Recent research on static stretching

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  1. Recent research on static stretching


    CHRONIC EFFECT OF STATIC STRETCHING ON STRENGTH PERFORMANCE AND BASAL SERUM IGF-1LEVELS.

    ABSTRACT: Improving the process of how physical performance is enhanced is one of the main topics evaluated by physiologists. This process often involves athletes as well as non-athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the chronic response to ten weeks of static stretchingexercises carried out before and during a strength training program for eight exercises on eight repetition maximum (8RM) test performance, andbasal serum IGF-1 levels. Thirty recreationally trained volunteers were randomly assigned into one of three training groups: 1) SBST (performed a warm-up with a static stretching protocol before each strength training session); 2) SDST (before each training set, a static stretching exercise was performed); and 3) OST (entire session was performed without any type of stretching exercise). Strength and IGF-1 levels were collected at the beginning (pre-test) and end (post-test) of the entire experimental procedure. All exercises showed a significant increase in muscle strength for the OST group. However, the results revealed a significant increase in muscle strength for only a few exercises in the SBST (LP, LE) and SDST (LP) experimental conditions. Significant statistical differences were found between SBST and SDST for all exercises in the OST experimental condition. Furthermore, IGF-1 expression showed no significant differences in intragroup analysis. However, the OST group showed higher values (p<0.05) in post-test when compared to other groups (increased significantly only in the OST experimental condition). It has been concluded that, while all groups showed an increase in muscular strength, but the strength training performed without any type of stretching exercise, regardless of if the stretching is performed prior or during the lifting session, can more effectively increase muscle strength as well as basal serum IGF-1 levels. It was concluded thatstrength training, with or without the use of stretching exercises, increased muscular strength in the studied groups, and can induce an increase inIGF-1 levels.

    PMID: 23254543
    Basically, static stretching prior to or during resistance training will likely lead to reduced gains in strength.
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    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates


  2. This is good information that has been permeating the training world for a little while and should be considered by every lifter.

    People with stubbornly tight muscles, however, shouldn't fear static stretching. Lifting "loose" and slightly compromised for maximum strength gains in a single session is much better than popping a hammie and sitting bench for weeks.

    A comprehensive flexibility and mobility program is best where dynamic stretching and mobility work is incorporated to a lifting warm up routine and static stretching follows to increase overall flexibility over time.

    Don't sweat the small stuff if you aren't breaking parallel at least on your squats without stretching.
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  3. i got into an argument at a fitness trainer interview because the dumass trainers there have all their clients static stretch and myofascial release before exercise. safe to say i wasnt hired lol
    i told them i believe in dynamic stretching or no stretching. they said its for "advanced trainees only" wutdufuq

  4. How do you feel about foam rolling? Before or after?

  5. Quote Originally Posted by TexasGuy View Post
    This is good information that has been permeating the training world for a little while and should be considered by every lifter.

    People with stubbornly tight muscles, however, shouldn't fear static stretching. Lifting "loose" and slightly compromised for maximum strength gains in a single session is much better than popping a hammie and sitting bench for weeks.

    A comprehensive flexibility and mobility program is best where dynamic stretching and mobility work is incorporated to a lifting warm up routine and static stretching follows to increase overall flexibility over time.

    Don't sweat the small stuff if you aren't breaking parallel at least on your squats without stretching.
    it appears that the same is true with dynamic stretching

    Maximal strength, number of repetitions, and total volume are differently affected by static-, ballistic-, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

    Stretching exercises have been traditionally incorporated into warm-up routines before training sessions and sport events. However, the effects of stretching on maximal strength and strength endurance performance seem to depend on the type of stretching employed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching (SS), ballistic stretching (BS), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on maximal strength, number of repetitions at a submaximal load, and total volume (i.e., number of repetitions external load) in a multiple-set resistance training bout. Twelve strength-trained men (20.4 4.5 years, 67.9 6.3 kg, 173.3 8.5 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All of the subjects completed 8 experimental sessions. Four experimental sessions were designed to test maximal strength in the leg press (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) after each stretching condition (SS, BS, PNF, or no-stretching [NS]). During the other 4 sessions, the number of repetitions performed at 80% 1RM was assessed after each stretching condition. All of the stretching protocols significantly improved the range of motion in the sit-and-reach test when compared with NS. Further, PNF induced greater changes in the sit-and-reach test than BS did (4.7 1.6, 2.9 1.5, and 1.9 1.4 cm for PNF, SS, and BS, respectively). Leg press 1RM values were decreased only after the PNF condition (5.5%, p < 0.001). All the stretching protocols significantly reduced the number of repetitions (SS: 20.8%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.8%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.7%, p < 0.001) and total volume (SS: 20.4%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.9%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.4%, p < 0.001) when compared with NS. The results from this study suggest that, to avoid a decrease in both the number of repetitions and total volume, stretching exercises should not be performed before a resistance training session. Additionally, strength-trained individuals may experience reduced maximal dynamic strength after PNF stretching.

    PMID: 22914099
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    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
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  6. Quote Originally Posted by beastybean View Post
    How do you feel about foam rolling? Before or after?
    Both

    An acute bout of self‐myofascial release increases range of motion without a subsequent decrease in neuromuscular performance

    Objective:

    To determine the effect of self myofascial release via foam roller application on skeletal muscle performance.

    Background:

    The use of foam rollers in athletic, rehabilitative and normal populations has substantially increased in recent years because it is thought that foam rolling improves muscular function, performance and joint range of motion (ROM). However, there is no empirical evidence demonstrating this.

    Methods:

    Eleven healthy male (height 178.9 3.5 cm, weight 86.3 7.4 kg, age 22.3 3.8) subjects who were recreational resistance trainers and moderate to very physically active participated. Subjects quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, activation, twitch force,
    tetanic force, electromyography (EMG), knee joint ROM and perceived pain were measured prior to, one minute, and 10 minutes following two
    conditions; 1) two, one minute trials of self myofascial release of the quadriceps via a high density foam roller and 2) no self myofascial release
    (Control). A two‐way ANOVA (condition x time) with repeated measures was performed on all
    dependent variables recorded in the pre‐ and post‐condition tests.

    Results:

    There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the neuromuscular dependent variables. However, following foam rolling, subjects ROM significantly (ρ < 0.001) increased by more than 10% at 2 and 10 minutes. Subjects who reported high perceived pain values were able to generate greater force, but not ROM. Furthermore, there was a significant (ρ <0.01) negative correlation between subjects force
    and ROM prior to foam rolling, which no longer existed following foam rolling.

    Conclusion:

    An acute bout of self myofascial release of the quadriceps is an effective treatment to enhance knee joint range of motion without a concomitant deficit in muscle performance. These findings have substantial implications for the usage of self myofascial release
    in rehabilitative and athletic settings.
    So we see a 10 degree increase in range of motion after foam rolling compared to the control leg.

    Now as for post workout, subjectively I feel foam rolling after a workout helps my recovery.
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  7. Foam rolling was one of the best decisions I've ever made.

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  8. Re: Recent research on static stretching


    Have any of you moved up to a PVC pipe yet?

    - Valdez
    The Physique Biochemist
    Biochemistry Major
    Your Physique AND Credentials Should Back Up Your Position

  9. Quote Originally Posted by Valdez View Post
    Have any of you moved up to a PVC pipe yet?

    - Valdez
    That sounds absolutely terrible....

  10. Quote Originally Posted by beastybean View Post
    How do you feel about foam rolling? Before or after?
    i started foam rolling on my non-training days, tues and thurs. i give each area 50 rolls and do a little static stretching. i have to, i'm pushing 50. i also have one of these: http://www.elitefts.com/view/?sp=4019">Muscletrac PRO coming in the mail and will incorporate it into tues-thurs

  11. Quote Originally Posted by napalm View Post

    i started foam rolling on my non-training days, tues and thurs. i give each area 50 rolls and do a little static stretching. i have to, i'm pushing 50. i also have one of these: http://www.elitefts.com/view/?sp=4019">Muscletrac PRO coming in the mail and will incorporate it into tues-thurs
    the muscle trac looks a lot better than using an ez curl bar with a rag around it..
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  12. Quote Originally Posted by JudoJosh View Post
    it appears that the same is true with dynamic stretching
    This is new information to me though it makes sense as stretching is stretching.

    Personally, I'll still be stretching out tight muscles even if I am slightly compromised for strength and volume.

    As long as my numbers are coming up, I'm fine with it over poor form, ROM and potential injury.

    It's still better to lift loose than sit injured and a nagging tight hamstring or hip flexor during squats will be more detrimental than progressing slightly below maximal at each training session, so long as progress is made. When you feel like maxing out, by all means, do it unstretched and push for that extra 10 %.

    Incorrect movement patterns, poor tracking et cetera will all lead to a shortened lifting career in the long term, and potentially an acute injury halting gains in the short term and stretching definitely increases ROM in the immediate.

    I would hope readers will understand that while information itself is valuable, so is application. It's one thing to be limber and mobile with a proper warm up. It's another to lift tight and wind up looking like a retarded Quazimodo with arthritis and recurring injuries.

    A comprehensive stretching and mobility routine to become limber and mobile enough for a warm up to suffice is important if a lifter isn't already, and if a lifter is at the start of such a routine, he is most likely are flirting with injury if not loosening up prior to a lifting session. He should absolutely stretch and roll out impingements beforehand, afterwards and maybe even again later in the day until he is flexible enough to get by with out stretching before lifting.

  13. I understand your points being made for static stretching prior, however, also consider that it is relaxing in nature. It's not going to increase the temperature of the muscle, increase blood flow or excite the cns; all things I want in my warm up. It also reduces power output which, itself, can lead to injury. I also consider full Rom strength training to be equally as, if not more, effective as ss in increasing active Rom.

  14. Quote Originally Posted by napalm

    i started foam rolling on my non-training days, tues and thurs. i give each area 50 rolls and do a little static stretching. i have to, i'm pushing 50. i also have one of these: http://www.elitefts.com/view/?sp=4019">Muscletrac PRO coming in the mail and will incorporate it into tues-thurs
    you know youre not really supposed to roll on it. youre suposed to sit on the kinks till the pain goes away lol

  15. Quote Originally Posted by Valdez View Post
    Have any of you moved up to a PVC pipe yet?
    - Valdez
    It's the only thing I've found that really works on my hip flexors.

    Quote Originally Posted by OnionKnight View Post
    you know youre not really supposed to roll on it. youre suposed to sit on the kinks till the pain goes away lol
    Not true. Rolling has benefits beyond working out adhesions within the tissue such as increased elasticity and bloodflow to the area.
    M.Ed. Ex Phys


  16. Quote Originally Posted by tigerdb2 View Post
    I understand your points being made for static stretching prior, however, also consider that it is relaxing in nature. It's not going to increase the temperature of the muscle, increase blood flow or excite the cns; all things I want in my warm up. It also reduces power output which, itself, can lead to injury. I also consider full Rom strength training to be equally as, if not more, effective as ss in increasing active Rom.
    As a part of a comprehensive warm up it is effective at preventing injuries for people suffering chronically tight muscles. I'm not recommending a few stretches and straight to work sets, only that people consider reponsible application of the information. And that they include flexibility and mobility work to a routine outside of simply lifting.

    Decreased power output will only lead to injury if a lifter pushes beyond his limit in a given session, same as a lifter who doesn't stretch. Heavily loading a tight and poorly responsive muscle actually increases risk of injury though. Stretched tendons may be a concern where load is considered but a warm up routine incorporating stretches isn't exactly an hour long advanced yoga session.
  17. Re: Recent research on static stretching


    Quote Originally Posted by jimbuick View Post
    That sounds absolutely terrible....
    Quote Originally Posted by Rodja View Post
    It's the only thing I've found that really works on my hip flexors.
    I was recommended to try pvc and have never gone back to foam.

    - Valdez
    The Physique Biochemist
    Biochemistry Major
    Your Physique AND Credentials Should Back Up Your Position

  18. Quote Originally Posted by OnionKnight View Post
    you know youre not really supposed to roll on it. youre suposed to sit on the kinks till the pain goes away lol
    Both. Apply pressure to kinks to relax the muscle spindles and work out adhesions. Roll for the reasons Rodja mentioned.

  19. Quote Originally Posted by ZiR RED View Post
    Both. Apply pressure to kinks to relax the muscle spindles and work out adhesions. Roll for the reasons Rodja mentioned.
    Hurts like hell...but it is the only thing that has helped my calves (got them swollen and tight lately after starting to really overload my squat), flexors and lumbar.

    Doing them rather slowly, with a good amount of pressure and for long reps can be a PITA...but the next day you feel in heaven.
    >SNS-Glycophase<
    Serious Nutrition Solutions Rep

  20. How do you roll your calves? I have tried both foam rolling and lax ball, but never seem to be able to transfer sufficient enough weight to the area to make a meaningful difference. The one thing that seemed to do the trick was to have my girlfriend kneel on my lower legs while rolling. Sounds kinky, I know!
  21. Re: Recent research on static stretching


    https://www.thestick.com/cgi-bin/com...mp;key=DC-2475

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  22. Re: Recent research on static stretching


    Makes sense to me, the study on stretching and strength. If you think about powerlifting gear it's all the tighter the better. If your knee wraps are looser you squat a bit less, same idea with your muscles.

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  23. Quote Originally Posted by Randoja View Post
    Makes sense to me, the study on stretching and strength. If you think about powerlifting gear it's all the tighter the better. If your knee wraps are looser you squat a bit less, same idea with your muscles.

    Sent from my phone.
    Not exactly. Powerlifting gear is more akin to connective tissue than muscle and adds an extra layer of normal force from the gear.
    M.Ed. Ex Phys


  24. I use pvc pipe

  25. Quote Originally Posted by Rodja View Post
    Not exactly. Powerlifting gear is more akin to connective tissue than muscle and adds an extra layer of normal force from the gear.
    I hear ya, but wouldn't stretching reduce the elasticity of your connective tissue to some extent as well?
    Purus Labs Rep
    www.puruslabs.net
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