Grilled Meat and Cancer Risk
- 08-09-2005, 12:44 PM
Grilled Meat and Cancer Risk
My main protien source is bonelss chicken breast, and I usually cook it on the grill. I came across a bunch of articles when googling 'grilled meat cancer risk' that caution against cooking meat over high temperatures and an increases risk of cancer due to Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), that are formed when meat (especially red meat) is cooked over high temperatures.
Meat intake and cooking techniques: associations with pancreatic cancer.
Anderson KE, Sinha R, Kulldorff M, Gross M, Lang NP, Barber C, Harnack L, DiMagno E, Bliss R, Kadlubar FF.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA. [email protected]
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed in temperature and time-dependent manners during cooking of meat, may increase the risk of certain cancers. As these compounds could be carcinogenic for the pancreas, we assessed meat intake, preparation methods, and doneness preferences as risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer.In a case-control study (cases=193, controls=674), subjects provided information on their usual meat intake and how it was cooked, e.g. fried, grilled or barbecued (BBQ), etc. Meat doneness preferences were measured using photographs that showed internal doneness and external brownness with a numerical scale. Data were analyzed with unconditional logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) increased with increased intake of grilled/BBQ red meat in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, race, and diabetes. Based on amount of BBQ meat consumed, the OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the fifth quintile relative to the reference group (quintiles 1 and 2) was 2.19 (1.4, 3.4). Findings were not substantively changed by further adjustment for calories, total fat, fruit and vegetables, or alcohol consumption (from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)). Other meat variables did not show statistically significant associations with risk nor did they substantively alter the findings for BBQ. These included total meat, processed meat, total red meat, total white meat, total broiled meat, total fried meat, or total meat cooked by means other than grilling. We conclude that grilled red meat intake is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and that method of meat preparation in addition to total intake is important in assessing the effects of meat consumption in epidemiologic studies.Well-done, grilled red meat increases the risk of colorectal adenomas.
Sinha R, Chow WH, Kulldorff M, Denobile J, Butler J, Garcia-Closas M, Weil R, Hoover RN, Rothman N.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, Maryland 20892, USA.
Red meat or meat-cooking methods such as frying and doneness level have been associated with an increased risk of colorectal and other cancers. It is unclear whether it is red meat intake or the way it is cooked that is involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer. To address this issue, we developed an extensive food frequency questionnaire module that collects information on meat-cooking techniques as well as the level of doneness for individual meat items and used it in a study of colorectal adenomas, known precursors of colorectal cancer. A case-control study of colorectal adenomas was conducted at the National Naval Medical Center (Bethesda, MD) between April 1994 and September 1996. All cases (n = 146) were diagnosed with colorectal adenomas at sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy and histologically confirmed. Controls (n = 228) were screened with sigmoidoscopy and found not to have colorectal adenomas. The subjects completed a food frequency questionnaire and answered detailed questions on meat-cooking practices. We used frequency and portion size to estimate grams of meat consumed per day for total meat as well as for meat subgroups defined by cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, total caloric intake, reason for screening (routine or other), and several established risk factors for colorectal adenomas or cancer, including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical activity, and pack-years of cigarette smoking. There was an increased risk of 11% per 10 g/day (or 2.5 oz/week) of reported red meat consumption (OR, 1.11; CI, 1.03-1.19). The increased risk was mainly associated with well-done/very well-done red meat, with an excess risk of 29% per 10 g/day (OR, 1.29; CI, 1.08-1.54) versus an excess of 10% per 10 g/day (OR, 1.10; CI, 0.96-1.26) for consumption of rare/medium red meat. High-temperature cooking methods were also associated with increased risk; 26% per 10 g/day (OR, 1.26; CI, 1.06-1.50) of grilled red meat and 15% per 10 g/day (OR, 1.15; CI, 0.97-1.36) of pan-fried red meat consumption. There was an increased risk of colorectal adenomas associated with higher intake of red meat, most of which was due to the subgroup of red meat that was cooked until well done/very well done and/or by high-temperature cooking techniques, such as grilling. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carcinogenic compounds formed by high-temperature cooking techniques, such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, may contribute to the risk of developing colorectal tumors.Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake.
Skog KI, Johansson MA, Jagerstad MI.
Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
Frying or grilling of meat and fish products may generate low ppb levels of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs). Many heterocyclic amines are formed via the Maillard reaction from creatine, free amino acids and monosaccharides; compounds naturally occurring in protein-rich foods of animal origin. The formation and yield of HAs are dependent on physical parameters, such as cooking temperature and time, cooking technique and equipment, heat and mass transport, and on chemical parameters, especially the precursors to HAs. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the formation of HAs in cooked foods and model systems, and summarizes data on the content of HAs in various cooked foods, and estimates of the dietary intake of HAs. It should be noted that the presence of carcinogens of other types in food (e.g. nitrosamines, aromatic amines, cholesterol oxide products) and that their generation during frying and grilling are outside the scope of this review.
Most of the time I slice my chicken breasts thin and cook them over low heat on the grill...its just something to keep in mind, considering as bodybuilders/weightlifters we're consuming a *lot* more animal protien than the average person.
- 08-09-2005, 01:34 PM
08-09-2005, 02:08 PM
Cooking meat is not the issue. Burning meat (high heat cooking, fast cooking) is the issue.
When you 'blacken' something or get those dark black 'grill lines' across the meat, that is burnt flesh. These types of cancer concerns come from that. Whether it proves to be anything worth very serious consideration, I don't have any idea.
I do, however, and have for years now... cook my meats over lower heat for longer periods of time. That doesn't mean I can't enjoy a good BBQ hamburger with a family get together or anything... but as a course of day-to-day cooking, we don't blacken or 'grill line' any of the beef or chicken we cook.
08-09-2005, 02:24 PM
That's pretty cool, I did not know that
Yeah, neither do I really. There might be a trace of a grill line on the chicken, but no black charring.I do, however, and have for years now... cook my meats over lower heat for longer periods of time. That doesn't mean I can't enjoy a good BBQ hamburger with a family get together or anything... but as a course of day-to-day cooking, we don't blacken or 'grill line' any of the beef or chicken we cook.
08-09-2005, 02:40 PM
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