Contest....

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  1. Quote Originally Posted by bmw71285 View Post
    When are you guys going to announce the winner??
    couple more days- I really want to see what everyone can come up with- there is some crazy **** out there
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals


  2. A couple days??? I can't wait that long lol. How bout u end the contest in 10 min???
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  3. Quote Originally Posted by bmw71285 View Post
    A couple days??? I can't wait that long lol. How bout u end the contest in 10 min???
    Cuz' I want to see some more of these studies- they are quite entertaining!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  4. Elderly armpits can lift your spirits


    Hormones detected by human smell can alter your mood

    The armpit smells of old ladies are the latest mood-enhancing substances to be uncovered by scientists - but they warn that those of young men may have the reverse effect.
    The Pennsylvania-based team believe that the effect may be due to the human ability to detect the presence or absence of hormones in sweat which signal aggression, reports "New Scientist" magazine.

    Denise Chen, at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia recruited 30 volunteers in six different age categories - young girls and boys, young adult men and women, and men and women in their 70s.

    Perfume and deodorant ban

    The volunteers were banned from using perfumes or deodorants, or eating strong smelling food for four days, although they were allowed to take showers using unscented soap.

    Throughout this period, a gauze pad strapped under the arm absorbed any odour they produced.

    Then more than 300 university students sampled smells taken at random, filling in before and after questionnaires designed to test their mood.

    People who had inhaled the samples taken from the armpits of old ladies responded significantly more positively.

    Ms Chen said: "Old women had an uplifting effect".

    But results showed the smell of young men had a noticeably "depressive effect", an outcome which might have been anticipated by any parent of a teenage boy.

    In between these extremes, the smell of older people generally improved mood, as did the smell of females.

    Hormonal signal

    Jeannette Haviland, who also worked on the research, suggested that hormones in the body odour of the young might act as a signal of aggression.

    She pointed to a recent study which showed that people can distinguish between the odours of both happy and frightened people.

    Hormonal changes in old age, she said, were likely to make the odour of the elderly, particularly women, signal approachability.

    Source: BBC News

  5. Ok ok ok, ur the boss. Are we allowed to post more than one study? Also, can you give us some sort of heads up as to who may be in the lead as of right now??
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  6. haha...this thread is awesome...wait a few days I wanna play this...but need sleep now!..

  7. Quote Originally Posted by bmw71285 View Post
    Ok ok ok, ur the boss. Are we allowed to post more than one study? Also, can you give us some sort of heads up as to who may be in the lead as of right now??
    Absolutely!! I am going to have to go through them again- but KJ and BP so far, but the contest is not over!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  8. A first case study of homosexual necrophilia in the Mallard Duck

    The strange case of the homosexual necrophiliac duck pushed out the boundaries of knowledge in a rather improbable way when it was recorded by Dutch researcher Kees Moeliker.
    It may have ruffled a few feathers, but it earned him the coveted Ig Nobel prize for biology awarded for improbable research, and next week he will be recounting his findings to UK audiences on the Ig Nobel tour.

    Ducks behave pretty badly, it seems. It is not so much that up to one in 10 of mallard couples are homosexual - no one would raise an eyebrow in the liberal Netherlands - but they regularly indulge in "attempted rape flights" when they pursue other ducks with a view to forcible mating. "Rape is a normal reproductive strategy in mallards," explains Mr Moeliker.

    As he recounts in his seminal paper, The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the mallard anas platyrhynchos, he was in his office in the Natuurmuseum Rotterdam, when he was alerted by a bang to the fact a bird had crashed into the glass facade of the building. "I went downstairs immediately to see if the window was damaged, and saw a drake mallard (anas platyrhynchos) lying motionless on its belly in the sand, two metres outside the facade. The unfortunate duck apparently had hit the building in full flight at a height of about three metres from the ground. Next to the obviously dead duck, another male mallard (in full adult plumage without any visible traces of moult) was present. He forcibly picked into the back, the base of the bill and mostly into the back of the head of the dead mallard for about two minutes, then mounted the corpse and started to copulate, with great force, almost continuously picking the side of the head.

    "Rather startled, I watched this scene from close quarters behind the window until 19.10 hours during which time (75 minutes) I made some photographs and the mallard almost continuously copulated his dead congener. He dismounted only twice, stayed near the dead duck and picked the neck and the side of the head before mounting again. The first break (at 18.29 hours) lasted three minutes and the second break (at 18.45 hours) lasted less than a minute. At 19.12 hours, I disturbed this cruel scene. The necrophilic mallard only reluctantly left his 'mate': when I had approached him to about five metres, he did not fly away but simply walked off a few metres, weakly uttering a series of two-note 'raeb-raeb' calls (the 'conversation-call' of Lorentz 1953). I secured the dead duck and left the museum at 19.25 hours. The mallard was still present at the site, calling 'raeb-raeb' and apparently looking for his victim (who, by then, was in the freezer)."

    Mr Moeliker suggests the pair were engaged in a rape flight attempt. "When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback - well, didn't get any feedback," he said.

    His findings have provoked a lot of interest - especially in Britain for some reason - but no other recorded cases of duck necrophilia. However, Mr Moeliker was informed of an American case involving a squirrel and a dead partner, although in this case it is not known whether the necrophilia observed was homosexual or not as the victim had been run over by a truck shortly before the incident.
    Recent log:http://anabolicminds.com/forum/supplement-reviews-logs/213350-lean-efx-refined.html

  9. Quote Originally Posted by bpmartyr View Post
    A first case study of homosexual necrophilia in the Mallard Duck

    The strange case of the homosexual necrophiliac duck pushed out the boundaries of knowledge in a rather improbable way when it was recorded by Dutch researcher Kees Moeliker.
    It may have ruffled a few feathers, but it earned him the coveted Ig Nobel prize for biology awarded for improbable research, and next week he will be recounting his findings to UK audiences on the Ig Nobel tour.

    Ducks behave pretty badly, it seems. It is not so much that up to one in 10 of mallard couples are homosexual - no one would raise an eyebrow in the liberal Netherlands - but they regularly indulge in "attempted rape flights" when they pursue other ducks with a view to forcible mating. "Rape is a normal reproductive strategy in mallards," explains Mr Moeliker.

    As he recounts in his seminal paper, The first case of homosexual necrophilia in the mallard anas platyrhynchos, he was in his office in the Natuurmuseum Rotterdam, when he was alerted by a bang to the fact a bird had crashed into the glass facade of the building. "I went downstairs immediately to see if the window was damaged, and saw a drake mallard (anas platyrhynchos) lying motionless on its belly in the sand, two metres outside the facade. The unfortunate duck apparently had hit the building in full flight at a height of about three metres from the ground. Next to the obviously dead duck, another male mallard (in full adult plumage without any visible traces of moult) was present. He forcibly picked into the back, the base of the bill and mostly into the back of the head of the dead mallard for about two minutes, then mounted the corpse and started to copulate, with great force, almost continuously picking the side of the head.

    "Rather startled, I watched this scene from close quarters behind the window until 19.10 hours during which time (75 minutes) I made some photographs and the mallard almost continuously copulated his dead congener. He dismounted only twice, stayed near the dead duck and picked the neck and the side of the head before mounting again. The first break (at 18.29 hours) lasted three minutes and the second break (at 18.45 hours) lasted less than a minute. At 19.12 hours, I disturbed this cruel scene. The necrophilic mallard only reluctantly left his 'mate': when I had approached him to about five metres, he did not fly away but simply walked off a few metres, weakly uttering a series of two-note 'raeb-raeb' calls (the 'conversation-call' of Lorentz 1953). I secured the dead duck and left the museum at 19.25 hours. The mallard was still present at the site, calling 'raeb-raeb' and apparently looking for his victim (who, by then, was in the freezer)."

    Mr Moeliker suggests the pair were engaged in a rape flight attempt. "When one died the other one just went for it and didn't get any negative feedback - well, didn't get any feedback," he said.

    His findings have provoked a lot of interest - especially in Britain for some reason - but no other recorded cases of duck necrophilia. However, Mr Moeliker was informed of an American case involving a squirrel and a dead partner, although in this case it is not known whether the necrophilia observed was homosexual or not as the victim had been run over by a truck shortly before the incident.
    WOW that is absolutely off the wall... i laughed at the old person research study at first and then just sat amazed when i saw the next title on this one here!!!! damn thats off the wall, agian.

  10. damn actually just read it.... fin duck humped it 3 times for 75 min straight????? then the reference of the squirrel goin to town on his run over unsexually identifiable partner lol damn thats great.

  11. ok ok ok ....some of these are nuts...i wanna see full references..hahaha

  12. That is so off the wall, I almost want to accuse BP of making it up....... but, well.... I don't think he is that disturbed.......

  13. Quote Originally Posted by Lanbane View Post
    That is so off the wall, I almost want to accuse BP of making it up....... but, well.... I don't think he is that disturbed.......
    Honest, I thought the duck was alive while I was nailing it!
    Recent log:http://anabolicminds.com/forum/supplement-reviews-logs/213350-lean-efx-refined.html

  14. Measurement of breast volume: comparison of techniques.Palin WE Jr, von Fraunhofer JA, Smith DJ Jr.
    A system of graduated disks has been previously described as a method to determine breast volume. The accuracy and limitations of this system have not previously been reported. Comparison of these disks with a standardized volumetric method shows this simple system to be accurate. Standard linear correlation analysis was good for the entire group of breasts measured (r = 0.718). Conversion to true volume M is represented by the least-square line M = 20.33 + 1.37G. The correlation is expected to fail at volumes greater than 425 cc (greater than the calibration on the largest Grossman disk). Elimination of volumes greater than 425 cc, however, produced no improvement in correlation coefficient. Firm breasts (i.e., capsular contractures) displace less uniformly into the conical restraint of the disk and cause an overestimation of their volume. Three breasts in this series were evaluated with Baker grade III and IV capsular contractures. Elimination of these values improved the correlation between the two volume analyses (r = 0.853 and M = 1.56G - 4.48). We suggest that when confronted with very large or firm breasts that volumes determined by the Grossman disk be interpreted with care. A formula for calculation of the true breast volume from the Grossman measurement has been derived and presented.

    PMID: 3945688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  15. I mean, come on, who doesnt love the semen of rockhopper penguins?!!!!!!!!!!!


    Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).Waldoch J, Root T, Ramer J, Proudfoot J.
    Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana 46222, USA.

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

    PMID: 17469270 [PubMed - in process]

  16. Quote Originally Posted by ugab37 View Post
    I mean, come on, who doesnt love the semen of rockhopper penguins?!!!!!!!!!!!


    Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).Waldoch J, Root T, Ramer J, Proudfoot J.
    Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana 46222, USA.

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

    PMID: 17469270 [PubMed - in process]
    It really boggles my mind that universities spend money on stuff like this....or that an IRB would approve it!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  17. Quote Originally Posted by poopypants View Post
    damn actually just read it.... fin duck humped it 3 times for 75 min straight????? then the reference of the squirrel goin to town on his run over unsexually identifiable partner lol damn thats great.
    and he won a noble prize for that. LOL
    ~ Nothing can kill the Grimace!!



  18. Quote Originally Posted by prld2gr8ns View Post
    and he won a noble prize for that. LOL
    prld, Buff, and L'bane- you guys feel like co-authoring a study? I was thinking something like "Studies on the Interspecies Sexual Attraction of Emus to Human Beings" what do you think?!! Could make some big $$$$ if we win the Nobel Prize!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  19. Sounds like a plan!
    But we'll need supplies before beginning our research.... chain mail underwear come to mind.... we can dress prld up in the Jimmy MacElroy Peacock outfit also..........

  20. Scatophilic fantasies in prepuberty and Freud's stages of psycho-sexual development (author's transl)

    [Article in German]

    * Janzarik W.

    PMID: 7057955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Amplification of the erotic enema deviance.
    * Denko JD.

    Use of enemas for sexual stimulation has been observed and named klismaphilia. Some klismaphiliacs indulge their taste for enemas in other wise normal sexual settings. Others combine it with fetishes, excretory and otherwise or with masturbation. Still others practice klismaphilia in homosexual or sadomasochistic settings or in group sex.

    PMID: 937588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



    Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    * Agnew J.

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

    PMID: 7158678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-

  21. Clinical vampirism: blending myth and reality.

    * Jaffe PD,
    * DiCataldo F.

    University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    Vampires arouse strong popular interest and attract large print and film audiences. Their influence is also notable in clinical vampirism, a rare condition described in the forensic literature covering some of humanity's most shocking behaviors. Definitions of vampirism involve aspects of necrophilia, sadism, cannibalism, and a fascination with blood. Its relationships with established diagnostic categories, particularly schizophrenia and psychopathy, are also examined and illustrated by the presentation of a "modern" vampire. As myth and reality are disentangled, clinical vampirism reveals the complex mother-child dyad's blood ties running amok.

    PMID: 7718926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Digital imaging of the dissection and sexual abuse of a corpse - An exceptional case of necrophilia.

    * Bauer M,
    * Tatschner T,
    * Patzelt D.

    Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Regular necrophilia refers to the sexually motivated abuse of corpses and is not considered as severe crime in many western countries. However, the risk of "switching" to necrophilic homicides, i.e., committing a homicide to obtain a dead body, has to be assessed by forensic experts. We present a case of semi-professional dissection, preservation and sexual abuse of the body and body parts of a 14-year-old girl. Every step was documented by the offender on thousands of digital images thus allowing an exact reconstruction of necrophilic acts and fantasies. Three months after the disappearance of the body the remains could be recovered and linked to the deceased by pathological examination and DNA analysis. The offender had excessively used the internet for downloading files with sadistic and necrophilic contents including autopsy instructions. The psychiatric examination of the socially integrated and married patient revealed a severe personality disorder. Two other, previously unsolved cases could be attributed to him showing a clear progression of fantasies and acts.

    PMID: 17157546 [PubMed - in process]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-

  22. Can physique and gluteal size predict penile length in adult Nigerian men?

    * Orakwe JC,
    * Ogbuagu BO,
    * Ebuh GU.

    Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi. [email protected]

    BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, especially among the Igbo tribe, there is a well-held belief that a man's penile size can be predicted from his physique and the size of his buttocks, with people of small physique and flat buttocks likely to have long penile lengths. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study to test the scientific veracity of this traditional and apparently mythical belief. Stretched penile length was measured in 115 men between the ages of 30-65 years and its correlation with the body-mass index and the circumference of the hip as measured around the most prominent points on their buttocks, was statistically determined. RESULT: The mean age of the subjects was 42.30 years (SD = 9.67), with a median of 40 years and a range of 30-65 years. The mean penile length was 13.37 cm with a median of 13 cm and a range of 7.5-19.5 cm. The mean circumference of the body around the buttocks was 96.46 cm (SD = 10.91), median 98 cm, and range 73-122 cm. The body-mass index ranged 17.34-44.44, with the mean at 26.87 (SD = 5.86), and the median 25.53. Linear regression statistics showed no statistically significant correlation between stretched penile length and body-mass index, thus physique. There was a significant direct correlation between penile length and gluteal size. CONCLUSION: The supposed relationship between penile length and gluteal size may have a scientific basis, but contrary to belief, large buttocks is more predictive of longer penile length than small buttocks. Penile length has no relationship to physique.

    PMID: 17191423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-
  23. Sword swallowing and its side effects


    Brian Witcombe, consultant radiologist1 and Dan Meyer, executive director2
    1Department of Radiology, Gloucestershire Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester GL1 3NN
    2Sword Swallowers' Association International, 3729 Belle Oaks Drive, Antioch, Tennessee 37013, USA
    Correspondence to: B Witcombe Email: [email protected]
    Accepted October 28, 2006.

    References AbstractObjective To evaluate information on the practice and associated ill effects of sword swallowing.
    Design Letters sent to sword swallowers requesting information on technique and complications.

    Setting Membership lists of the Sword Swallowers' Association International.

    Participants 110 sword swallowers from 16 countries.

    Results We had information from 46 sword swallowers. Major complications are more likely when the swallower is distracted or swallows multiple or unusual swords or when previous injury is present. Perforations mainly involve the oesophagus and usually have a good prognosis. Sore throats are common, particularly while the skill is being learnt or when performances are too frequent. Major gastrointestinal bleeding sometimes occurs, and occasional chest pains tend to be treated without medical advice. Sword swallowers without healthcare coverage expose themselves to financial as well as physical risk.

    Conclusions Sword swallowers run a higher risk of injury when they are distracted or adding embellishments to their performance, but injured performers have a better prognosis than patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

    Top IntroductionSword swallowers know their occupation is dangerous. The Sword Swallowers' Association International (SSAI, Sword Swallowers Association International) recognises those who can swallow a non-retractable, solid steel blade at least two centimetres wide and 38 centimetres long. As we found only two English language case reports of injury resulting from sword swallowing,1 2 we explored the technique and side effects of this unusual practice.

    References MethodsWe sent a letter to members and contacts of the association asking if they were willing for data held in its archives to be published and asking how they learnt the technique and how many swords they had swallowed in the previous three months. We did not send out a medical questionnaire but invited swallowers to describe any medical problems associated with sword swallowing. One medical adviser was approached after one swallower, injured during the course of the study, gave her consent, and a few close associates of one of the authors (DM) answered direct medical questions. We obtained written consent from everyone whose history is mentioned. We excluded cases in which injury was related to swallowing items other than swords, such as glass, neon tubes, spear guns, or jack hammers.

    References ResultsWe sent letters to 110 members or contacts of the association in 16 countries; 48 responded and 46 (41.8%) consented to information being published (40 were men). The average age was 31 (range 16-64). Most were self taught and described how they learnt the technique. The average age when they learnt sword swallowing was 25 (range 13-46); nine learnt as teenagers. The average height was 176 cm (range 58-191 cm), average weight 79 kg (range 46-127 kg), and the longest sword swallowed was on average 60 cm (range 43-79 cm). There was no apparent correlation between the length of the longest sword each person could swallow and their height (correlation coefficient 0.20) or weight (−0.08). Twenty five had swallowed more than one sword at a time, five had swallowed more than 10 at a time, and one had swallowed 16 swords together (fig 1). Over the previous three months, the average number of swords swallowed was 43 (range of 0-300).

    Thirteen respondents did not volunteer any medical information, but 19 described sore throats, usually when they were learning to swallow, after performing too frequently, or when they were swallowing multiple or odd shaped swords. Lower chest pain, often lasting days, followed some performances and was usually treated by abstaining from practice. They rarely sought medical advice. Six suffered perforation of the pharynx or oesophagus. Three of these had surgery to the neck, one having a 1.5 cm laceration at the level of D2 and a pneumothorax, one a pinhole laceration at C6 and surgical emphysema, and the other having a pharyngeal tear. The perforations were treated conservatively in three patients, one of whom had a second perforation with aspiration of a neck abscess after further injury. Three others also had probable perforations, one of whom was told that a sword had “brushed” the heart, and one had pleurisy and another pericarditis after injury, suggesting extraoesophageal trauma. No one underwent thoracotomy, although one had a breadknife removed transabdominally. Sixteen mentioned intestinal bleeding, varying in quantity from melaena or finding some blood on a withdrawn sword to large haematemases necessitating transfusion. No members of the association had died from sword swallowing, but the cost of medical care was a concern with three members receiving medical bills around $23000-$70000 (£12000-£37000, €18000-€55000).

    References DiscussionOur study relied on the memory of some of the 50 sword swallowers active in the English speaking world as well as some retired performers. Respondents could have exaggerated side effects, but it is more likely that details were overlooked. We did know of some incidents that involved non-respondents, and most serious events probably would have come to the attention of the association.


    Technique
    Some respondents swallowed a sword easily, but mastery for most required daily practice over months or years. The gag reflex is desensitised, sometimes by repeatedly putting fingers down the throat, but other objects are used including spoons, paint brushes, knitting needles, and plastic tubes before the swallower commonly progresses to a bent wire coat hanger. The performer must then learn to align a sword with the upper oesophageal sphincter with the neck hyper-extended. The next step requires relaxation of the pharynx and oesophagus and particularly the horizontal fibres of cricopharyngeus, which are not usually under voluntary control.3 Devgan et al have shown that one swallower was able to reduce voluntarily the resting pressure of this sphincter by 10-20 mm Hg.3 This swallower described having to “relax the muscles of his neck,” and several swallowers mentioned not being able to perform when they could not “relax” or the throat “closing up” when sore. Huizinga4 described a swallower who “sucked in” the sword, and a lateral radiograph in Huizinga's paper shows the pharynx filled with air, but preliminary air swallowing is not invariable. Force must not be used and the clean sword is usually lubricated at least with saliva. One performer used butter, and one had to retire because of a dry mouth caused by medication.
    Once the swallower has got the sword past the cricopharyngeal sphincter and relaxed the oesophagus, he or she must learn to control retching so the sword can be passed down to the cardia. The cardia lies about 40 cm from the teeth and the sword straightens the flexible and distensible oesophagus. Further progress depends not only on the swallower learning to relax the lower oesophageal sphincter and controlling retching but also on the shape of the stomach. The angle of the gastro-oesophageal junction and lesser curve vary, being obtuse in the vertically oriented stomach, particularly when it is full, and more acute in the high horizontal stomach often present in thickset individuals (fig 2). A 220 cm giant is said to hold the record for the longest swallowed sword (82.5 cm) and body build should have a bearing on what length of sword can pass. Nevertheless, we did not find any correlation between the longest sword an individual could swallow and their size, suggesting other factors are important.

    Some experienced artistes add embellishments that increase danger. Some let the sword fall abruptly, a manoeuvre known as “the drop,” controlling the fall of the sword with the muscles of the pharynx, and some invite members of the audience to move the sword. One lies prone on a bed of nails; one sometimes performs on a unicycle; and another under water.



    Side effects
    Sore throats—“sword throats”—occur when swallowers are learning, when performances are repeated frequently, or when odd shaped or multiple swords are used. Lower chest pains occur occasionally, most often after an obviously damaging swallow or when the “drop” is practised frequently. One performer described this pain after performing the drop 40 times a day in a state fair, and another described shoulder tip pain implying diaphragmatic irritation. Proprietary medicines are used for this problem, physicians are rarely consulted, and abstinence from swallowing swords is the main treatment.
    Major injury is sometimes preceded by a previous painful performance, suggesting that minor injury may predispose to more serious damage. Occasionally a sword is difficult to advance or retract, presumably because of spasm or mucosal dryness related to nervousness or soreness. Overforceful efforts to move the sword may then cause trauma, and this resulted in oesophageal perforation in one performer. Several cases of perforation or severe haemorrhage occurred when swallowers used multiple or unusual swords or when a technical error was committed, often because of distraction. For example, one swallower lacerated his pharynx when trying to swallow a curved sabre, a second lacerated his oesophagus and developed pleurisy after being distracted by a misbehaving macaw on his shoulder, and a belly dancer suffered a major haemorrhage when a bystander pushed dollar bills into her belt causing three blades in her oesophagus to scissor. Of the 12 cases of probable perforation, including the two previously described in the literature, at least five involved the cervical or upper dorsal oesophagus with only one definite pharyngeal perforation. The other injuries were either lower down or the exact level of perforation was uncertain. All these patients survived, and no contacts of the association have died as a direct result of sword swallowing and no deaths have been reported in the medical literature. There is historical evidence elsewhere, however, and deaths from swallowing swords and other items such as neon tubes are described on the internet (www.swordswallow.com/halloffame.php).

    Comparison with endoscopic injury
    The first endoscopy by Adolph Kussmaul in 1868 used mirrors and a gasoline lamp in a sword swallower,4 but rigid instruments, with their high rate of perforation, have largely been replaced.5 Patients injured during endoluminal procedures tend to be older and have pre-existing disease, the injuries usually complicating therapeutic manoeuvres.6 7 Iatrogenic perforation is sometimes not recognised until an instrument has passed well into the mediastinum of the patient, who is usually not fully conscious, and it tends to occur either adjacent to a lesion or where the pharynx narrows down to the oesophagus at or near Kilian's dehiscence.6 Most sword injuries were lower than this level, suggesting that the failure of a straight sword to negotiate the oesophageal lumen as it curves to fit the dorsal kyphosis may contribute to injury.
    As in iatrogenic perforation, penetration is the main cause of injury but lacerations and scissoring injuries occur. A sword rarely passes out into the mediastinum and, although an injured swallower may realise that the performance has not proceeded smoothly, the injury may be recognised only when surgical emphysema, pain, or other symptoms develop, and there is often a delay before medical advice is sought.

    Many factors, including delay and the size and site of the injury, have a bearing on outcomes. Mortality from iatrogenic perforation is quoted at 10-30%,7 8 but we did not find any deaths from sword swallowing.

    Our 46 respondents collectively had swallowed over 2000 swords in the three months before we contacted them but the complications relate to their professional lifetimes. Although the risk of sustaining life threatening injury is low for an experienced swallower while relaxed and concentrating on swallowing a single sword, the risk over a career is high. The prognosis for a sword swallower who does sustain upper gastrointestinal injury seems better than for patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

  24. Human North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) attack.

    * Potter TM,
    * Hanna JA,
    * Freer L.

    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. [email protected]

    As a result of the successful restoration and conservation programs deployed by state and federal agencies, populations of the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) are increasing in many states. Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and fishing increase the likelihood of human interactions with this charismatic, nonendangered mustelid. Otters tend to avoid areas of high human activity, occur at low population densities, and in some habitats in the United States have not recovered from population declines. Therefore, interactions with humans are rare, and aggressive encounters by otters are even less frequent. We report a recent, aggressive, and unprovoked attack that was followed by immediate medical treatment, including postexposure rabies prophylaxis, extensive suturing, and subsequent reconstructive surgery. We discuss river otter biology, the prevalence of diseases in wild populations of river otter, and otter attacks on humans and their treatment.

    PMID: 17447713 [PubMed - in process]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-

  25. The level of strangeness stays the same, while the topic area varies greatly.................

  26. Watch out for them river otters, lemme tell ya.
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-

  27. Quote Originally Posted by Aeternitatis View Post
    Human North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) attack.

    * Potter TM,
    * Hanna JA,
    * Freer L.

    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. [email protected]

    As a result of the successful restoration and conservation programs deployed by state and federal agencies, populations of the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) are increasing in many states. Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and fishing increase the likelihood of human interactions with this charismatic, nonendangered mustelid. Otters tend to avoid areas of high human activity, occur at low population densities, and in some habitats in the United States have not recovered from population declines. Therefore, interactions with humans are rare, and aggressive encounters by otters are even less frequent. We report a recent, aggressive, and unprovoked attack that was followed by immediate medical treatment, including postexposure rabies prophylaxis, extensive suturing, and subsequent reconstructive surgery. We discuss river otter biology, the prevalence of diseases in wild populations of river otter, and otter attacks on humans and their treatment.

    PMID: 17447713 [PubMed - in process]
    Saw some of these guys at the NC zoo a couple weekends ago- hard to believe that they could jack someone up!!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  28. Quote Originally Posted by sean taylor View Post
    Brian Witcombe, consultant radiologist1 and Dan Meyer, executive director2
    1Department of Radiology, Gloucestershire Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester GL1 3NN
    2Sword Swallowers' Association International, 3729 Belle Oaks Drive, Antioch, Tennessee 37013, USA
    Correspondence to: B Witcombe Email: [email protected]
    Accepted October 28, 2006.

    References AbstractObjective To evaluate information on the practice and associated ill effects of sword swallowing.
    Design Letters sent to sword swallowers requesting information on technique and complications.

    Setting Membership lists of the Sword Swallowers' Association International.

    Participants 110 sword swallowers from 16 countries.

    Results We had information from 46 sword swallowers. Major complications are more likely when the swallower is distracted or swallows multiple or unusual swords or when previous injury is present. Perforations mainly involve the oesophagus and usually have a good prognosis. Sore throats are common, particularly while the skill is being learnt or when performances are too frequent. Major gastrointestinal bleeding sometimes occurs, and occasional chest pains tend to be treated without medical advice. Sword swallowers without healthcare coverage expose themselves to financial as well as physical risk.

    Conclusions Sword swallowers run a higher risk of injury when they are distracted or adding embellishments to their performance, but injured performers have a better prognosis than patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

    Top IntroductionSword swallowers know their occupation is dangerous. The Sword Swallowers' Association International (SSAI, Sword Swallowers Association International) recognises those who can swallow a non-retractable, solid steel blade at least two centimetres wide and 38 centimetres long. As we found only two English language case reports of injury resulting from sword swallowing,1 2 we explored the technique and side effects of this unusual practice.

    References MethodsWe sent a letter to members and contacts of the association asking if they were willing for data held in its archives to be published and asking how they learnt the technique and how many swords they had swallowed in the previous three months. We did not send out a medical questionnaire but invited swallowers to describe any medical problems associated with sword swallowing. One medical adviser was approached after one swallower, injured during the course of the study, gave her consent, and a few close associates of one of the authors (DM) answered direct medical questions. We obtained written consent from everyone whose history is mentioned. We excluded cases in which injury was related to swallowing items other than swords, such as glass, neon tubes, spear guns, or jack hammers.

    References ResultsWe sent letters to 110 members or contacts of the association in 16 countries; 48 responded and 46 (41.8%) consented to information being published (40 were men). The average age was 31 (range 16-64). Most were self taught and described how they learnt the technique. The average age when they learnt sword swallowing was 25 (range 13-46); nine learnt as teenagers. The average height was 176 cm (range 58-191 cm), average weight 79 kg (range 46-127 kg), and the longest sword swallowed was on average 60 cm (range 43-79 cm). There was no apparent correlation between the length of the longest sword each person could swallow and their height (correlation coefficient 0.20) or weight (−0.08). Twenty five had swallowed more than one sword at a time, five had swallowed more than 10 at a time, and one had swallowed 16 swords together (fig 1). Over the previous three months, the average number of swords swallowed was 43 (range of 0-300).

    Thirteen respondents did not volunteer any medical information, but 19 described sore throats, usually when they were learning to swallow, after performing too frequently, or when they were swallowing multiple or odd shaped swords. Lower chest pain, often lasting days, followed some performances and was usually treated by abstaining from practice. They rarely sought medical advice. Six suffered perforation of the pharynx or oesophagus. Three of these had surgery to the neck, one having a 1.5 cm laceration at the level of D2 and a pneumothorax, one a pinhole laceration at C6 and surgical emphysema, and the other having a pharyngeal tear. The perforations were treated conservatively in three patients, one of whom had a second perforation with aspiration of a neck abscess after further injury. Three others also had probable perforations, one of whom was told that a sword had “brushed” the heart, and one had pleurisy and another pericarditis after injury, suggesting extraoesophageal trauma. No one underwent thoracotomy, although one had a breadknife removed transabdominally. Sixteen mentioned intestinal bleeding, varying in quantity from melaena or finding some blood on a withdrawn sword to large haematemases necessitating transfusion. No members of the association had died from sword swallowing, but the cost of medical care was a concern with three members receiving medical bills around $23000-$70000 (£12000-£37000, €18000-€55000).

    References DiscussionOur study relied on the memory of some of the 50 sword swallowers active in the English speaking world as well as some retired performers. Respondents could have exaggerated side effects, but it is more likely that details were overlooked. We did know of some incidents that involved non-respondents, and most serious events probably would have come to the attention of the association.


    Technique
    Some respondents swallowed a sword easily, but mastery for most required daily practice over months or years. The gag reflex is desensitised, sometimes by repeatedly putting fingers down the throat, but other objects are used including spoons, paint brushes, knitting needles, and plastic tubes before the swallower commonly progresses to a bent wire coat hanger. The performer must then learn to align a sword with the upper oesophageal sphincter with the neck hyper-extended. The next step requires relaxation of the pharynx and oesophagus and particularly the horizontal fibres of cricopharyngeus, which are not usually under voluntary control.3 Devgan et al have shown that one swallower was able to reduce voluntarily the resting pressure of this sphincter by 10-20 mm Hg.3 This swallower described having to “relax the muscles of his neck,” and several swallowers mentioned not being able to perform when they could not “relax” or the throat “closing up” when sore. Huizinga4 described a swallower who “sucked in” the sword, and a lateral radiograph in Huizinga's paper shows the pharynx filled with air, but preliminary air swallowing is not invariable. Force must not be used and the clean sword is usually lubricated at least with saliva. One performer used butter, and one had to retire because of a dry mouth caused by medication.
    Once the swallower has got the sword past the cricopharyngeal sphincter and relaxed the oesophagus, he or she must learn to control retching so the sword can be passed down to the cardia. The cardia lies about 40 cm from the teeth and the sword straightens the flexible and distensible oesophagus. Further progress depends not only on the swallower learning to relax the lower oesophageal sphincter and controlling retching but also on the shape of the stomach. The angle of the gastro-oesophageal junction and lesser curve vary, being obtuse in the vertically oriented stomach, particularly when it is full, and more acute in the high horizontal stomach often present in thickset individuals (fig 2). A 220 cm giant is said to hold the record for the longest swallowed sword (82.5 cm) and body build should have a bearing on what length of sword can pass. Nevertheless, we did not find any correlation between the longest sword an individual could swallow and their size, suggesting other factors are important.

    Some experienced artistes add embellishments that increase danger. Some let the sword fall abruptly, a manoeuvre known as “the drop,” controlling the fall of the sword with the muscles of the pharynx, and some invite members of the audience to move the sword. One lies prone on a bed of nails; one sometimes performs on a unicycle; and another under water.



    Side effects
    Sore throats—“sword throats”—occur when swallowers are learning, when performances are repeated frequently, or when odd shaped or multiple swords are used. Lower chest pains occur occasionally, most often after an obviously damaging swallow or when the “drop” is practised frequently. One performer described this pain after performing the drop 40 times a day in a state fair, and another described shoulder tip pain implying diaphragmatic irritation. Proprietary medicines are used for this problem, physicians are rarely consulted, and abstinence from swallowing swords is the main treatment.
    Major injury is sometimes preceded by a previous painful performance, suggesting that minor injury may predispose to more serious damage. Occasionally a sword is difficult to advance or retract, presumably because of spasm or mucosal dryness related to nervousness or soreness. Overforceful efforts to move the sword may then cause trauma, and this resulted in oesophageal perforation in one performer. Several cases of perforation or severe haemorrhage occurred when swallowers used multiple or unusual swords or when a technical error was committed, often because of distraction. For example, one swallower lacerated his pharynx when trying to swallow a curved sabre, a second lacerated his oesophagus and developed pleurisy after being distracted by a misbehaving macaw on his shoulder, and a belly dancer suffered a major haemorrhage when a bystander pushed dollar bills into her belt causing three blades in her oesophagus to scissor. Of the 12 cases of probable perforation, including the two previously described in the literature, at least five involved the cervical or upper dorsal oesophagus with only one definite pharyngeal perforation. The other injuries were either lower down or the exact level of perforation was uncertain. All these patients survived, and no contacts of the association have died as a direct result of sword swallowing and no deaths have been reported in the medical literature. There is historical evidence elsewhere, however, and deaths from swallowing swords and other items such as neon tubes are described on the internet (www.swordswallow.com/halloffame.php).

    Comparison with endoscopic injury
    The first endoscopy by Adolph Kussmaul in 1868 used mirrors and a gasoline lamp in a sword swallower,4 but rigid instruments, with their high rate of perforation, have largely been replaced.5 Patients injured during endoluminal procedures tend to be older and have pre-existing disease, the injuries usually complicating therapeutic manoeuvres.6 7 Iatrogenic perforation is sometimes not recognised until an instrument has passed well into the mediastinum of the patient, who is usually not fully conscious, and it tends to occur either adjacent to a lesion or where the pharynx narrows down to the oesophagus at or near Kilian's dehiscence.6 Most sword injuries were lower than this level, suggesting that the failure of a straight sword to negotiate the oesophageal lumen as it curves to fit the dorsal kyphosis may contribute to injury.
    As in iatrogenic perforation, penetration is the main cause of injury but lacerations and scissoring injuries occur. A sword rarely passes out into the mediastinum and, although an injured swallower may realise that the performance has not proceeded smoothly, the injury may be recognised only when surgical emphysema, pain, or other symptoms develop, and there is often a delay before medical advice is sought.

    Many factors, including delay and the size and site of the injury, have a bearing on outcomes. Mortality from iatrogenic perforation is quoted at 10-30%,7 8 but we did not find any deaths from sword swallowing.

    Our 46 respondents collectively had swallowed over 2000 swords in the three months before we contacted them but the complications relate to their professional lifetimes. Although the risk of sustaining life threatening injury is low for an experienced swallower while relaxed and concentrating on swallowing a single sword, the risk over a career is high. The prognosis for a sword swallower who does sustain upper gastrointestinal injury seems better than for patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.


    This is a good one!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals

  29. Self-cannibalism: an unusual case of self-mutilation.

    * Ahuja N,
    * Lloyd AJ.

    Wallsend Community Mental Health Team, Sir G.B. Hunter Memorial Hospital, Wallsend, and School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. UK.

    PMID: 17464713 [PubMed - in process]


    Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    * Gage LJ.

    Coyote Point Museum, 1651 Coyote Point Drive, San Mateo, Califoria 94401, USA.

    A captive adult female American badger (Taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. Initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. When diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d. for over 18 mo, during which time no undesirable behaviors or noticeable side effects were observed.

    PMID: 17312776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Male genital self-amputation in the Middle East.

    * Shirodkar SS,
    * Hammad FT,
    * Qureshi NA.

    Department of Urology, Level 9 West Dubai Hospital, PO Box 7272, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Genital self-mutilation, whether partial or complete, is a rare condition, which usually occurs in psychotic patients and occasionally has a religious background. The initial management of complete genital self-mutilation usually involves a formation of perineal urethrostomy or a more complex procedure to form a short penile stump. Here, we present a case of complete genital self-mutilation in a psychotic male who was managed with simple urethral spatulation to form an anterior urethrostomy.

    PMID: 17457454 [PubMed - in process]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-

  30. Incomplete oedipism and chronic suicidality in psychotic depression with paranoid delusions related to eyes.

    * Pompili M,
    * Lester D,
    * Tatarelli R,
    * Girardi P.

    McLean Hospital - Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. [email protected].

    ABSTRACT: Self-enucleation or oedipism is a term used to describe self-inflicted enucleation. It is a rare form of self-mutilation, found mainly in acutely psychotic patients. We propose the term incomplete oedipism to describe patients who deliberately and severely mutilate their eyes without proper enucleation.We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a five-year history of psychotic depression accompanied by paranoid delusions centered around his belief that his neighbors criticized him and stared at him. A central feature of his clinical picture was an eye injury that the patient had caused by pouring molten lead into his right eye during a period of deep hopelessness and suicidality when the patient could not resolve his anhedonia and social isolation. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy dramatically improved his disorder.

    PMID: 17118200 [PubMed - in process]


    Self-mutilation induced by cocaine abuse: the pleasure of bleeding.

    * Karila L,
    * Ferreri M,
    * Coscas S,
    * Cottencin O,
    * Benyamina A,
    * Reynaud M.

    Universite Paris-Sud, U669, Le Kremlin Bicetre (94). [email protected]

    INTRODUCTION: Self-mutilation is direct and deliberate harm to one's body without conscious intent to die. It is observed in both men and women with various psychiatric disorders, but most of those who self-mutilate are women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, associated with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socioeconomic and legal complications. Amphetamine use, but not cocaine use, has previously been associated with severe self-injurious behavior. CASE: We report here a case of a female patient with recurring self-injurious behavior ("the pleasure of bleeding") induced by cocaine abuse. DISCUSSION: The clinical characteristics of self-mutilation are manifold and there is a lack of agreement about its etiology. The complex behavior associated with cocaine abuse may be one cause of self-mutilation. Dysfunction of the inhibitory brain circuitry caused by drug addiction could explain why this cocaine-addicted patient loses control and self-mutilates during cocaine use.

    PMID: 17259032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    MOTIV8 II Challenge
    -=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-
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