Okay Guys nothing crazy here just a little basic nutrition 101. Should be mostly review for almost all of us but maybe you'll learn one or two new things. I whipped this up mostly as a link for a the for newbies or anyone really looking to get basic information. I also wanted to get fimilar with the BB codes for my upcoming guides which should be alot deeper in depth and catered more to the bodybuilding community, instead of just basic information. Most importantly I just wanted to start to give a little little something back to the forum that has taught me so so much about nutrition, training and supplementation over the last year or so. So please enjoy, I am currently in the process of formulating in-depth guides on Lipids, Proteins and the Gastrointestinal tract itself
Part 1:Basic Nutrition
1) Food- Any substance the body can take in and assimilate
2) Nutrients- Nourish the body, 6 essential nutrients; the body can not make enough of it to substain its self.
Classes of Nutrients-
a) Carbohydrates (CHO) Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Simple Sugars- Monosaccharides, Disaccharides ect.
Complex Carbs- Polysaccharides
Visible- Example, stick of butter
Hidden- Example, slice of cheese
Animal- Most complete protein
Marco- example, 1,000mg a day, calcium
Mirco- example, 30mg a day, superdrol (haha jk, jk), in all seriousness, Iron
Trace- example, trace amounts of boron
f) Water, the most essential nutrient
Other components in food such as Flavonoids (found in fruit and teas) or Caspaicin (found in chilli peppers) have shown health benefits though extensive research over the years but have not yet been named a group of essential nutrients yet, however this group of components are known as Phytochemicals
Caloric energy released by nutrients
1) Carbohydrates- 4 Kcal/g
2) Protein- 4 Kcal/g
3) Fat/Lipids- 9 Kcal/g
4) Vitamins, Minerals, Water- 0 Kcal/g
This can be useful in figuring out calorie intakes and marco/mirco aspects of a diet. For example a meal with 25grams of protein, 20 grams of carbs and, 5 grams of fat would be (25x4)+(20x4)+(5x9)= 225 Calories, an equation which can also be reverse engineered into the opposite direction.
1) There are 13 vitamins, each with a unique structure
2) Requirements are small (n/d to mg/d)
3) Organic compounds (carbon)
4) Function in body in a regulatory or metabolic capacity
5) Many function in chemical reactions involved in the release of energy from carbohydrates,fat, and protein
6) Do not function as a structure
7) Differ in solubility
Classification of vitamins
Water Soluble- B vitamins and Ascorbic acid or vitamin C.
Water Soluble vitamins have a faster turnover and are excreted by the kidneys. They are far less toxic and function as co-enzymes
Fat (Lipid) Soluble Vitamins A,D,E and K
Fat Soluble vitamins have a slower turnover rate and are stored in tissues. They possess greater toxicity and do not function as co-enzymes.
1) Inorganic substances
2) Function in body in structural, regulatory and metabolic capacities. Structurally are part of bones and teeth and regulatory and metabolically are part of body compounds, transmission of nerve pulses and maintenance of fluid balances.
3) Do not supply energy
4) Requirements range from ng/d to g/d
Part 2:Nutritional Status
1) The intake and utilization of foods and nutrients influence an individuals health
2) The desirable amount of a particular nutrient is the amount which- supports routine chemical process and provides a surplus store for use during times of increased need
3) Deviation from 'optimal' nutritional status can occur due to either under nutrition, over nutrition or an imbalance.
Pretty much all common sense here, we can over eat, we can under eat, or we can fall within an optimal range. Achieving this optimal range depends on vary variables of course such as age, BMI, activity and many others. Next we will touch base on assessing our nutritional status
Assessment of Nutritional Status
1) Dietary assessment: 24 hour recall, food records, diet history, food frequency questionnaires
2) Anthropometics: Height, Weight, BMI
3) Biochemical indices: blood, urine, feces, sweat, hair
4) Clinical examination: Medical history, physical exam
Dietary Guidelines from USDA
1) Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce the risk of major chronic disease through diet and exercise.
2) Revised every 5 years
3) 2005 version includes activities, emphasizes moderation, includes personalization, lists foods in more measurable amounts.
Basic Principals of food selection for nutritional health
1) Variety- select a variety of foods from within a food group
2) Balance- balance intake of high energy high fat foods with low fat, high carb fiber foods
3) Moderation- easy on foods with sugar, salt, and alcohol
4) Adequacy- Select foods to provide essential nutrients, fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain a health weight and BMI
Nutrient Density- the ratio derived by dividing a foods nutrient content by its calorie content. Some examples of non dense foods are sugar. Where foods packed with nutrients are rather dense.
Energy Density- a comparison of the calorie content of a food with the weight of the food.
Thanks for reading AM