What kind of form do you use?
- 05-03-2007, 10:34 PM
What kind of form do you use?
Personally I bench, squat, and DL more in a "powerlifter style" - i.e., arch & lateral arch on bench, using the lats; medium stance, low bar, "sitting back" on squat; rounded upper back and dropped shoulders on DL. With the goal of hypertrophy, is it better to drop the weight and not use those techniques? Or do the heavier weights used make up for the enhanced leverages?
- 05-03-2007, 11:12 PM
I practive form over weight at the moment because of injuries and trying not to add to them. In the past i switched things up a bit. I added cheat days where the exercises used heavier weights with the goal of using some cheating to finish the reps.
Form to me and using hindsight, is better for long term lifting with less injuries.
- 05-04-2007, 12:42 AM
Proper form is essential no matter what your goal is. If you want bodybuilder size hypertrophy you may wanna switch away from a powerlifting routine but I would not stray too far away from the 3 big lifts if I were you. Incorporate them into your new style would be my opinion. There is a reason they have stood the test of time, they work.
05-06-2007, 04:27 PM
To answer the question- tailor training to goals/needs- here is some of the published research as far as rep ranges, exercise selection, etc....
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Nov;88(1-2):50-60. Epub 2002 Aug 15.Click here to read Links
Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones.
* Campos GE,
* Luecke TJ,
* Wendeln HK,
* Toma K,
* Hagerman FC,
* Murray TF,
* Ragg KE,
* Ratamess NA,
* Kraemer WJ,
* Staron RS.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Irvine Hall, rm 430, Athens, OH 45701, USA.
Thirty-two untrained men [mean (SD) age 22.5 (5.8) years, height 178.3 (7.2) cm, body mass 77.8 (11.9) kg] participated in an 8-week progressive resistance-training program to investigate the "strength-endurance continuum". Subjects were divided into four groups: a low repetition group (Low Rep, n = 9) performing 3-5 repetitions maximum (RM) for four sets of each exercise with 3 min rest between sets and exercises, an intermediate repetition group (Int Rep, n = 11) performing 9-11 RM for three sets with 2 min rest, a high repetition group (High Rep, n = 7) performing 20-28 RM for two sets with 1 min rest, and a non-exercising control group (Con, n = 5). Three exercises (leg press, squat, and knee extension) were performed 2 days/week for the first 4 weeks and 3 days/week for the final 4 weeks. Maximal strength [one repetition maximum, 1RM), local muscular endurance (maximal number of repetitions performed with 60% of 1RM), and various cardiorespiratory parameters (e.g., maximum oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, maximal aerobic power, time to exhaustion) were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. In addition, pre- and post-training muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) content, and capillarization. Maximal strength improved significantly more for the Low Rep group compared to the other training groups, and the maximal number of repetitions at 60% 1RM improved the most for the High Rep group. In addition, maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion significantly increased at the end of the study for only the High Rep group. All three major fiber types (types I, IIA, and IIB) hypertrophied for the Low Rep and Int Rep groups, whereas no significant increases were demonstrated for either the High Rep or Con groups. However, the percentage of type IIB fibers decreased, with a concomitant increase in IIAB fibers for all three resistance-trained groups. These fiber-type conversions were supported by a significant decrease in MHCIIb accompanied by a significant increase in MHCIIa. No significant changes in fiber-type composition were found in the control samples. Although all three training regimens resulted in similar fiber-type transformations (IIB to IIA), the low to intermediate repetition resistance-training programs induced a greater hypertrophic effect compared to the high repetition regimen. The High Rep group, however, appeared better adapted for submaximal, prolonged contractions, with significant increases after training in aerobic power and time to exhaustion. Thus, low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects. Overall, however, these data demonstrate that both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the "strength-endurance continuum".
J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Nov;20(4):819-23.Click here to read Links
Relationship between the number of repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum in free weight exercises in trained and untrained men.
* Shimano T,
* Kraemer WJ,
* Spiering BA,
* Volek JS,
* Hatfield DL,
* Silvestre R,
* Vingren JL,
* Fragala MS,
* Maresh CM,
* Fleck SJ,
* Newton RU,
* Spreuwenberg LP,
* Hakkinen K.
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
Resistance exercise intensity is commonly prescribed as a percent of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). However, the relationship between percent 1RM and the number of repetitions allowed remains poorly studied, especially using free weight exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal number of repetitions that trained (T) and untrained (UT) men can perform during free weight exercises at various percentages of 1RM. Eight T and 8 UT men were tested for 1RM strength. Then, subjects performed 1 set to failure at 60, 80, and 90% of 1RM in the back squat, bench press, and arm curl in a randomized, balanced design. There was a significant (p < 0.05) intensity x exercise interaction. More repetitions were performed during the back squat than the bench press or arm curl at 60% 1RM for T and UT. At 80 and 90% 1RM, there were significant differences between the back squat and other exercises; however, differences were much less pronounced. No differences in number of repetitions performed at a given exercise intensity were noted between T and UT (except during bench press at 90% 1RM). In conclusion, the number of repetitions performed at a given percent of 1RM is influenced by the amount of muscle mass used during the exercise, as more repetitions can be performed during the back squat than either the bench press or arm curl. Training status of the individual has a minimal impact on the number of repetitions performed at relative exercise intensity.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Jan;32(1):235-42.Click here to read Links
Single versus multiple sets in long-term recreational weightlifters.
* Hass CJ,
* Garzarella L,
* de Hoyos D,
* Pollock ML.
Center for Exercise Science, Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increasing training volume from one set to three sets on muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition in adult recreational weight lifters. METHODS: Forty-two adults (age 39.7 +/- 6.2 yr; 6.2 +/- 4.6 yr weight training experience) who had been performing one set using a nine-exercise resistance training circuit (RTC) for a minimum of 1 yr participated in this study. Subjects continued to perform one set (EX-1; N = 21) or performed three sets (EX-3; N = 21) of 8-12 repetitions to muscular failure 3 d x wk(-1) for 13 wk using RTC. One repetition maximums (1-RM) were measured for leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), chest press (CP), overhead press (OP), and biceps curl (BC). Muscular endurance was evaluated for the CP and LE as the number of repetitions to failure using 75% of pretraining 1-RM. Body composition was estimated using the sum of seven skinfold measures. RESULTS: Both groups significantly improved muscular endurance and 1 RM strength (EX-1 by: 13.6% LE; 9.2% LC; 11.9% CP; 8.7% OP; 8.3% BC; and EX-3 by: 12.8% LE; 12.0% LC; 13.5% CP; 12.4% OP; 10.3% BC) (P < 0.05). Both groups significantly improved lean body mass (P < 0.05). No significant differences between groups were found for any of the test variables (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both groups significantly improved muscular fitness and body composition as a result of the 13 wk of training. The results show that one-set programs are still effective even after a year of training and that increasing training volume over 13 wk does not lead to significantly greater improvements in fitness for adult recreational weight lifters.
J Strength Cond Res. 2002 Nov;16(4):525-9.Click here to read Links
Three sets of weight training superior to 1 set with equal intensity for eliciting strength.
* Rhea MR,
* Alvar BA,
* Ball SD,
* Burkett LN.
Exercise and Wellness Research Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science and Physical Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85212, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to compare single and multiple sets of weight training for strength gains in recreationally trained individuals. Sixteen men (age = 21 +/- 2.0) were randomly assigned to 1 set (S-1; n = 8) or 3 set (S-3; n = 8) groups and trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) was recorded for bench press and leg press at pre-, mid-, and posttest. Subjects trained according to daily undulating periodization (DUP), involving the bench press and leg press exercises between 4RM and 8RM. Training intensity was equated for both groups. Analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed statistically significant differences favoring S-3 in the leg press (p < 0.05, effect size [ES] = 6.5) and differences approaching significance in the bench press (p = 0.07, ES = 2.3). The results demonstrate that for recreationally trained individuals using DUP training, 3 sets of training are superior to 1 set for eliciting maximal strength gains.
Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
05-06-2007, 04:28 PM
07-18-2007, 12:58 AM
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