Lean Gains: Comprehensive Fact Sheet & Conclusions
- 05-25-2011, 02:51 AM
Lean Gains: Comprehensive Fact Sheet & Conclusions
Given the seemingly growing interest in LG and Intermittent Fasting, I wanted to put together a list of conclusions and rationales that MB has put forth in his many blog posts. I love reading his detailed explanations, but also understand that not everybody has the same interest and/or time to do the same. As a result, this thread is dedicated to identifying the primary "take home points" and significant conclusions/assertions spread throughout leangains.com and MB's many off-blog interviews and discussions.
This thread is meant to run parallel with Kleen's LG/IF discussion thread -- NOT REPLACE IT! Kleen has nicely laid out a "how to" guide that has been complimented with a ton of user input regarding LG/IF methodology and how to succeed with LG. Instead, this thread is aimed to lay out the research and subsequent conclusions that ultimately manifested in the LG protocols -- essentially, the research-oriented "why" aspects surrounding the development of LG. Additionally, I'll link the information to where I found it so those of you who are interested in reading more can investigate the information for yourselves. This compilation may be particularly useful for individuals new to the LG/IF game that want to better understand the reasons it "works" for so many of us.
I'll be combing through MB's posts and discussions and continuously updating and expanding this list until I've covered the majority of his analyses. This will take a little while to fully take form, but I should end up with a concise list of the primary LG arguments that will certainly make discussing the concept significantly easier. I know it will help me familiarize myself with the information even more, and hopefully it proves information to a few of you as well!
- 05-25-2011, 02:56 AM
May 25, 2011
(1) Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equally energetic restricted diet. Essentially, eating several small meals does not inherently enhance fat loss in comparison to eating a few large meals. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2009/12/new...ncy-study.html]
(2) You cannot "trick" the body in to burning more or less calories by manipulating meal frequency. Meal frequency does not affect total TEF (Thermic Effect of Food). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html]
(3) Meal frequency has essentially no impact on the magnitude of weight or fat loss except for its effects on food intake. If a high meal frequency makes people eat more, they will gain weight because they are eating more. Conversely, if a high meal frequency makes people eat less, they will lose weight because they are eating less. The concept has nothing to do with “stoking the metabolic fire” or affecting metabolic rate on a day to day basis. We conclude that any effects of meal pattern on the regulation of body weight are likely to be mediated through effects on the food intake side of the energy balance equation. [Reference: http://www.bodyrecomposition.com/res...html#more-1389
(4) In recent studies, three high-protein meals lead to greater fullness and appetite control when compared to six high-protein meals. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html
(5) Blood sugar is actually extremely well-regulated and maintained within a tight range in healthy people. Maintaining blood sugar is of very high priority and we have developed efficient pathways that will make it happen even under extreme conditions. It would take no less than three days or 84 hours of fasting to reach blood sugar levels low enough to affect your mental state, and even this is temporary, as your brain adapts to the use of ketones. During 48 hours of fasting or severe calorie deprivation, blood sugar is maintained within a normal range and no measure of cognitive performance is negatively affected. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html
(6) Short-term fasting actually increases metabolic rate. Recent studies indicate that the earliest evidence for lowered metabolic rate in response to fasting occurred after 60 hours (-8% in resting metabolic rate), while others show metabolic rate as not negatively impacted until 72-96 hours of fasting. Recent studies report an increase in metabolic rate of of 3.6% - 10% after fasting for no more than 36-48 hours (Mansell PI, et al, and Zauner C, et al). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html
(7) It’s false to assume that the body can only use a certain amount of protein per meal. Meals high in protein (30g+) simply take a longer time to digest and ultimately be utilized in comparison to smaller meals. For some concrete numbers, digestion of a standard meal is still incomplete after five hours (Splanchnic and leg substrate exchange after ingest... [Diabetes. 1999] - PubMed result). During this time, amino acids are being released into the bloodstream and absorbed into muscles after a fairly “average” meal of 600 kcal, 75g CHO, 37g PRO, and 17g FAT. The body can utilize far more than 30g protein consumed in one sitting. [Reference: (1) http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...debunked.html; (2) http://www.wannabebig.com/diet-and-n...a-single-meal/
(8) Short-term fasting does not result in muscle catabolism. Only in prolonged fasting does protein catabolism become an issue, and only after stored liver glycogen becomes depleted. In fact, it's no stretch to assume that 100 grams of protein as part of a mixed meal at the end of the day would be releasing amino acids into the bloodstream for 16-24 hours after ingestion. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html]
(9) The belief that fasting increases cortisol levels has no scientific basis whatsoever. Short-term fasting has no effect on average cortisol levels. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html
(10) Training in the fasted state does not negatively affect performance during weight training. Recent studies report that strength and lower intensity endurance training not negatively affected -- even in extreme setting such as 3.5 days of fasting (Influence of a 3.5 day fast on physical performanc... [Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1987] - PubMed result). However, additional research is clear on the benefits of pre-workout and post-workout amino acid intake for maximizing protein synthesis. [Reference: [url=http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top-ten-fasting-myths-debunked.html[/url]
(11) The consumption of amino acids prior to weight training increases metabolic rate (resting energy expenditure) and appears to help facilitate the loss of body fat. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2009/12/pre...etabolism.html]
(12) Studies suggest that eating largely at night as opposed to earlier in the day has a neutral or positive effect on body fat percentage and other health parameters (Body composition, nutrient intake and physical act... [Singapore Med J. 2007] - PubMed result). Many studies show no effect on weight loss or weight gain attributable to eating later in the day (Chronobiological aspects of weight loss in obesity... [Chronobiol Int. 1987] - PubMed result). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/10/top...-debunked.html]
May 26, 2011
(13) A recent study reports that consuming caffeine AFTER training (post-workout) actually improves muscle glycogen resynthesis (High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after ex... [J Appl Physiol. 2008] - PubMed result). Compared to a group consuming only CHO, the second group, who consumed the same amount of CHO + 8 mg/kg of caffeine, demonstrated a +66% increase in overall rate of resynthesis. [Reference: http://twitter.com/martinberkhan]
(14) Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men and negatively affects hormone physiology (Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men). Nocturnal wakefulness increased morning plasma ghrelin concentrations, nocturnal and daytime circulating concentrations of thyreotropin, cortisol, and norepinephrine, as well as morning postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. Simply put, a lack of sleep can wreak havoc on your hormones and physiology. [Reference: http://twitter.com/martinberkhan]
(15) A recent study suggests that an intermittent calorie restriction diet may be more effective than a daily calorie restriction diet in preserving lean mass when losing weight and fat mass. It is noted however that both intermittent and daily calorie restriction diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass (Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: whi... [Obes Rev. 2011] - PubMed result). [Reference: http://twitter.com/martinberkhan]
May 27, 2011
(16) Consuming PRO in an amount of 2g/kg of body weight is plenty for muscle synthesis. Studies indicate that consuming PRO in excess of this ratio is unlikely to accelerate muscle gain assuming an individual meets his or her energy requirements. [Reference: http://www.reddit.com/r/Fitness/comm...ements/c1wb9t0]
(17) While it does not appear that consuming PRO in excess of 2g/kg of body weight is beneficial for additional muscle synthesis, it is beneficial regarding satiety and body fat control chiefly due to the very high thermic effect of protein. [Reference: http://www.reddit.com/r/Fitness/comm...ements/c1wb9t0]
May 28, 2011
(18) Alcohol does not affect satiety like other nutrients and is ultimately disadvantageous regarding hunger control (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17142135). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(19) Studies have consistently shown that moderate drinkers live longer than non-drinkers (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10636266). This can be mainly attributed to a lowered risk of cardiovascular disease. However, alcohol also contributes to a healthier and disease-free life by protecting against Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, the common cold, different types of cancers,depression and many other Western diseases (multiple sources via following reference). It can almost be said beyond doubt that moderate alcohol consumption is healthier than complete abstinence. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(20) The negative effects of alcohol on testosterone and recovery has been grossly exaggerated by the fitness mainstream. You need to drink a ton of alcohol (~120 grams or 10 beers) in order to significantly lower testosterone levels. This amount of alcohol can lower testosterone by 23% for up to 16 hours after the drinking binge (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2128439). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(21) When it comes to recovery after strength training, moderate alcohol consumption (60-90 g alcohol) does not accelerate exercise-induced muscle damage or affect muscle strength (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2299844; ). However, it is worth noting that conflicting evidence does exist regarding the topic (multiple sources via following reference). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(22) The effect of alcohol on muscle protein synthesis is unknown in normal human subjects. It is not unlikely to assume that a negative effect exists, but it is very unlikely that it is of such profound magnitude as some people advocate. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(23) Carbs and protein suppress fat oxidation via an elevation in insulin. However, these macronutrients do not contribute to fat synthesis in any meaningful way by themselves. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(24) Alcohol gets immediate priority over all other macronutrients, simultaneously halting fat oxidation and suppressing carbohydrate and protein oxidation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11115785;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3280601). [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
(25) Despite being a potent inhibitor of lipolysis, alcohol/acetate alone will not cause fat gain in and of itself -- it's all the junk people eat in conjunction with the consumption of alcohol that causes fat gain. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/07/tru...nd-muscle.html]
June 10, 2011
(26) The ratio between b2-receptors and a2-receptors determines how easy it is to facilitate fat loss from one region of the body. The critical difference between easier "regular" fat and "stubborn" fat is that regular fat has a higher number of beta-2 receptors in comparison to alpha-2 receptors, while the opposite is true in stubborn fat. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(27) Women have up to 9 times as many a2-receptors than b2-receptors present in fat located in the hip and thigh regions. In men, a2-receptors also outnumber b2-receptors in fat located in the lower abdominal and lower back regions. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html -- via Lyle McDonald]
(28) Fasting increases catecholamine levels -- subsequently triggering fat mobilization by activating hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). HSL then shuttles the fat out of the cell to be utilized as energy.[Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(29) Fasting increases abdominal subcutaneous blood flow, increasing exposure to catecholamines in the bloodstream. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(30) Extended periods of reduced insulin levels (as a result of fasting) inhibit a2-receptors and allow for an increased mobilization of b2-receptor dominant stubborn fat. Essentially, a greater time spent in the low insulin state equals a greater time spent in a state where fat can be mobilized from stubborn areas. In anticipation of questions involving low-carbohydrate diets continuously keeping insulin levels low, we must keep in mind that triglycerides inhibit HSL in a similar manner as insulin. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(31) Studies show that in healthy adults, increased protein intake does not put excess strain on the kidneys. [Reference: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/he...alth&seid=auto
(32) The ideal state for fat burning (in MB’s opinion) is reached after 12-18 hours of fasting. During this period, several conditions are present: high levels of catecholamines, increased blood flow to stubborn regions, and low insulin for a2-receptor inhibition. As a result, this period appears to be the "golden age" of stubborn fat mobilization. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(33) Free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation continuously increases as more time is spent in the fasted state. However, the contribution of fatty acids to whole body fat oxidation changes as time progresses. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(34) Short-term fasting results in a significant increase in subcutaneous FFA oxidation; essentially, an individual is relying almost entirely on body fat oxidation during this timeframe. In “normal-weight” subjects, fat is mobilized only from subcutaneous body fat stores for up to 14-20 hours after ingesting a 600 calorie meal under sedentary conditions (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8843749). Roughly 14-20 hours in a completely sedentary state should easily equal 12-18 hours in real life. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(35) The rate of intramuscular fat oxidation greatly increases somewhere between the 10 and 30 hour marks in a fasted state; however, the rate of subcutaneous fat oxidation does not increase further beyond the 12-18 hour mark. During this extended fast. Subcutaneous fat simply can't keep up with demand. As a result, the law of diminishing returns applies when greatly extending a fast. Coupled with the escalating rate of de novo gluconeogenesis, and subsequent risk of muscle catabolism, fasting for too long may not be very conducive for a lean individual seeking optimal lean mass retention while targeting stubborn body fat. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(36) Insulin negates the effects of yohimbine on alpha 2-receptor inhibition and negatively impacts its effectiveness. It's recommended that yohimbine be consumed in a fasted state and never between meals. Considering the half-life of yohimbine is very short (30 min), you can also experiment with more frequent dosing during periods of fasting. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(37) Heavy weight training greatly increases catecholamine levels, especially when performed in a fasted state. Heavy training and fasting are both stressors to which the body responds with increased catecholamine output. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
(38) Refeeding on high carb meals possessing a low fat content will boost leptin, stimulate hormonal output, and increase metabolic rate ([url=http://www.marksdailyapple.com/carb-refeeding-and-weight-loss/[/url]). It may sound counter intuitive for those not familiar with this concept, but it may be useful in moving past fat loss plateaus or losing stubborn fat. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2010/06/int...born-body.html]
June 12, 2011
(39) Ingesting BCAA while training increases the phosphorylation of p70s6k (among other kinases) involved in the activation of protein synthesis. Among other things, increased levels of p70s6k may lead to a faster transport of amino acids into the muscle cell membranes. The effects seen on the other myogenic signaling mechanisms could also affect muscle growth through other pathways. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2009/12/fas...le-growth.html]
Last edited by Red Dog; 06-13-2011 at 02:57 AM. Reason: New (26-40)
05-25-2011, 02:57 AM
June 12, 2011 (cont)
(40) A recent study (SpringerLink - European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 108, Number 4) concluded that fasted training may result in a more favorable anabolic environment in the post-workout period. The study’s primary conclusion stated that fasted training “may stimulate the intramyocellular anabolic response to ingestion of a carbohydrate/protein/leucine mixture following a heavy resistance training session. [Reference: http://www.leangains.com/2009/12/fas...le-growth.html]
05-25-2011, 02:58 AM
05-25-2011, 06:13 AM
05-25-2011, 07:01 AM
Some nice info from Lean Gains. Subd for more learning! Thanks for posting!
Recoverbro Elite"This is what we've been working on"
05-25-2011, 03:58 PM
This is all very interesting stuff. It's basically contradicting my understanding of diet and nutrition.
05-25-2011, 04:19 PM
05-26-2011, 12:54 AM
Excellent -- thanks for following guys!
Only put a few more up today because I can't access leangains.com or reddit.com right now -- maybe some system maintenance or something ...
05-28-2011, 09:01 PM
05-28-2011, 09:41 PM
06-09-2011, 10:41 AM
Great list of info, thanks!
NeedToBuildMuscle Representative / PowerChews Representative
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06-09-2011, 11:04 AM
06-09-2011, 04:53 PM
06-10-2011, 07:03 PM
06-11-2011, 12:53 AM
Awesome; glad some of you are finding it interesting!
Expanded up to 38 today and will have more up soon; I could probably use up the character limit pretty quick if I try. I keep switching between this and thesis work in an unrelated field -- wannabe literature review magnate over here!
06-11-2011, 01:01 AM
Great thread, subbed
Athletic Xtreme Rep
06-11-2011, 02:29 AM
(5) Blood sugar is actually extremely well-regulated and maintained within a tight range in healthy people. Maintaining blood sugar is of very high priority and we have developed efficient pathways that will make it happen even under extreme conditions. It would take no less than three days or 84 hours of fasting to reach blood sugar levels low enough to affect your mental state, and even this is temporary, as your brain adapts to the use of ketones. During 48 hours of fasting or severe calorie deprivation, blood sugar is maintained within a normal range and no measure of cognitive performance is negatively affected.
Very interesting info and definatly some new thinking on weight loss but I find #5 really difficult to believe.Maybe for some individuals this may be the case but I know when I go over 5 hours with no food intake my mental state changes for sure.I start to feel really anxious/nervous,EXTREMELY irritable, and find it hard to concentrate/foucus.But I never say never.Maybe Ill give it a go some day.Anyone ever tried this before and got good results?
06-11-2011, 06:28 AM
06-11-2011, 10:30 AM
Keep them coming Red Dog! Great thread and this certainly helps answer a lot of questions with all the info.
Recoverbro Elite"This is what we've been working on"
06-11-2011, 09:58 PM
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779282) concluded that "cognitive performance, activity, sleep, and mood are not adversely affected in healthy humans by 2 [days] of calorie-deprivation. Granted this is only one study (I haven't searched for more), but it seems relatively clear that the numerous mechanisms for raising blood glucose concentrations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_sugar_regulation) combined with a normally functioning pancreas and insulin regulation would be able to maintain a functional state without totally throwing you for a loop regarding cognition.
On an additional note, a second study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405701) concluded that the decline of plasma glucose (as a result of fasting) clearly contributes to an increase in lipolysis; but again, that's a just a positive tangent!
But again, everything affects everyone slightly differently! Personally, I would look to confirm any issues regarding the up-regulating mechanisms to make sure there are no underlying problems first. Whether the science is there or not though, I have come across individuals who feel woozy if they go long periods without food; MB suggested the transition to utilizing ketones as opposed to glucose may result in temporary disorientation. However, I'm not totally convinced any such conditions are strictly due to inappropriately controlled blood glucose concentrations as opposed to one or more other physiological factors.
06-13-2011, 09:21 PM
06-14-2011, 12:51 AM
06-14-2011, 06:55 AM
Asshxle! Instead of Soontobebeast... it should be Alreadyanasshxle! Haha just playing. Good looking out bro
10-23-2012, 07:33 AM
Old bump, but I stumbled across this thread and it was really helpful to me. maybe members who haven't seen it yet could benefit from it too.
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