treatment with toremifene of the men whose partners eventually achieved pregnancy (group 1) and those whose partners did not (group 2) are summarized in Table 2, and their semen parameters are presented in Table 3. Men whose partners achieved pregnancy did not differ significantly in epidemiologic and somatotopic features from the other group (see Table 1).

    Table 1.

    Epidemiologic and anthropometric features of the men in couples who eventually achieved pregnancy (group 1) and those who did not (group 2).
    Group 1 (n = 22) Group 2 (n = 78) P
    Age (years) 32.86 1.14 33.72 0.57 .487
    Age of spouse (years) 30.23 0.98 29.77 0.58 .707
    Right testicle volume (mL) 18.86 0.79 18.33 0.46 .584
    Left testicle volume (mL) 18.91 0.83 17.49 0.47 .157
    Mean testicle volume (mL) 18.89 0.73 17.94 0.45 .316
    Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.23 0.83 26.85 0.41 .125
    Smoking status (smokers) 10/22 37/78 .532

    Note: Baseline is mean SEM. Statistical significance determined by Student's t-test after log-transformation, Fischer's exact test for smoking status.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.

    Table 2.

    Basic hormonal features before and during treatment with toremifene of the men in couples who eventually achieved pregnancy (group 1) and those who did not (group 2).
    FSH (mIU/mL) T (mmol/L) SHBG (nmol/L) FAI INH (pg/mL)
    Group 1 (n = 22)
    Baseline 4.99 0.54 5.10 0.33 21.82 1.47 96.55 13.28 148.54 15.62
    1 m 8.05 0.78 7.18 0.45 26.46 2.20 116.81 18.05 158.98 16.46
    2 m 8.36 0.91 7.28 0.72 25.25 1.42 109.00 12.05 163.57 17.15
    3 m 9.20 0.91 6.91 0.54 24.89 1.62 109.47 9.79 160.02 20.61
    Group 2 (n = 78)
    Baseline 6.78 0.61 4.85 0.86 17.65 0.65 96.55 13.27 146.28 8.64
    1 m 9.51 0.77 6.87 0.23 23.16 0.96 116.81 18.05 152.41 8.86
    2 m 10.22 0.74 6.91 0.26 21.73 0.84 109.00 12.05 156.33 9.48
    3 m 10.73 0.74 7.19 0.24 23.60 0.77 109.47 9.79 155.65 8.21
    Group
    F 3.432 .086 3.519 0.210 .078
    P .067 .770 0.064 0.648 .781
    Time
    F 87.480 32.814 12.793 3.982 3.385
    P <.001 <.001 <0.001 0.013 .025
    Group Time
    F .518 .848 1.657 0.474 .143
    P .670 .468 0.190 0.665 .909

    Note: Mean SEM. Statistical significance by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance after log-transformation. FAI, free androgen index; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; INH, inhibin B; T, testosterone; SHBG, sex hormone–binding globulin.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.

    Table 3.

    Semen parameters before and during treatment with toremifene of the men in couples who eventually achieved pregnancy (group 1) and those who did not (group 2).
    Sperm concentration ( 106/mL) Total sperm count ( 106) Spermatozoal motility (%) Normal sperm forms (%)
    Group 1 (n = 22)
    Baseline 29.48 4.04 109.62 16.21 39.97 3.43 23.86 3.32
    3 m 45.57 4.13 171,58 22.88 49.76 1.91 37.23 3.02
    Group 2 (n = 78)
    Baseline 26.86 1.79 91.71 7.19 35.94 1.62 21.67 1.29
    3 m 38.19 2.46 121.71 8.89 45.02 1.62 29.92 1.57
    Group
    F 1.349 4.223 2.209 2.726
    P .248 .043 .140 .102
    Time
    F 70.287 30.417 32.612 62.905
    P <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
    Group Time
    F 2.123 3.674 .046 3.510
    P .148 .058 .831 .064

    Note: Mean SEM. Statistical significance by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance after log-transformation.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.

    Effect of Treatment

    During treatment with toremifene, a significant increase in circulating levels of FSH (Fig. 1), testosterone, and inhibin B levels was observed (P<.001 for FSH, and T, P<.05 for inhibin-B; Table 2). SHBG levels (P<.001) and free androgen index (FAI) values (P<.05) (Fig. 2) levels was observed. The number of spermatozoa per mL, as well as per ejaculation, and the percentage of spermatozoa with normal motility and morphology were also significantly increased at 3 months (P<.001; Table 3).



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    Figure 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels (mean SEM) of the men whose partners eventually achieved pregnancy and those whose partners did not, before and during treatment with toremifene. *P<.05 versus previous value, †P <.05 between the men whose partners became pregnant and those whose partners did not.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.



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    Figure 2. Inhibin B (INH) levels (mean SEM) of the men whose partners eventually achieved pregnancy and those whose partners did not, before and during treatment with toremifene.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.

    The increase in FSH levels was basically observed during the first (P<.001) and second (P<.05) months of treatment, whereas the change during the last month was not significant. Testosterone (T) and SHBG levels (P<.001), as well as FAI values (P<.05), were significantly increased only during the first month (P<.001), while the increase in SHBG levels was significant during both the first and second month (P<.001); no significant change in T levels, SHBG concentration, or FAI was observed during the second and third month of treatment.
    Differences between Men Whose Partners Achieved Pregnancy and Those Whose Partners Did Not

    Overall, FSH levels were borderline higher in those men whose partners did not achieve pregnancy compared with those whose partners did (P=.067; see Table 2, Fig. 1). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant at the end of treatment (P<.05; see Fig. 1). Likewise, the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculation was, overall, statistically significantly higher in men whose partners achieved pregnancy (P<.05; see Table 2, Fig. 3). This difference was, again, statistically significant at 3 months (P<.05) but not at baseline (see Fig. 3).



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    Figure 3. Total number of spermatozoa (SZ) per ejaculation (mean SEM) of the men whose partners eventually achieved pregnancy and those whose partners did not, before and after 3-month-treatment with toremifene. *P <.05 versus previous value. †P <.05 between the men whose partners became pregnant and those whose partners did not.

    Farmakiotis. Toremifene in male infertility. Fertil Steril 2007.

    A borderline interaction between time and treatment outcome (pregnancy or no pregnancy) was observed with respect to the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculation (P=.058; see Table 2, Fig. 3) and the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology (P=.064; see Table 2). Men whose partners achieved pregnancy had a statistically significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology at the end of treatment (P<.05).

    In univariate logistic regression analysis, FSH levels (B = −1.894 0.959), sperm count per ejaculation (B = 0.006 0.003), and the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology (B = 0.04 0.02) after treatment had a statistically significant prognostic value for the achievement of pregnancy (P<.05). In multivariate logistic regression, FSH levels at 3 months were the most statistically significant independent parameter of the three (B = −1.73 1.02, P=.089).
    PharmD

  6. Discussion

    Tamoxifen citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), has been proposed as an empiric treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia because of its stimulatory action on gonadotropin secretion and its postulated direct effects on Leydig cell function and 5α-dihydrotestosterone production in seminiferous tubules and epididymis (5), (6), (10), (11) and (12). Based on the above evidence, the present study was designed to investigate whether toremifene, another compound from the same category (13), has a beneficiary effect on the main semen parameters as well.

    In the present study, a statistically significant increase in serum FSH was observed after administration of toremifene at a dose of 60 mg daily. This increase was more marked at the end of the first month of treatment; FSH levels were also statistically significantly increased after one additional month of treatment, reaching a plateau after the end of the second month with no statistically significant increase during the last month of toremifene administration (see Table 2, Fig. 1). This increase should be attributed to the well-known anti-estrogenic properties of SERMs in general (3) and toremifene in specific (18) and (19). The stimulatory effect of SERMs on hypophyseal gonadotropin secretion has been proposed as a possible mechanism for its beneficial effect on semen quality (5).

    Toremifene administration also induced a statistically significant increase in total testosterone levels, which was again significant only during the first month of treatment, reaching a plateau afterward (see Table 2). The increased gonadotropin secretion could be the reason for this observed increase in total testosterone levels (1) and (3). However, it should be noted that SERMs have also been reported to have direct stimulating effects on Leydig cell function (20) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone production in seminiferous tubules and epididymis (5) and (21).

    Despite the increase in testosterone levels, which would be expected to suppress SHBG production by the liver (22), the levels of this globulin were statistically significantly increased during the first and the second months of toremifene administration (see Table 2). These results are indicative of the estrogenic activity of toremifene at the liver, which is consistent with previous reports on SERM properties (23).

    An interesting finding of this study, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported, was the statistically significant increase in circulating inhibin B after toremifene administration (see Table 2, Fig. 2). Inhibin production by the testes is stimulated by FSH; moreover, inhibin secretion has been proposed as a reliable index of Sertoli cell function. Therefore, the increase of inhibin levels observed in the present study could be attributed to both increased FSH secretion (see Table 2, Fig. 1) and the potential beneficiary effect of SERMs on testicular function (5), (20) and (21).

    Toremifene administration for a period of 3 months resulted in a statistically significant improvement of all three main semen parameters, namely, sperm count (see Table 3, Fig. 3), motility, and morphology (see Table 3). It should be noted that, although tamoxifen has also been shown to induce a statistically significant increase in spermatozoa count, this particular SERM has not been shown to induce any marked changes in motility and morphology (6) and (7).

    The partners of 22 men achieved pregnancy within 2 months from the end of treatment. At baseline, these men presented with lower serum FSH levels compared with those whose partners did not achieve pregnancy but not statistically significantly so. Although treatment with toremifene induced a statistically significant increase in FSH levels in both groups, FSH levels were statistically significantly lower (P<.05) in men whose partners achieved pregnancy at the end of the third month of treatment (see Fig. 1). We postulate that lower FSH levels in the men whose partners achieved pregnancy are due to a more functional negative feedback from the testes, thus reflecting better testicular response to treatment. This trend was also apparent in the higher levels of inhibin observed in the group of men whose partners eventually became pregnancy, although a level of statistical significance was not reached.

    At baseline, no statistically significant differences in the three main semen parameters of sperm count, motility, and morphology were observed between men whose partners achieved pregnancy and those whose partners did not, although there was a trend for increased values in the former group. Notably, total sperm count as well as spermatozoa morphology was improved with toremifene administration; this change was more marked in the group of men whose partners achieved pregnancy (see Table 3, Fig. 3). Moreover, total sperm count and spermatozoa morphology at the end of treatment had statistically significant prognostic value for the achievement of pregnancy within the subsequent 2 months. This finding is again consistent with better testicular functional response in the subgroup of men whose partners achieved pregnancy.

    Conclusively, the present study shows that toremifene administration for a period of 3 months in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia results in statistically significant improvements in all three main semen parameters of sperm count, motility, and morphology, mediated by increased gonadotropin secretion and possibly a direct beneficial effect of toremifene on the testes. It is possible, therefore, that this particular SERM could be useful as an initial approach in the treatment of subfertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia. Nevertheless, the precise standards of treatment need to be further investigated by randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
    PharmD

  7. Lastly, this is the most important statement I saw:


    "It should be noted that, although tamoxifen has also been shown to induce a statistically significant increase in spermatozoa count, this particular SERM has not been shown to induce any marked changes in motility and morphology (6) and (7)."
    PharmD
  

  
 

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