very interesting ...
Interleukin-15 antagonizes muscle protein waste in tumour-bearing rats.
Carbo N, Lopez-Soriano J, Costelli P, Busquets S, Alvarez B, Baccino FM, Quinn LS, Lopez-Soriano FJ, Argiles JM.
Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
Tissue protein hypercatabolism (TPH) is an important feature in cancer cachexia, particularly with regard to the skeletal muscle. The Yoshida AH-130 rat ascites hepatoma is a model system for studying the mechanisms involved in the processes that lead to tissue depletion, since it induces in the host a rapid and progressive muscle wasting, primarily due to TPH. The present study was aimed at investigating if IL-15, which is known to favour muscle fibre hypertrophy, could antagonize the enhanced muscle protein breakdown in this cancer cachexia model. Indeed, IL-15 treatment partly inhibited skeletal muscle wasting in AH-130-bearing rats by decreasing (8-fold) protein degradative rates (as measured by 14C-bicarbonate pre-loading of muscle proteins) to values even lower than those observed in non-tumour-bearing animals. These alterations in protein breakdown rates were associated with an inhibition of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway (35% and 41% for 2.4 and 1.2 kb ubiquitin mRNA, and 57% for the C8 proteasome subunit, respectively). The cytokine did not modify the plasma levels of corticosterone and insulin in the tumour hosts. The present data give new insights into the mechanisms by which IL-15 exerts its preventive effect on muscle protein wasting and seem to warrant the implementation of experimental protocols involving the use of the cytokine in the treatment of pathological states characterized by TPH, particularly in skeletal muscle, such as in the present model of cancer cachexia.
Interleukin-15 decreases proteolysis in skeletal muscle: a direct effect.
Busquets S, Figueras MT, Meijsing S, Carbo N, Quinn LS, Almendro V, Argiles JM, Lopez-Soriano FJ.
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
Incubation of rat isolated skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus) in the presence of 100 ng/ml of human recombinant interleukin-15 (IL-15) resulted in a significant decrease in total proteolytic rate, while it had no effect on total protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of (14)C-phenylalanine into muscle protein. In addition, IL-15 had no effect on either amino acid uptake (as determined by the tissue uptake of labelled [1-(14)C]MeAIB) or alanine utilization by incubated skeletal muscles. Similarly, a single injection of IL-15 (100 microg/kg) in vivo did not result in any changes in amino acid uptake (as measured by the tissue uptake of alpha-[1-(14)C]AIB) or alanine metabolism, with the exception of alanine carbon incorporation into lipids, which was significantly increased in adipose tissue as a result of IL-15 administration. The results suggest that the main mechanism involved in the anabolic effects of IL-15 in skeletal muscle relies on a decrease in the proteolytic rate.
Interleukin-15 increases myosin accretion in human skeletal myogenic cultures.
Furmanczyk PS, Quinn LS.
University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been shown to have anabolic effects on skeletal muscle in rodent studies conducted in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of IL-15 action on muscle appears to be distinct from that of the well-characterized muscle anabolic factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). IL-15 action has not been investigated in a human culture system nor in detail in primary skeletal myogenic cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of IL-15 and IGF-I in primary human skeletal myogenic cells. Accretion of a major myofibrillar protein, myosin heavy chain (MHC), was used as a measure of muscle anabolism. We found that both growth factors induced increases in MHC accretion in primary human skeletal myogenic cultures; however, IL-15 and IGF-I actions were temporally distinct. IL-15 was more effective at stimulating MHC accretion when added to cultures after differentiation of myoblasts had occurred. In contrast, IGF-I was more effective at stimulating MHC accretion when added to cultures prior to differentiation of myoblasts. These results using a human system support recent findings from rodent models which indicate that the primary mode of IGF-I action on skeletal muscle anabolism is through stimulation of myogenic precursor cells, whereas the primary target of IL-15 action is the differentiated muscle fiber. Further, since clinical and experimental studies have shown IGF-I is not effective in preventing skeletal muscle wasting, the distinct mode of action of IL-15 suggests it may be of potential usefulness in the treatment of muscle wasting disorders.
Interleukin-15: a novel anabolic cytokine for skeletal muscle.
Quinn LS, Haugk KL, Grabstein KH.
Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, American Lake VA Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98493, USA.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a recently discovered growth factor which is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. In order to determine a functional role for IL-15 in skeletal myogenesis, the effects of IL-15 on myoblast proliferation and muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression were analyzed using the mouse C2 skeletal myogenic cell line and primary fetal bovine skeletal myogenic cultures. IL-15 had no effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation, nor on the rate of myoblast differentiation, assessed by anti-MHC immunocytochemical staining, in either type of culture. However, Western blot analyses revealed that IL-15 used at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml increased MHC accumulation five-fold in C2 myoblast cultures and 2.5-fold in primary bovine myogenic cultures. Moreover, C2 myotubes formed in the presence of IL-15 appeared larger than controls. These findings indicate IL-15 can stimulate differentiated myocytes and muscle fibers to accumulate increased amounts of contractile proteins. Well-fused primary bovine myogenic cultures treated with the mitotic inhibitor aphidicolin, then administered IL-15 and/or the anabolic growth factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), were analyzed for MHC accumulation using Western blots. IL-15 used at 10 ng/ml doubled MHC accumulation and was as effective as IGF-I used at 10 or 100 ng/ml. IL-15 and IGF-I used together increased MHC accumulation close to five-fold, indicating these two factors can act additively on muscle fibers. These findings indicate IL-15 affects parameters associated with skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, and suggest that IL-15 may be a novel anabolic agent to increase skeletal muscle mass.
Overexpression of interleukin-15 induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vitro: implications for treatment of muscle wasting disorders.
Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Drivdahl RH, Alvarez B, Argiles JM.
Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA. email@example.com
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a novel anabolic factor for skeletal muscle which inhibits muscle wasting associated with cancer (cachexia) in a rat model. To develop a cell culture system in which the mechanism of the anabolic action of IL-15 on skeletal muscle could be examined, the mouse C2 skeletal myogenic cell line was transduced with a retroviral expression vector for IL-15 and compared to sister cells transduced with a control vector. Overexpression of IL-15 induced fivefold higher levels of sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and alpha-actin accumulation in differentiated myotubes. Secreted factors from IL-15-overexpressing myogenic cells, but not from control cells, induced increased myofibrillar protein accumulation in cocultured control myotubes. IL-15 overexpression induced a hypertrophic myotube morphology similar to that described for cultured myotubes which overexpressed the well-characterized anabolic factor insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). However, in contrast to IGF-I, the hypertrophic action of IL-15 on skeletal myogenic cells did not involve stimulation of skeletal myoblast proliferation or differentiation. IL-15 induced myotube hypertrophy at both low and high IGF-I concentrations. Furthermore, in contrast to IGF-I, which stimulated only protein synthesis under these culture conditions, IL-15 both stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in cultured skeletal myotubes. These findings indicate that IL-15 action on skeletal myogenic cells is distinct from that of IGF-I. Due to the ability of IGF-I to stimulate cell division and its association with several forms of cancer, controversy exists concerning the advisability of treating cachexia or age-associated muscle wasting with IGF-I. Administration of IL-15 or modulation of the IL-15 signaling pathway may represent an alternative strategy for maintaining skeletal muscle mass under these conditions.
these are the most interesting studies I could have found so far ....