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Hope this stuff works

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    Hope this stuff works


    Well I just picked up some stuff from bruce at LS and all i can say is I hope this stuff works. I picked up some NPA, SOE and some chikara..so if anyone else has had any experience with any of these I would greatly appreciate some success stories..if nothing else then to comfort my mind for blowing 100$ on something I can't say I have a lot of faith in...yet...

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    I had marginal success with just a sample pack (but still not convinced as of yet).

    Here is a set of articles from Avant that is a good read:


    The Call of Pheromones
    by Ji-Yong David Chung


    In Search of the Love Potion

    In the course of human history, many have searched for substances and procedures to enhance their reproductive potential. One strategy has been to augment one’s libido via consumption of aphrodisiacs, which include champagne, oysters, “Spanish fly?, etc. More recently, the scientific community has contributed in advancing the cause with drugs such as Viagra, Cialis, and Levitrol, all of which improve sexual performance.



    Another approach to expanding one’s mating potential is to increase the chances of attracting those whom one desires. In such context, aphrodisiacs are virtually useless. While it is possible for one to slip into his unsuspecting dinner companion’s drink a dash of a strong aphrodisiac, to transform her or him into a horny wood nymph, such methods of seduction have three drawbacks. First, convincing another of becoming the dinner companion is usually more difficult than seducing someone who already has accepted the dinner invitation. Second, it may gnaw at one’s conscience. Third, such seductive methods have not proven to be practical because the alleged aphrodisiac may derive its potency from being a placebo and thus lose its putative powers upon administration. Additionally, the “victim? may eventually discover the low-handed maneuver and put to rest all romantic possibilities. Finally, the victim may become so aroused that she may run from the dinner table, only to avail herself to one of her ex-boyfriends. In summary, the use of aphrodisiacs does not seem apropos for the purpose of attracting a mate.



    Currently, the most popular methods for becoming attractive include: becoming rich or socially influential, visiting a local plastic surgeon, dressing in fashionable clothes and make-up, and/or working out religiously. Unfortunately, each of the preceding activities requires much effort, risk, or luck. For example, ownership of great wealth or high status can render men more attractive, but its acquisition generally requires either an extraordinary amount of effort or luck. A local plastic surgeon can assist Joe Donut in improving his appearance, but the patient must incur significant risk, pain, and cost.



    Perhaps, in the context of Darwinian evolution, it is only fair that those who are willing to entertain hardship or to incur risk can legitimize claims to mating privileges. Human nature being what it is however, resents such fairness. It seeks short cuts. It searches for paths to render oneself more attractive, to give oneself advantage over his or her competitors. It fantasizes about magical substances that will reduce the amount of work necessary in finding an attractive mate.



    And so too do we search for something called human pheromone, which promise with all sincerity that one bathed in its ‘scents’ will be instantly transformed into Casanova or Venus.


    Introducing Pheromones

    Is there any validity to the claim that pheromones can act as an attractant? One famous “experiment? which attempted to answer the preceding question involved two pairs of twins—one pair consisting of males and other pair females. ABC News [1] conducted the experiment using the following procedure: one member of each pair wore an alleged pheromone and other member of each pair, a placebo. Next, each of the twins took turns standing at a noticeable location in a club. After a couple of hours, each experimental subject tallied the number of times he or she was approached by club patrons. The experiment showed that (1) the male pheromone wearer was approached approximately the same number of times as the male wearing a placebo; and that (2) the female pheromone wearer was approached a far greater number of times than her sister who wore the placebo. In summary, for one of the twin sisters at least, the substance claimed as pheromone seemed to have increased her attractiveness.


    Background

    While the above “experiment? raises intriguing possibilities, unfortunately, it also exposes problems with non-scientific investigative approach. Simply put, the ABC News piece contained too many holes to serve as a reliable basis for concluding the existence of human pheromones. Firstly, as an “experiment,? it failed to provide statistical significance. Secondly, it failed to account for various psychological issues that could arise for the twins. For instance, it was never clear if the psychological states of the subjects were changing as the experiment progressed, depending on how many times they were approached. Such mood change could have altered their behavior, which in turn might have subtly augmented their attractiveness beyond the level afforded by the pheromone alone. Thirdly, other independent researchers would not be able to reproduce the results of the experiment, because the pheromone ingredients were kept secret.



    To have a better understanding of pheromones, rather than putting a premium in sensationalist journalism like that detailed above, it makes more sense to carefully examine the landmark papers that enjoy high status as scientific publication. To set the stage, it is helpful to begin the traversal with the definition of “pheromone? and cover in broad strokes the brief history of pheromones.



    To start, what are pheromones exactly? Surprisingly, “pheromones? are not something specifically related to sex or reproduction. The term designates a chemical substance that, when secreted by an organism, sends information to other members of the same specie. The broad definition has proven, coincidentally, consistent with many later experiments.



    Early recorded research studies on pheromones, conducted during the late 19th and early 20th century, involved chemicals emitted by female moths for attracting males. Other early studies that were to follow generally investigated insects. And, those studies decisively showed that males of one insect species were attracted to a particular chemical emitted by the females of the same species. As one might imagine, the studies were conducted for formulating effective insecticides.



    Subsequently, researchers shifted their attention from insects to mammals. One unfortunate species that received much torture in the name of science was the boar. The contemporaneous papers on boars generally mentioned the following phenomenon: estrous sows immediately assumed the mating stance upon detection of androstenone, a chemical substance found in the saliva of male boars. Subsequent studies examining androstenone’s general effects in detail reported similar findings: having detected androstenone, estrous sows exhibited physiological and behavioral changes.



    Predictably, human pheromone studies followed. Many researchers began to apply androstenone and other related molecules to human subjects. In effect, a few of the scientists were attempting to arouse and attract women using boar pheromones. The research results were contradictory and confusing.



    The studies did manage to produce a number of useful results. The human research studies were able to identify five steroid derivatives as potential human pheromones. They are: androstenone, estratetraenol, androstadienone, andrestenol and androsterone. Currently, while the five candidate pheromones do seem to affect human social behavior in some way, their true roles as pheromones are not clear. Each of these pheromones, along with androstenone, is discussed below.


    Androstenone (5a-androst-16-en-3-one)

    Since its first discovery in male boar saliva, androstenone has also been found in human urine samples. Androstenone is noteworthy, despite the dearth of respectable human studies, because of its widespread reputation in the Internet as the human female attractant.


    Many Internet sources cite experiments involving choice tests, in which a particular item of use is sprayed with androstenone. The women subjects are then asked to use or choose among a number of identical objects (e.g., chairs, photographs). According to the sources, the female subjects favor those objects sprayed with androstenone, while male subjects disfavor them. Despite the extravagant stories however, the sources generally fail to support their claims.


    Among many Pubmed publications, only two by Thorne et al. [2] and Fislinger et al. [3] mention androstenone’s efficacy in modifying one’s social behavior. In Thorne et al.’s study, women were asked to rate the desirability of male photographs while they were exposed to androstenone [2]. The study concluded that androstenone could increase the level of male attractiveness. It also conveniently explained away any anomalies by noting how menstrual cycles modulate women’s decisions.


    In Fislinger et al.’s experiment, male and female subjects took several psychological tests during their exposure to androstenone [3]. The males were asked to rate photographs of other men, while women were asked to rate fellow women. The men characterized the photographed males as being more passive, and the women rated themselves as less attractive than the control groups (i.e., those not exposed to androstenone). The study seemed to hint that androstenone functions as a “leadership? pheromone. However, the hint probably was not warranted, because no one really knows the effects of such pheromone. Perhaps the male subjects should have regarded the photographed men as more aggressive, since the subjects were not the source of androstenone.


    Even though the studies support the view that androstenone exerts its effect on women as an attractant pheromone, it is not entirely clear whether their views are fully justified.


    Androstenol (5-alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol)

    Androstenol is probably the second most significant pheromone candidate. Benton et al. [4], Gustavson et al. [5], and Cowley et al. [6] studied its effect on social behavior. Benton et al.’s study attempted to correlate the degree of sexual arousal in women, who were asked to read erotic material, with the presence of androstenol. The study concluded that androstenol did not directly affect women’s arousal levels.



    Gustavson et al. showed that androstenol exerts its influence in a choice test. Specifically, it demonstrated that men avoided restroom stalls sprayed with androstenol. Cowley et al. studied the non-sexual effects of androstenol on women. In its presence, women exhibited increased social interaction with men.



    As a whole, the experiments reveal that androstenol, while it probably does not affect women’s desire, leads to two different consequences in men and women. Its presence apparently guides men to curtail male-to-male interaction, while it induces women to become more open and receptive to males.


    Androsterone

    Among the purported pheromones, there is not much credible information about androsterone.



    Androstadienone (delta 4,16-androstadien-3-one) and estratetraenol (estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol)

    Androstadienone and estrtetraenol are special among pheromones, because they are associated with vomeronasal organ (VNO), which had been first designated by scientists as the mammalian pheromone detection system. In rats at least, the VNO proved to serve as a pheromone detector.



    As it turns out, the VNO in humans, which had long been thought to be non-existent or had atrophied, was found to respond to androstadienone and estratetranol [7], [8]. In fact, androstadienone and estratetraenol are the only two purported pheromones that have been shown to activate the VNO; androsterone, androstenone and androstenol do not trigger the human VNO. It should be noted that androstadienone and estratetraenol are gender-specific. That is, androstadienone stimulates only the male VNO and conversely for estratetraenol.



    It would seem conclusive from the above that androstadienone and estratetraenol are the human pheromones. However, it is no longer clear if the mammalian pheromone detection system consists only of the VNO. For example, Dorries et al. [9] were able to prove that androstenone, even in estrous female pigs who’s VNO cannot relay proper signals to their brains, exerts its effects and readies them for mating.



    Nonetheless, androstadienone still enjoys a special status among pheromones, because many studies related to the compound seem especially trustworthy. Jacobs et al. [10] and Lundstrom et al. [11] both have demonstrated androstadienone’s psychological effects. Specifically, in the presence of androstadienone, women are able to concentrate better and carry on their activities without deterioration in their moods, independent of menstrual cycle phases.



    Jacobs et al. further demonstrated physiological responses in the presence of androstadienone [12]. When the VNO detects androstadienone, it causes increased cerebral glucose utilization both in subcortical regions and in the neocortex, which are not exclusively associated with olfaction. These widely distributed changes are consistent with modulation in emotional states.



    Gulyas et al. conducted the most recent and noteworthy androstadienone study. They employed positron emission tomography (PET) to measure brain blood flow changes in subjects who were exposed to androstadienone. The increased blood flows in specific areas of the brain were consistent with what Jacobs et al. were able to demonstrate.


    Multi-Pheromone Hypothesis

    In the original insect experiments, scientists discovered one pheromone for each insect species. However, in humans, finding the sex pheromones (one for males and another for females) has proven elusive. Simply put, multiple chemicals seem to be at work, with each chemical affecting some aspect of human social behavior.


    There seem to be three general theories at this point: (1) the real sex pheromones have not yet been discovered (2) sexual attraction is the result of smaller subunits of behavior and thus can only be assembled by the use of multiple pheromones, each of which affect its own behavioral subunit and (3) sexual attraction is the result of specific social conditions, which can never be fully simulated by pheromones, and therefore, “sex attractants? do not exist.


    For the purpose of this article, there is little to discuss regarding the first theory, because the instant article is a review and does not describe a bleeding-edge experimental study. It suffices to note that, while there is a good chance that the sex pheromones have not yet been discovered, it should not come as surprise if the opposite were true. That is, if the second and the third theories were plausible.


    The second theory describes the situation in which there is no single sex attractant for each gender. The human pheromone system may be more complicated than those of insects; it suggests that many biochemicals may be involved in controlling and guiding human behavior. This is not so strange when one considers that the more advanced a species is in the evolutionary ladder, the more complicated its communication media. Given that human verbal and visual communication modes betray more complicated schemes than those of many other species, it should not come as a surprise if human pheromone systems also reveal greater complexity, with multiple pheromones acting in concert to elicit a particular set of actions.


    The third theory takes the position that there is a limit on what pheromones can do and that their powers are compromised by human social dependence. Again, the proposal should not strike one as far-fetched. It is not too difficult to see that the behavior of creatures at high rungs of the evolutionary ladder depends more on social context than those at lower ones. For example, wolves exhibit far greater situation-dependent behavior than ants. The human ability to cope with different social situations implies its ability to override and handle immediate stimuli, including those fueled by pheromones.



    Conclusion

    The current review has made a cursory examination of the following: (1) purposes behind pheromone studies (2) pheromone history and (3) a number of significant human research studies on candidate pheromones, including androstenone, andrestenol, androsterone, androstadienone and estratetraenol.


    Part II of this series will lightly sketch human sexual protocol as a subcomponent of broader social behavior. It will then attempt to explain how androstenone, androstenol, androstadienone and estratetraenol may perhaps serve social functions and thus, indirectly, facilitate human reproduction. It will also briefly revisit the possibility that the pair of real pheromones for attracting men and women have not yet been identified.

    Questions or Comments? CLICK HERE to pose your questions and receive live feedback from this article's author, as well as the Mind and Muscle staff and fellow readers!


    References

    [1] ABC News, "Sniffing Out a Mate" from the Pulse Program. Host Nancy Snyderman, M.D., on ABC News Saturday Night with Bill Ritter, March 28, 1998.



    [2] Thorne F, Neave N, Scholey A, Moss M, and Fink B. “Effects of putative male pheromones on female ratings of male attractiveness: influence of oral contraceptives and the menstrual cycle.? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002 Aug;23(4):291-7.



    [3] Filsinger EE, Braun JJ, and Monte WC, “Sex differences in response to the odor of alpha androstenone.? Percept Mot Skills. 1990 Feb;70(1):216-8.



    [4] Benton D and Wastell V “Effects of androstenol on human sexual arousal.?
    Biol Psychol. 1986 Apr;22(2):141-7.



    [5] Gustavson AR, Dawson ME, Bonett DG, “Androstenol, a putative human pheromone, affects human (Homo sapiens) male choice performance.? J Comp Psychol. 1987 Jun;101(2):210-2.



    [6] Cowley JJ and Brooksbank BW, “Human exposure to putative pheromones and changes in aspects of social behaviour.? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Oct;39(4B):647-59.



    [7] F Ruysch, Thesaurus Anatomicus, vol lll, Amsterdam: Wolters (1703) p 49



    [8] Grosser BI, Mont-Bloch L, and Jennings-White C, Berliner DL, “Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of androstadienone, a human pheromone.?
    Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000 Apr;25(3):289-99.



    [9] Dorries KM, Adkins-Regan E, and Halpern BP, “Sensitivity and behavioral responses to the pheromone androstenone are not mediated by the vomeronasal organ in domestic pigs.? Brain Behav Evol. 1997;49(1):53-62.



    [10] Jacob S, Garcia S, Hayreh D, and McClintock MK, “Psychological effects of musky compounds: comparison of androstadienone with androstenol and muscone.?
    Horm Behav. 2002 Nov;42(3):274-83.



    [11] Lundstrom JN, Goncalves M, Esteves F, and Olsson MJ, “Psychological effects of subthreshold exposure to the putative human pheromone 4,16-androstadien-3-one.?
    Horm Behav. 2003 Dec;44(5):395-401



    [12] Jacobs S, Kennunen LH, Metz J, Cooper M, and McClintock MK, “Sustained human chemosignal unconsciously alters brain function.? Neuroreport. 2001 Aug 8;12(11):2391-4.



    [13] Gulyas B, Keri S, O’Sullivan BT, Decety J, and Roland PE, “The putative pheromone androstadienone activates cortical fields in the human brain related to social cognition.? Neurochem Int. 2004 Jun;44(8):595-600.
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    The Call of Pheromones Part II
    by Ji-Yong David Chung

    Part I of the current article has covered the basic research studies on pheromones. Part II will attempt to make some sense of two or three candidate pheromones that have been mentioned in Part I.


    I. Psychology of Sexual Attraction, Androstadienone and Androstenol

    Just prior to its conclusion, Part I cursorily discussed whether more than just a pair of pheromones might be involved in sexual attraction. The idea that one chemical agent per gender is responsible for attraction has some support. Spencer et al. were able to show, with some persuasiveness, that lactating women produce chemo-signals that increase sexual motivation in other women [1]. Spencer et al. has not yet identified the specific chemical compound that elicits the effect. As for attracting men, it is worthwhile noting ABC’s Night Line short demonstration described in Part I, while lacking in scientific rigor, does seem to open doors to the possibility that a perfume spiked with pheromone may actually work as advertised.

    Unfortunately, the proposition that there exists one dominant pheromone pair (one pheromone per gender) seems to run counter to what has been observed in research studies, mostly with regard to attracting women. Each putative female attractant pheromone seems to affect only a limited aspect of a woman’s behavior.

    For example, consider androstadienone and androstenol. Androstadienone has been shown to improve a woman’s general mood [2] and androstenol has been shown, perhaps not as conclusively, to increase a woman’s tendency to interact socially with men [3]. If the chemistry of sexual attraction involves states of mind, such as being relaxed or being open to men’s advances, then androstadienone and androstenol both may help in setting the stage for physical attraction.


    One might argue that sexual attraction should be a simple matter of biology and that it should not be difficult to induce. However, such does not seem to be the case. For example, consider drugs that help sexual performance. Scientists have formulated Viagra for men; however, they have not yet been able to formulate a similar drug for women. For men, administration of Viagra results in an immediate effect. In women, many drugs that have been tested fail to produce consistent results. What is evident from the research on sexual performance drugs is that a woman’s arousal depends much more on a complex blend of emotional states [5], [6].


    The above observations naturally lead to the following questions: (1) what emotions need to be induced in a woman to set the stage for physical attraction, and (2) whether pheromones can have any role in triggering the right combination of emotions. With respect to the first question, there is no landmark study that has systematically analyzed the emotional prerequisites for sexual attraction. Generally, Freudian theories, which occupy a significant part of today’s psychology, view the sexual drive as the basic psychic energy that prompts an individual to act sexually. The theories do not dissect sexual drive or analyze it in its sub-constituent form. Where there is sexual drive, a Freudian would presume, there is sexual “act.? Unfortunately, it is fairly obvious that the presence of sexual drive in women and men does not translate to sexual attraction; in that regard, Freudian psychology does not provide the framework in which one can analyze physical attraction.


    With no authorities to cite and no studies to review, answering the question “what emotional states are required for producing sexual attraction? feeds the fire of speculation. Still, it might be worthwhile to consider different answers to the question, because it provides a possible rationale for concocting a pheromone cocktail.


    To start feeding the fire of speculation, one can suggest three emotions as possible prerequisites for physical attraction. They are: (1) feeling safe (2) feeling “submissive? or “dominant? and (3) feeling lust (“sexual drive?). That is, to increase the odds that a typical heterosexual woman feels attracted to a man, all three of the emotions must be present at the same time. The terms “safety? or “lust? are self-explanatory. “Submissive or dominance? requires additional explanation.


    The submissive or dominant state refers to a role that one gender of mammal specie apparently assumes during mating. For example, consider canines. Even when neutered, male canines will attempt to hump an object that they consider as an intrusion into their own territory. Many veterinarians and trainers commonly refer to such attempts as “dominance? behavior [7]. Another example of dominant/submissive behavior can be observed among African elephants. When the alpha male elephant in musth approaches a female, she will initially post a ritual resistance by running away. She will eventually allow him to overtake her and surrender. The male will “dominate? her and claim her as his prize [8], [9].


    The above examples by themselves do not provide proof that “submission? or “domination? by males is required for the establishment of attraction among humans. However, one might be well advised to remember that people do betray dominance/submissive behavior in sexual context. For example, consider sexual fantasy literature that features role-playing games such as “S and M.? The rhetorical question is: why would the games of dominance and submission be relatively wide spread among people, unless the roles were somehow known through their instinct? Furthermore, is it a pure coincidence that many mammalian species exhibit analogous behavior? [10], [11].


    If the above-mentioned three emotional states do facilitate physical attraction, then the next question has to address whether the alleged pheromones might provide help in eliciting the three emotional states.


    First, consider androstadienone. Spencer et al. [1] showed that in the presence of the chemical, women’s moods did not worsen. The subjects were able to focus on their daily activity without problems. This is in contrast to the control group, which experienced mood deterioration. While not conclusive, it seems that androstadienone affects the sense of security (“safety?).


    Second, consider androstenol. In Benton’s experiment, androstenol caused females to feel “submissive? [12]. Third, consider androstenone. With Fislinger, androstenone was supposed to have increased, in the minds of women who were exposed to androstenone, the level of attractiveness of male photographs. Thus, perhaps androstenone affects the level of sexual drive.


    In view of the preceding, it is possible that a high concentration mixture consisting of androstadienone, andrdostenone, and androstenol could concurrently elicit the three emotional states that facilitate physical attraction. Note that to concoct a proper blend of pheromones, one would need to consider the inverted U curve effect, the ideal concentration ratios of various pheromones, the effective distance under which the pheromone mixture could exert its effects, and the side effects from applying them (such as offending other men).


    Social Context

    One aspect of pheromones that has not been discussed is the social context in which attractions can occur. For instance, consider Romeo and Juliet. If Juliet were an older woman who fully appreciated her social standing, she might not have considered Romeo her potential lover. Romeo’s status as the member of Montague may have removed him from the set of all her potential mates.



    The support for the above view is based on some evidence that also supports the following proposition: mating does not affect only the parties that are about to engage in sexual activities but also affects people around the couple. For example consider coral-dwelling fish, gobiodon erythrospilus. During its development, exposure to fish of one gender will cause a young fish to develop into the gender opposite that of its adult partners. The resulting group of fish is more likely to have an equal number of males and females, and therefore, it has greater reproductive capacity [14]. In addition, the presence of adult fish also speeds up the developmental rate and size of the young.



    The study above teaches that mating is governed partially by the reproductive needs of the group to which the young fish belongs. Furthermore, it illustrates a mechanism for alerting young members in the group about the group’s reproductive capacity. When the reproductive capacity decreases due to the imbalance in the number of male and female fish, young fish compensate by evolving into the gender to which fewer number of fish belong.



    The study leads one to wonder if the preceding concept is applicable to humans in some way. It also leads one to wonder whether people’s mating activity itself could be viewed in the context of society. Furthermore, it leads one to ask how a pheromone would affect group behavior.



    Unfortunately, no one knows the extent to which pheromones might be involved. However, there is one example which is related to women’s menstruation. It has been shown that when women are in close proximity to each other for extended duration, their menstrual cycles will synchronize [15], [16]. Some have explained this phenomenon as follows: when all women menstruate at the same time, they also emit pheromones which signal the mating readiness of the group as a whole. The synchronization is desirable, because the concurrence of the pheromone emission by many would amplify the mating signal and therefore draw an increased number of male suitors. This is analogous to the way in which male crickets will synchronize their mating songs to attract female crickets.



    Another way in which pheromones could govern social behavior is by feedback. To explain the idea, consider the study by Gustavson et al. The study described an avoidance behavior; it showed that men were biased against using bathroom stalls which were sprayed with androstenol. If androstenol indeed elicits the same effects under normal, real world situations, then androstenol would also affect how men would behave with respect to territory. One can easily see that such behavior would lead to changes in a male’s mating pattern, which in turn, could lead to different ovulation cycles for females that are in his proximity. The women’s pheromones would eventually affect the man’s mood, his plasma testosterone concentration, and finally, his own production of androstenol.


    III. Do Publicly Marketed Pheromones Work?

    Having covered many of the issues related to pheromones, it is perhaps time to visit one important question for those who are interested in the practical aspects of pheromones: do pheromone products work? Unfortunately, no one really knows; feedback that is posted in various Internet pheromone forums is unreliable and not trustworthy. Furthermore, much of the feedback indicates that many pheromone products may not contain the active ingredients.



    The discussion on concocting a pheromone cocktail for attracting women, while it has attempted to provide a rationale for making an attractant mixture, is not much more than a hypothesis. It speaks of possibilities but not probabilities.



    Those who want to experiment with pheromone products must assume significant risk. There is simply insufficient evidence that perfumes spiked with a pheromone blend will actually attract members of the opposite sex.


    Conclusion

    Mostly, Part II has covered the reasons why trying to use a pheromone mixture, rather than a single pheromone pair, might be viable. Next, it considered the role of pheromone in the context of society. Finally, it briefly noted that pheromones could be modulated by external circumstances, or feedback.


    It is unfortunate that not much concrete evidence can be presented in support of the use of pheromones to attract men or women. Currently, there are not enough studies that support the practical use of pheromones.


    Does that mean sexual attractant pheromones do not exist?


    A few years ago, one of the Washington Post reporters interviewed Jake LaMotta, a middleweight champion boxer during the late 1940’s. He was also the subject of Martin Scorcese’s film “Raging Bull.? During the interview, the reporter noticed that women who passed by Jake would hit on him. After the interview, the reporter asked one of the women whether Jake LaMotta was sexy. She answered that she could not put her finger on it, but there was something about Jake that drew women in.


    Was it his appearance? Was it his voice? No one can know for sure, but if Jake did possess an indefinable animal magnetism, it would not be surprising to find that his charm was the call of pheromones.

    Questions or Comments? Click Here to pose your questions and receive live feedback from this article's author, as well as the Mind and Muscle staff and fellow readers!




    References

    [1] Spencer NA, McClintock MK, Sellergren SA, Bullivant S, Jacob S, Mennella JA. Social chemosignals from breastfeeding women increase sexual motivation,
    The Institute for Mind and Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
    PMID: 15325237



    [2] Jacob S, McClintock MK., Psychological state and mood effects of steroidal chemosignals in women and men, Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

    PMID: 10712859



    [3] Cowley JJ, Brooksbank BW., Human exposure to putative pheromones and changes in aspects of social behaviour. Department of Psychology, University College London, England.
    PMID: 1892794

    [4] Gustavson AR, Dawson ME, Bonett DG., Androstenol, a putative human pheromone, affects human (Homo sapiens) male choice performance.
    PMID: 3608426



    [5] Basson R., Pharmacotherapy for sexual dysfunction in women. UBC Department of Psychiatry, BC Center for Sexual Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, Canada.

    PMID: 15155107



    [6] Chivers ML, Rieger G, Latty E, Bailey JM., A sex difference in the specificity of sexual arousal.
    PMID: 15482445



    [7] Richards M., http://www.vetinfo.com/dhump.html, May 6, 1992



    [8] http://www.dc-adnet.com/Photo-Info/wildlife.htm,



    [9] http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/v...havard/MS.html



    [10] Zurbriggen EL, Yost MR., Power, desire, and pleasure in sexual fantasies.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA.

    PMID: 15497057



    [11] Wilson MS, Liu JH., Social dominance orientation and gender: the moderating role of gender identity. School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    PMID: 12869241



    [12] Benton D., The influence of androstenol - a putative human pheromone - on mood throughout the menstrual cycle.
    PMID: 6891608

    [13] Filsinger EE, Braun JJ, Monte WC, Linder DE., Human (Homo sapiens) responses to the pig (Sus scrofa) sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one.
    PMID: 6744816


    [14] Hobbs JP, Munday PL, Jones GP., Social induction of maturation and sex determination in a coral reef fish. School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, Centre for Coral Reef Biodiversity, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

    PMID: 15475329

    [15] Stern K, McClintock MK., Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    PMID: 9515961



    [16] Morofushi M, Shinohara K, Funabashi T, Kimura F., Positive relationship between menstrual synchrony and ability to smell 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol. Department of Physiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.
    PMID: 10944504
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    Klown's Avatar
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    Thanks Bobo. I think I ve read the thing 3 times and I think I have a better idea of what I am getting into.
  5. I know nothing...
    DmitryWI's Avatar
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    just remember "more isn't better" with pheromones, start with smallest dose possible and try one product at the time. And keep us posted
  6. I am faster than 80% of all snakes
    Dwight Schrute's Avatar
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    Had more "positive changes" happen last night
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    chrisme20's Avatar
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    nice reading
  

  
 

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