Need some love for Valentines?

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    Need some love for Valentines?


    Ever heard of Oxytocin? No, not Oxycontin, crackheads, Oxytocin..

    [Wikipedia]
    Oxytocin is a hormone, found in mammals, that in humans is released mainly after stimulation of the nipples or distention of the vagina and that facilitates birth and breastfeeding. It is also involved in orgasms, as well as in bonding and the formation of trust between people.

    Don't let all that talk of vagina, nipples and breastfeeding scare you. There is a much cooler part to this, I assure you:

    -Plays some role in orgasm – for both males and females. Oxytocin concentrations in the blood are significantly elevated in both sexes during sexual arousal and orgasm (Carmichael et al 1987). In males, oxytocin is said to facilitate sperm transport in ejaculation. Oxytocin causes spontaneous erections in rats (Gimpl 2001). Maybe killer for PCT!
    -Thought to induce pair bonding in people. Plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. It is also thought that oxytocin might mediate other forms of pair bonding such as friendship and family relationships as given above. Reduction of sociophobic behavior was shown after treatment with oxytocin. That just sounds nice and pleasant.. lol
    -Nasally-administered oxytocin appears to generate trust in humans. In a 2005 study, it was shown that in a risky investment game, experimental subjects given the hormone displayed what the researchers deemed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group who were given placebos. The same experiment with the subjects told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion (Kosfeld 2005) Interesting..
    -Nasally-administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear in humans and to reduce the activity of the amygdala (which contains a large number of oxytocin receptors and is in general thought to be responsible for fear responses). It is thus possible that oxytocin lowers fear by lowering amygdala activity. (Kirsch 2005) Damn for real? This just got way more cool.
    -Various anti-stress functions: reducing blood pressure and cortisol levels, increasing tolerance to pain, reducing anxiety. Oxytocin may play a role in encouraging "tend and befriend", as opposed to "fight or flight", behavior, in response to stress.
    According to some studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol) and reduces withdrawal symptoms. (Kovacs 1998) How much better does it really get?? Seriously, where are the side effects?
    [ALL FROM WIKIPEDIA]

    The coolest part in my opinion is the reduction of fear from nasal delivery. I don't know if this means it makes you super confident like booze or makes you not wanna **** your pants when you go inside a haunted house, but regardless, its pretty exciting either way.

    I may try some of this pretty soon, ficticiously of course. If any of ya'll are interested in how it goes, I can open up a log or something. I'm gonna research it heavily before anything of course, because yeah, I don't want brain cancer or some weird horrible adverse affect like lactating (but I don't think it causes that in men, like I said, more research will be done).

    If it turns out to be bad-friggin'-ass maybe one of our badass board sponsors would sell it (its pharmaceutical, but way way down in height of 'control'). Plus I don't think it would raise many eyebrows, for a medication used to help womens uterus contract.

    Pretty interesting, huh?

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    Oxytocin may mediate the benefits of
    positive social interaction and emotions
    by
    Uvnas-Moberg K
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,
    Karolinska Institute,
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    kerstin.uvnas-moberg@fyka.ki.se
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 1998 Nov; 23(8):819-35

    ABSTRACT



    During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10-20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation.
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    Source: NIH/National Institute of Mental Health
    Date: 08 December 2005
    Trust-building Hormone Short-circuits Fear In Humans

    A brain chemical recently found to boost trust appears to work by reducing activity and weakening connections in fear-processing circuitry, a brain imaging study at the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has discovered.
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging data (red) superimposed on structural MRI scans. Frightful faces triggered a dramatic reduction in amygdala activity in subjects who had sniffed oxytocin, suggesting that oxytocin mediates social fear and trust via the amygdala and related circuitry. (Source: NIMH Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program)
    Scans of the hormone oxytocin's effect on human brain function reveal that it quells the brain's fear hub, the amygdala, and its brainstem relay stations in response to fearful stimuli. The work at NIMH and a collaborating site in Germany suggests new approaches to treating diseases thought to involve amygdala dysfunction and social fear, such as social phobia, autism, and possibly schizophrenia, report Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, M.D., Ph.D., NIMH Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program, and colleagues, in the December 7, 2005 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.
    "Studies in animals, pioneered by now NIMH director Dr. Thomas Insel, have shown that oxytocin plays a key role in complex emotional and social behaviors, such as attachment, social recognition and aggression," noted NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, M.D.. "Now, for the first time, we can literally see these same mechanisms at work in the human brain."
    "The observed changes in the amygdala are exciting as they suggest that a long-acting analogue of oxytocin could have therapeutic value in disorders characterized by social avoidance," added Insel.
    Inspired by Swiss scientists who last summer reported [1] that oxytocin increased trust in humans, Meyer-Lindenberg and colleagues quickly mounted a brain imaging study that would explore how this works at the level of brain circuitry. British researchers had earlier linked increased amygdala activity to decreased trustworthiness. [2] Having just discovered decreased amygdala activity in response to social stimuli in people with a rare genetic brain disorder that rendered them overly trusting of others, Meyer-Lindenberg hypothesized that oxytocin boosts trust by suppressing the amygdala and its fear-processing networks.
    To test this idea, he asked 15 healthy men to sniff oxytocin or a placebo prior to undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, which reveals what parts of the brain that are activated by particular activities. While in the scanner, the men performed tasks known to activate the amygdala -- matching angry or fearful faces and threatening scenes.
    As expected, the threatening pictures triggered strong activation of the amygdala during the placebo scan, but markedly less activity following oxytocin. The difference was especially pronounced in response to threatening faces, suggesting a pivotal role for oxytocin in regulating social fear. In addition, oxytocin dampened the amygdala's communication with sites in the upper brainstem that telegraph the fear response. The results mirrored findings in rats [3], reported earlier this year by European scientists.
    "Because increased amygdala activation has been associated with social fear in social phobia, genetic risk for anxiety and depression, and possibly with social fear in autism assessed during faces processing, this dual mode of action of oxytocin in humans suggests a potentially powerful treatment approach toward socially relevant fear," suggest the researchers.
    People with autism characteristically avert their gaze from faces. A fMRI study [4] reported earlier this year by NIMH grantee Richard Davidson, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, and colleagues, found over-activation of the amygdala in people with autism when they were looking at faces. Meyer-Lindenberg said future studies may test oxytocin as a treatment for such social anxiety symptoms in children with autism.
    "Future research may also examine how oxytocin affects the amygdala in women, the mode of action of related hormones such as vasopressin, and how genetic variants in these hormones and their receptors affect brain function," he added.
    Also participating in the research were: Peter Kirsch, Christin Esslinger, Daniela Mier, Stefanie Lis, Harald Gruppe, Bernd Gallhofer, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany; Qiang Chen, Sarina Siddhanti, Venkata Mattay, NIMH Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program.
    [1] Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):673-6.
    [2] Winston JS, Strange BA, O'Doherty J, Dolan RJ. Automatic and intentional brain responses during evaluation of trustworthiness of faces. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Mar;5(3):277-83.
    [3] Huber D, Veinante P, Stoop R. Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala. Science. 2005 Apr 8;308(5719):245-8.
    [4] Dalton KM, Nacewicz BM, Johnstone T, Schaefer HS, Gernsbacher MA, Goldsmith HH, Alexander AL, Davidson RJ. Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(4):519-26. Epub 2005 Mar 6.
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    Oxytocinergic neurotransmission at the hippocampus in
    the central neural regulation of penile erection in the rat
    by
    Chen K, Chang LS.
    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery,
    Taipei Veterans General Hospital,
    National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine
    and Su-Tien Urological Research Center,
    Republic of China, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Urology 2001 Jul;58(1):107-12

    ABSTRACT


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an oxytocinergic neurotransmission at the hippocampus involved in the central regulation of penile erection in the rat. METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley (n = 27) rats anesthetized with pentobarbital were used. A 26-gauge needle was inserted into the corpus cavernosum to measure the intracavernous pressure (ICP) and the systemic and mean arterial pressure and heart rate simultaneously. The following studies were performed: stereotaxic delivery of oxytocin acetate (3 pmol/100 nL) into the hippocampus; microinjection of a mixture of [d(CH(2))(5)-Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)]-vasotocin (3 pmol/100 nL) and oxytocin (3 pmol/100 nL) into the hippocampus; injection of saline into the hippocampus; and intracavernous injection of oxytocin (3 pmol/100 microL). The ICP and hemodynamic parameters were monitored after each administration of the experimental agents. RESULTS: After administration of oxytocin into the hippocampus, a significant increase in the ICP occurred from resting (8.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg) to a peak at 49.6 +/- 12.5 mm Hg and persisted for 18.6 +/- 9.4 minutes after an onset latency of 500.0 +/- 389.7 seconds. However, no change in the ICP occurred after administration of [d(CH(2))(5)-Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)]-vasotocin plus oxytocin into the hippocampus. In addition, no elevation of ICP occurred after administration of saline to the hippocampus or after intracavernous injection of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that administration of oxytocin into the hippocampus induces penile erection in the rat. However, concomitant administration of oxytocin and its antagonist was ineffective in eliciting penile erection. These observations suggest that oxytocinergic neurotransmission at the hippocampus may be involved in the central neural regulation of the penile erection in the rat.
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    Oxytocin--its role in male reproduction
    and new potential therapeutic uses
    by
    Thackare H, Nicholson HD, Whittington K.
    Clinical Science at South Bristol (Obstetrics & Gynaecology),
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Hum Reprod Update. 2006 Jan 25;

    ABSTRACT


    Oxytocin (OT) is traditionally thought of as a 'female' neurohypophysis hormone due to its role in parturition and milk ejection. However, OT is recognized as having endocrine and paracrine roles in male reproduction. At ejaculation, a burst of OT is released from the neurohypophysis into the systemic circulation and stimulates contractions of the reproductive tract aiding sperm release. There is conclusive evidence that OT is synthesized within the mammalian testis, epididymis and prostate and the presence of OT receptors (OTRs) through the reproductive tract supports a local action for this peptide. OT has a paracrine role in stimulating contractility of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the prostate gland. Interestingly, OT has also been shown to modulate androgen levels in these tissues via stimulation of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestostone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase. The elucidation of OT's role in male reproduction has suggested a number of potential therapeutic uses for this hormone. Exogenous administration of OT has, in some cases, been shown to increase the numbers of ejaculated sperm, possibly by stimulating contractions of the reproductive tract and thus aiding sperm passage. Within the prostate, OT has been shown to affect gland growth both directly and via its interaction with androgen metabolism. Prostate pathologies due to unregulated cell proliferation/growth, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer, are unfortunately very common and few effective treatments are available. Greater understanding of paracrine growth mediators, such as OT, is likely to provide new mechanisms for treating such pathologies.
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    Neural oxytocinergic systems as genomic targets for hormones and as modulators of hormone-dependent behaviors
    by
    Cabanac M
    Pfaff DW, Ogawa S, Kow LM
    Rockefeller University,
    New York, NY 10021, USA.
    Results Probl Cell Differ 1999; 26:91-105

    ABSTRACT

    At the molecular level, estradiol turns on the gene for oxytocin in a subset of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons and turns on the gene for the oxytocin receptor in other limbic and hypothalamic cell groups. As a result, oxytocin deposition, whose signal is transduced both through G alpha (q/11) and Gi to stimulate phosphatidylinositol turnover, facilitates electrical activity in certain hypothalamic neurons. Consequently, affiliative behaviors including those closely associated with reproduction--mating behaviors and parental behaviors--are promoted. One important aspect of this effect is the preservation of instinctive behaviors associated with reproduction, in the face of disturbances due to mild stress.



    This may just be me, but does this not seem great to use with while "ON" cycle? Or even PCT? It supposedly needs estrogen to "turn on the receptor" for the Oxytocin, so while on cycle, if AI's were not being used, wouldn't this bring about better benefits? Think about the reduction of bp while on cycle, the reduction of cortisol, the extra conversion in male testosterone to DHT (not good for prostate or hairline but thats a given), increase in insulin levels and weight. This seems like perfect for being on cycle or PCT imo. Like 5 days of injection with 1-2 weeks off and another 5 day injection to carry you thru the rest of a 4 week cycle and maybe one last 5 day series of injections to last PCT. Is there something I'm not seeing here?? It definitely seems like a steroid team player to me lol.


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    Didnt ALR write about this stuff?

    Something to do with it improving female orgasm?
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    I've always thought it would be cool to experiment with too. It's thought that oxytocin is the chemical mediator of human bonding during breast feeding and the chemical that most clearly explains what "love" really is. I think nausea is the most common side from high doses. Any uterine stim like this will have sexual enhancing effects in women, but I'm not sure what somatic effects would manifest in men (other than lactation maybe).
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    Lactation?
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    Quote Originally Posted by jmh80
    Lactation?
    Good feeling's gone
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    It does not cause lactation in men, it just helps women with lactaction by helping it drop down. It affects the muscles in that region to help push already created milk down to the nipples.
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    you had six posts in a row on your own thread....
    i think thats a new record



    very intersting thread though
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    When I was a kid, I grew up on a dairy farm. We had cases of this stuff. I used to give a few CC's to the cows after they had a calf to help them drop all their milk so their udders wouldnt get infected with mastitis.

    BV
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    Ding ding ding! Vetrinary supply perhaps?


    Sounds pretty interesting. Combined with the pherome that IBE is about to out you could have a real love fest cocktail going on.
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    Quote Originally Posted by darius
    Interestingly, OT has also been shown to modulate androgen levels in these tissues via stimulation of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestostone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase.
    OK, I dont like this but all the rest is awesome. A bit of fina would do
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