A prospective study of plasma hormone levels, nonhormonal factors, and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Longcope C, Verhoek-Oftedahl W, Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Prostate 1995 Jan;26(1):40-9
We assessed the relation of plasma hormone levels and nonhormonal factors with subsequent occurrence of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among participants in the Physicians' Health Study. Frozen plasma samples, collected at the study onset, were available for 320 men who developed surgically treated BPH up to 9 years later and for 320 age-matched controls. Plasma testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione, estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) were measured for each case-control pair. In unadjusted analyses, none of the hormones or hormone ratios were associated with BPH; for example, for T and E2 the odds ratios (OR) comparing the highest quintile (Q5) with the lowest (Q1) were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.42, 1.30) and 1.07 (95% CI = 0.51, 2.22), respectively. However, in multivariate analyses controlling diastolic blood pressure, exercise, alcohol, E1, and DHT:T ratio, we observed a strong trend for increasing risk across quintiles for E2 (Q5 vs. Q1 OR = 3.56, P trend = 0.009), and a weak inverse trend for E1 (Q5 vs Q1 OR = 0.51, P trend = 0.07). The excess risk associated with E2 was confined to men with relatively low androgen levels. Three nonhormonal factors previously suspected as risk factors were independently associated with surgical BPH in these data. The OR for a 1-mm Hg difference in diastolic blood pressure was 1.04 (95% CI = 1.01, 1.07). Alcohol use and infrequent exercise were inversely associated with risk of BPH surgery; however, risk estimates were not consistent across categories of exercise and alcohol frequency. Our results indicate that normal variation in circulating androgen levels does not influence development of BPH, but that variation in estrogen levels might be important.