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  1. Elite Member
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    ok ok ok ....some of these are nuts...i wanna see full references..hahaha

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    That is so off the wall, I almost want to accuse BP of making it up....... but, well.... I don't think he is that disturbed.......
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lanbane View Post
    That is so off the wall, I almost want to accuse BP of making it up....... but, well.... I don't think he is that disturbed.......
    Honest, I thought the duck was alive while I was nailing it!
    Recent log:http://anabolicminds.com/forum/supplement-reviews-logs/213350-lean-efx-refined.html
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    Measurement of breast volume: comparison of techniques.Palin WE Jr, von Fraunhofer JA, Smith DJ Jr.
    A system of graduated disks has been previously described as a method to determine breast volume. The accuracy and limitations of this system have not previously been reported. Comparison of these disks with a standardized volumetric method shows this simple system to be accurate. Standard linear correlation analysis was good for the entire group of breasts measured (r = 0.718). Conversion to true volume M is represented by the least-square line M = 20.33 + 1.37G. The correlation is expected to fail at volumes greater than 425 cc (greater than the calibration on the largest Grossman disk). Elimination of volumes greater than 425 cc, however, produced no improvement in correlation coefficient. Firm breasts (i.e., capsular contractures) displace less uniformly into the conical restraint of the disk and cause an overestimation of their volume. Three breasts in this series were evaluated with Baker grade III and IV capsular contractures. Elimination of these values improved the correlation between the two volume analyses (r = 0.853 and M = 1.56G - 4.48). We suggest that when confronted with very large or firm breasts that volumes determined by the Grossman disk be interpreted with care. A formula for calculation of the true breast volume from the Grossman measurement has been derived and presented.

    PMID: 3945688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    I mean, come on, who doesnt love the semen of rockhopper penguins?!!!!!!!!!!!


    Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).Waldoch J, Root T, Ramer J, Proudfoot J.
    Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana 46222, USA.

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

    PMID: 17469270 [PubMed - in process]
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    Quote Originally Posted by ugab37 View Post
    I mean, come on, who doesnt love the semen of rockhopper penguins?!!!!!!!!!!!


    Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).Waldoch J, Root T, Ramer J, Proudfoot J.
    Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana 46222, USA.

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

    PMID: 17469270 [PubMed - in process]
    It really boggles my mind that universities spend money on stuff like this....or that an IRB would approve it!!!
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    Quote Originally Posted by poopypants View Post
    damn actually just read it.... fin duck humped it 3 times for 75 min straight????? then the reference of the squirrel goin to town on his run over unsexually identifiable partner lol damn thats great.
    and he won a noble prize for that. LOL
    ~ Nothing can kill the Grimace!!


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    Quote Originally Posted by prld2gr8ns View Post
    and he won a noble prize for that. LOL
    prld, Buff, and L'bane- you guys feel like co-authoring a study? I was thinking something like "Studies on the Interspecies Sexual Attraction of Emus to Human Beings" what do you think?!! Could make some big $$$$ if we win the Nobel Prize!!!
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    Sounds like a plan!
    But we'll need supplies before beginning our research.... chain mail underwear come to mind.... we can dress prld up in the Jimmy MacElroy Peacock outfit also..........
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    Scatophilic fantasies in prepuberty and Freud's stages of psycho-sexual development (author's transl)

    [Article in German]

    * Janzarik W.

    PMID: 7057955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Amplification of the erotic enema deviance.
    * Denko JD.

    Use of enemas for sexual stimulation has been observed and named klismaphilia. Some klismaphiliacs indulge their taste for enemas in other wise normal sexual settings. Others combine it with fetishes, excretory and otherwise or with masturbation. Still others practice klismaphilia in homosexual or sadomasochistic settings or in group sex.

    PMID: 937588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



    Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    * Agnew J.

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

    PMID: 7158678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Clinical vampirism: blending myth and reality.

    * Jaffe PD,
    * DiCataldo F.

    University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    Vampires arouse strong popular interest and attract large print and film audiences. Their influence is also notable in clinical vampirism, a rare condition described in the forensic literature covering some of humanity's most shocking behaviors. Definitions of vampirism involve aspects of necrophilia, sadism, cannibalism, and a fascination with blood. Its relationships with established diagnostic categories, particularly schizophrenia and psychopathy, are also examined and illustrated by the presentation of a "modern" vampire. As myth and reality are disentangled, clinical vampirism reveals the complex mother-child dyad's blood ties running amok.

    PMID: 7718926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Digital imaging of the dissection and sexual abuse of a corpse - An exceptional case of necrophilia.

    * Bauer M,
    * Tatschner T,
    * Patzelt D.

    Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Regular necrophilia refers to the sexually motivated abuse of corpses and is not considered as severe crime in many western countries. However, the risk of "switching" to necrophilic homicides, i.e., committing a homicide to obtain a dead body, has to be assessed by forensic experts. We present a case of semi-professional dissection, preservation and sexual abuse of the body and body parts of a 14-year-old girl. Every step was documented by the offender on thousands of digital images thus allowing an exact reconstruction of necrophilic acts and fantasies. Three months after the disappearance of the body the remains could be recovered and linked to the deceased by pathological examination and DNA analysis. The offender had excessively used the internet for downloading files with sadistic and necrophilic contents including autopsy instructions. The psychiatric examination of the socially integrated and married patient revealed a severe personality disorder. Two other, previously unsolved cases could be attributed to him showing a clear progression of fantasies and acts.

    PMID: 17157546 [PubMed - in process]
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    Can physique and gluteal size predict penile length in adult Nigerian men?

    * Orakwe JC,
    * Ogbuagu BO,
    * Ebuh GU.

    Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi. jayceeorakwe@yahoo.com

    BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, especially among the Igbo tribe, there is a well-held belief that a man's penile size can be predicted from his physique and the size of his buttocks, with people of small physique and flat buttocks likely to have long penile lengths. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study to test the scientific veracity of this traditional and apparently mythical belief. Stretched penile length was measured in 115 men between the ages of 30-65 years and its correlation with the body-mass index and the circumference of the hip as measured around the most prominent points on their buttocks, was statistically determined. RESULT: The mean age of the subjects was 42.30 years (SD = 9.67), with a median of 40 years and a range of 30-65 years. The mean penile length was 13.37 cm with a median of 13 cm and a range of 7.5-19.5 cm. The mean circumference of the body around the buttocks was 96.46 cm (SD = 10.91), median 98 cm, and range 73-122 cm. The body-mass index ranged 17.34-44.44, with the mean at 26.87 (SD = 5.86), and the median 25.53. Linear regression statistics showed no statistically significant correlation between stretched penile length and body-mass index, thus physique. There was a significant direct correlation between penile length and gluteal size. CONCLUSION: The supposed relationship between penile length and gluteal size may have a scientific basis, but contrary to belief, large buttocks is more predictive of longer penile length than small buttocks. Penile length has no relationship to physique.

    PMID: 17191423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Sword swallowing and its side effects


    Brian Witcombe, consultant radiologist1 and Dan Meyer, executive director2
    1Department of Radiology, Gloucestershire Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester GL1 3NN
    2Sword Swallowers' Association International, 3729 Belle Oaks Drive, Antioch, Tennessee 37013, USA
    Correspondence to: B Witcombe Email: brian.witcombe@glos.nhs.uk
    Accepted October 28, 2006.

    References AbstractObjective To evaluate information on the practice and associated ill effects of sword swallowing.
    Design Letters sent to sword swallowers requesting information on technique and complications.

    Setting Membership lists of the Sword Swallowers' Association International.

    Participants 110 sword swallowers from 16 countries.

    Results We had information from 46 sword swallowers. Major complications are more likely when the swallower is distracted or swallows multiple or unusual swords or when previous injury is present. Perforations mainly involve the oesophagus and usually have a good prognosis. Sore throats are common, particularly while the skill is being learnt or when performances are too frequent. Major gastrointestinal bleeding sometimes occurs, and occasional chest pains tend to be treated without medical advice. Sword swallowers without healthcare coverage expose themselves to financial as well as physical risk.

    Conclusions Sword swallowers run a higher risk of injury when they are distracted or adding embellishments to their performance, but injured performers have a better prognosis than patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

    Top IntroductionSword swallowers know their occupation is dangerous. The Sword Swallowers' Association International (SSAI, Sword Swallowers Association International) recognises those who can swallow a non-retractable, solid steel blade at least two centimetres wide and 38 centimetres long. As we found only two English language case reports of injury resulting from sword swallowing,1 2 we explored the technique and side effects of this unusual practice.

    References MethodsWe sent a letter to members and contacts of the association asking if they were willing for data held in its archives to be published and asking how they learnt the technique and how many swords they had swallowed in the previous three months. We did not send out a medical questionnaire but invited swallowers to describe any medical problems associated with sword swallowing. One medical adviser was approached after one swallower, injured during the course of the study, gave her consent, and a few close associates of one of the authors (DM) answered direct medical questions. We obtained written consent from everyone whose history is mentioned. We excluded cases in which injury was related to swallowing items other than swords, such as glass, neon tubes, spear guns, or jack hammers.

    References ResultsWe sent letters to 110 members or contacts of the association in 16 countries; 48 responded and 46 (41.8%) consented to information being published (40 were men). The average age was 31 (range 16-64). Most were self taught and described how they learnt the technique. The average age when they learnt sword swallowing was 25 (range 13-46); nine learnt as teenagers. The average height was 176 cm (range 58-191 cm), average weight 79 kg (range 46-127 kg), and the longest sword swallowed was on average 60 cm (range 43-79 cm). There was no apparent correlation between the length of the longest sword each person could swallow and their height (correlation coefficient 0.20) or weight (−0.08). Twenty five had swallowed more than one sword at a time, five had swallowed more than 10 at a time, and one had swallowed 16 swords together (fig 1). Over the previous three months, the average number of swords swallowed was 43 (range of 0-300).

    Thirteen respondents did not volunteer any medical information, but 19 described sore throats, usually when they were learning to swallow, after performing too frequently, or when they were swallowing multiple or odd shaped swords. Lower chest pain, often lasting days, followed some performances and was usually treated by abstaining from practice. They rarely sought medical advice. Six suffered perforation of the pharynx or oesophagus. Three of these had surgery to the neck, one having a 1.5 cm laceration at the level of D2 and a pneumothorax, one a pinhole laceration at C6 and surgical emphysema, and the other having a pharyngeal tear. The perforations were treated conservatively in three patients, one of whom had a second perforation with aspiration of a neck abscess after further injury. Three others also had probable perforations, one of whom was told that a sword had “brushed” the heart, and one had pleurisy and another pericarditis after injury, suggesting extraoesophageal trauma. No one underwent thoracotomy, although one had a breadknife removed transabdominally. Sixteen mentioned intestinal bleeding, varying in quantity from melaena or finding some blood on a withdrawn sword to large haematemases necessitating transfusion. No members of the association had died from sword swallowing, but the cost of medical care was a concern with three members receiving medical bills around $23000-$70000 (£12000-£37000, €18000-€55000).

    References DiscussionOur study relied on the memory of some of the 50 sword swallowers active in the English speaking world as well as some retired performers. Respondents could have exaggerated side effects, but it is more likely that details were overlooked. We did know of some incidents that involved non-respondents, and most serious events probably would have come to the attention of the association.


    Technique
    Some respondents swallowed a sword easily, but mastery for most required daily practice over months or years. The gag reflex is desensitised, sometimes by repeatedly putting fingers down the throat, but other objects are used including spoons, paint brushes, knitting needles, and plastic tubes before the swallower commonly progresses to a bent wire coat hanger. The performer must then learn to align a sword with the upper oesophageal sphincter with the neck hyper-extended. The next step requires relaxation of the pharynx and oesophagus and particularly the horizontal fibres of cricopharyngeus, which are not usually under voluntary control.3 Devgan et al have shown that one swallower was able to reduce voluntarily the resting pressure of this sphincter by 10-20 mm Hg.3 This swallower described having to “relax the muscles of his neck,” and several swallowers mentioned not being able to perform when they could not “relax” or the throat “closing up” when sore. Huizinga4 described a swallower who “sucked in” the sword, and a lateral radiograph in Huizinga's paper shows the pharynx filled with air, but preliminary air swallowing is not invariable. Force must not be used and the clean sword is usually lubricated at least with saliva. One performer used butter, and one had to retire because of a dry mouth caused by medication.
    Once the swallower has got the sword past the cricopharyngeal sphincter and relaxed the oesophagus, he or she must learn to control retching so the sword can be passed down to the cardia. The cardia lies about 40 cm from the teeth and the sword straightens the flexible and distensible oesophagus. Further progress depends not only on the swallower learning to relax the lower oesophageal sphincter and controlling retching but also on the shape of the stomach. The angle of the gastro-oesophageal junction and lesser curve vary, being obtuse in the vertically oriented stomach, particularly when it is full, and more acute in the high horizontal stomach often present in thickset individuals (fig 2). A 220 cm giant is said to hold the record for the longest swallowed sword (82.5 cm) and body build should have a bearing on what length of sword can pass. Nevertheless, we did not find any correlation between the longest sword an individual could swallow and their size, suggesting other factors are important.

    Some experienced artistes add embellishments that increase danger. Some let the sword fall abruptly, a manoeuvre known as “the drop,” controlling the fall of the sword with the muscles of the pharynx, and some invite members of the audience to move the sword. One lies prone on a bed of nails; one sometimes performs on a unicycle; and another under water.



    Side effects
    Sore throats—“sword throats”—occur when swallowers are learning, when performances are repeated frequently, or when odd shaped or multiple swords are used. Lower chest pains occur occasionally, most often after an obviously damaging swallow or when the “drop” is practised frequently. One performer described this pain after performing the drop 40 times a day in a state fair, and another described shoulder tip pain implying diaphragmatic irritation. Proprietary medicines are used for this problem, physicians are rarely consulted, and abstinence from swallowing swords is the main treatment.
    Major injury is sometimes preceded by a previous painful performance, suggesting that minor injury may predispose to more serious damage. Occasionally a sword is difficult to advance or retract, presumably because of spasm or mucosal dryness related to nervousness or soreness. Overforceful efforts to move the sword may then cause trauma, and this resulted in oesophageal perforation in one performer. Several cases of perforation or severe haemorrhage occurred when swallowers used multiple or unusual swords or when a technical error was committed, often because of distraction. For example, one swallower lacerated his pharynx when trying to swallow a curved sabre, a second lacerated his oesophagus and developed pleurisy after being distracted by a misbehaving macaw on his shoulder, and a belly dancer suffered a major haemorrhage when a bystander pushed dollar bills into her belt causing three blades in her oesophagus to scissor. Of the 12 cases of probable perforation, including the two previously described in the literature, at least five involved the cervical or upper dorsal oesophagus with only one definite pharyngeal perforation. The other injuries were either lower down or the exact level of perforation was uncertain. All these patients survived, and no contacts of the association have died as a direct result of sword swallowing and no deaths have been reported in the medical literature. There is historical evidence elsewhere, however, and deaths from swallowing swords and other items such as neon tubes are described on the internet (www.swordswallow.com/halloffame.php).

    Comparison with endoscopic injury
    The first endoscopy by Adolph Kussmaul in 1868 used mirrors and a gasoline lamp in a sword swallower,4 but rigid instruments, with their high rate of perforation, have largely been replaced.5 Patients injured during endoluminal procedures tend to be older and have pre-existing disease, the injuries usually complicating therapeutic manoeuvres.6 7 Iatrogenic perforation is sometimes not recognised until an instrument has passed well into the mediastinum of the patient, who is usually not fully conscious, and it tends to occur either adjacent to a lesion or where the pharynx narrows down to the oesophagus at or near Kilian's dehiscence.6 Most sword injuries were lower than this level, suggesting that the failure of a straight sword to negotiate the oesophageal lumen as it curves to fit the dorsal kyphosis may contribute to injury.
    As in iatrogenic perforation, penetration is the main cause of injury but lacerations and scissoring injuries occur. A sword rarely passes out into the mediastinum and, although an injured swallower may realise that the performance has not proceeded smoothly, the injury may be recognised only when surgical emphysema, pain, or other symptoms develop, and there is often a delay before medical advice is sought.

    Many factors, including delay and the size and site of the injury, have a bearing on outcomes. Mortality from iatrogenic perforation is quoted at 10-30%,7 8 but we did not find any deaths from sword swallowing.

    Our 46 respondents collectively had swallowed over 2000 swords in the three months before we contacted them but the complications relate to their professional lifetimes. Although the risk of sustaining life threatening injury is low for an experienced swallower while relaxed and concentrating on swallowing a single sword, the risk over a career is high. The prognosis for a sword swallower who does sustain upper gastrointestinal injury seems better than for patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.
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    Human North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) attack.

    * Potter TM,
    * Hanna JA,
    * Freer L.

    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. Tiffany.Potter@yale.edu

    As a result of the successful restoration and conservation programs deployed by state and federal agencies, populations of the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) are increasing in many states. Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and fishing increase the likelihood of human interactions with this charismatic, nonendangered mustelid. Otters tend to avoid areas of high human activity, occur at low population densities, and in some habitats in the United States have not recovered from population declines. Therefore, interactions with humans are rare, and aggressive encounters by otters are even less frequent. We report a recent, aggressive, and unprovoked attack that was followed by immediate medical treatment, including postexposure rabies prophylaxis, extensive suturing, and subsequent reconstructive surgery. We discuss river otter biology, the prevalence of diseases in wild populations of river otter, and otter attacks on humans and their treatment.

    PMID: 17447713 [PubMed - in process]
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    The level of strangeness stays the same, while the topic area varies greatly.................
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    Watch out for them river otters, lemme tell ya.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Aeternitatis View Post
    Human North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) attack.

    * Potter TM,
    * Hanna JA,
    * Freer L.

    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. Tiffany.Potter@yale.edu

    As a result of the successful restoration and conservation programs deployed by state and federal agencies, populations of the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) are increasing in many states. Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, and fishing increase the likelihood of human interactions with this charismatic, nonendangered mustelid. Otters tend to avoid areas of high human activity, occur at low population densities, and in some habitats in the United States have not recovered from population declines. Therefore, interactions with humans are rare, and aggressive encounters by otters are even less frequent. We report a recent, aggressive, and unprovoked attack that was followed by immediate medical treatment, including postexposure rabies prophylaxis, extensive suturing, and subsequent reconstructive surgery. We discuss river otter biology, the prevalence of diseases in wild populations of river otter, and otter attacks on humans and their treatment.

    PMID: 17447713 [PubMed - in process]
    Saw some of these guys at the NC zoo a couple weekends ago- hard to believe that they could jack someone up!!!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
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    Quote Originally Posted by sean taylor View Post
    Brian Witcombe, consultant radiologist1 and Dan Meyer, executive director2
    1Department of Radiology, Gloucestershire Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester GL1 3NN
    2Sword Swallowers' Association International, 3729 Belle Oaks Drive, Antioch, Tennessee 37013, USA
    Correspondence to: B Witcombe Email: brian.witcombe@glos.nhs.uk
    Accepted October 28, 2006.

    References AbstractObjective To evaluate information on the practice and associated ill effects of sword swallowing.
    Design Letters sent to sword swallowers requesting information on technique and complications.

    Setting Membership lists of the Sword Swallowers' Association International.

    Participants 110 sword swallowers from 16 countries.

    Results We had information from 46 sword swallowers. Major complications are more likely when the swallower is distracted or swallows multiple or unusual swords or when previous injury is present. Perforations mainly involve the oesophagus and usually have a good prognosis. Sore throats are common, particularly while the skill is being learnt or when performances are too frequent. Major gastrointestinal bleeding sometimes occurs, and occasional chest pains tend to be treated without medical advice. Sword swallowers without healthcare coverage expose themselves to financial as well as physical risk.

    Conclusions Sword swallowers run a higher risk of injury when they are distracted or adding embellishments to their performance, but injured performers have a better prognosis than patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

    Top IntroductionSword swallowers know their occupation is dangerous. The Sword Swallowers' Association International (SSAI, Sword Swallowers Association International) recognises those who can swallow a non-retractable, solid steel blade at least two centimetres wide and 38 centimetres long. As we found only two English language case reports of injury resulting from sword swallowing,1 2 we explored the technique and side effects of this unusual practice.

    References MethodsWe sent a letter to members and contacts of the association asking if they were willing for data held in its archives to be published and asking how they learnt the technique and how many swords they had swallowed in the previous three months. We did not send out a medical questionnaire but invited swallowers to describe any medical problems associated with sword swallowing. One medical adviser was approached after one swallower, injured during the course of the study, gave her consent, and a few close associates of one of the authors (DM) answered direct medical questions. We obtained written consent from everyone whose history is mentioned. We excluded cases in which injury was related to swallowing items other than swords, such as glass, neon tubes, spear guns, or jack hammers.

    References ResultsWe sent letters to 110 members or contacts of the association in 16 countries; 48 responded and 46 (41.8%) consented to information being published (40 were men). The average age was 31 (range 16-64). Most were self taught and described how they learnt the technique. The average age when they learnt sword swallowing was 25 (range 13-46); nine learnt as teenagers. The average height was 176 cm (range 58-191 cm), average weight 79 kg (range 46-127 kg), and the longest sword swallowed was on average 60 cm (range 43-79 cm). There was no apparent correlation between the length of the longest sword each person could swallow and their height (correlation coefficient 0.20) or weight (−0.08). Twenty five had swallowed more than one sword at a time, five had swallowed more than 10 at a time, and one had swallowed 16 swords together (fig 1). Over the previous three months, the average number of swords swallowed was 43 (range of 0-300).

    Thirteen respondents did not volunteer any medical information, but 19 described sore throats, usually when they were learning to swallow, after performing too frequently, or when they were swallowing multiple or odd shaped swords. Lower chest pain, often lasting days, followed some performances and was usually treated by abstaining from practice. They rarely sought medical advice. Six suffered perforation of the pharynx or oesophagus. Three of these had surgery to the neck, one having a 1.5 cm laceration at the level of D2 and a pneumothorax, one a pinhole laceration at C6 and surgical emphysema, and the other having a pharyngeal tear. The perforations were treated conservatively in three patients, one of whom had a second perforation with aspiration of a neck abscess after further injury. Three others also had probable perforations, one of whom was told that a sword had “brushed” the heart, and one had pleurisy and another pericarditis after injury, suggesting extraoesophageal trauma. No one underwent thoracotomy, although one had a breadknife removed transabdominally. Sixteen mentioned intestinal bleeding, varying in quantity from melaena or finding some blood on a withdrawn sword to large haematemases necessitating transfusion. No members of the association had died from sword swallowing, but the cost of medical care was a concern with three members receiving medical bills around $23000-$70000 (£12000-£37000, €18000-€55000).

    References DiscussionOur study relied on the memory of some of the 50 sword swallowers active in the English speaking world as well as some retired performers. Respondents could have exaggerated side effects, but it is more likely that details were overlooked. We did know of some incidents that involved non-respondents, and most serious events probably would have come to the attention of the association.


    Technique
    Some respondents swallowed a sword easily, but mastery for most required daily practice over months or years. The gag reflex is desensitised, sometimes by repeatedly putting fingers down the throat, but other objects are used including spoons, paint brushes, knitting needles, and plastic tubes before the swallower commonly progresses to a bent wire coat hanger. The performer must then learn to align a sword with the upper oesophageal sphincter with the neck hyper-extended. The next step requires relaxation of the pharynx and oesophagus and particularly the horizontal fibres of cricopharyngeus, which are not usually under voluntary control.3 Devgan et al have shown that one swallower was able to reduce voluntarily the resting pressure of this sphincter by 10-20 mm Hg.3 This swallower described having to “relax the muscles of his neck,” and several swallowers mentioned not being able to perform when they could not “relax” or the throat “closing up” when sore. Huizinga4 described a swallower who “sucked in” the sword, and a lateral radiograph in Huizinga's paper shows the pharynx filled with air, but preliminary air swallowing is not invariable. Force must not be used and the clean sword is usually lubricated at least with saliva. One performer used butter, and one had to retire because of a dry mouth caused by medication.
    Once the swallower has got the sword past the cricopharyngeal sphincter and relaxed the oesophagus, he or she must learn to control retching so the sword can be passed down to the cardia. The cardia lies about 40 cm from the teeth and the sword straightens the flexible and distensible oesophagus. Further progress depends not only on the swallower learning to relax the lower oesophageal sphincter and controlling retching but also on the shape of the stomach. The angle of the gastro-oesophageal junction and lesser curve vary, being obtuse in the vertically oriented stomach, particularly when it is full, and more acute in the high horizontal stomach often present in thickset individuals (fig 2). A 220 cm giant is said to hold the record for the longest swallowed sword (82.5 cm) and body build should have a bearing on what length of sword can pass. Nevertheless, we did not find any correlation between the longest sword an individual could swallow and their size, suggesting other factors are important.

    Some experienced artistes add embellishments that increase danger. Some let the sword fall abruptly, a manoeuvre known as “the drop,” controlling the fall of the sword with the muscles of the pharynx, and some invite members of the audience to move the sword. One lies prone on a bed of nails; one sometimes performs on a unicycle; and another under water.



    Side effects
    Sore throats—“sword throats”—occur when swallowers are learning, when performances are repeated frequently, or when odd shaped or multiple swords are used. Lower chest pains occur occasionally, most often after an obviously damaging swallow or when the “drop” is practised frequently. One performer described this pain after performing the drop 40 times a day in a state fair, and another described shoulder tip pain implying diaphragmatic irritation. Proprietary medicines are used for this problem, physicians are rarely consulted, and abstinence from swallowing swords is the main treatment.
    Major injury is sometimes preceded by a previous painful performance, suggesting that minor injury may predispose to more serious damage. Occasionally a sword is difficult to advance or retract, presumably because of spasm or mucosal dryness related to nervousness or soreness. Overforceful efforts to move the sword may then cause trauma, and this resulted in oesophageal perforation in one performer. Several cases of perforation or severe haemorrhage occurred when swallowers used multiple or unusual swords or when a technical error was committed, often because of distraction. For example, one swallower lacerated his pharynx when trying to swallow a curved sabre, a second lacerated his oesophagus and developed pleurisy after being distracted by a misbehaving macaw on his shoulder, and a belly dancer suffered a major haemorrhage when a bystander pushed dollar bills into her belt causing three blades in her oesophagus to scissor. Of the 12 cases of probable perforation, including the two previously described in the literature, at least five involved the cervical or upper dorsal oesophagus with only one definite pharyngeal perforation. The other injuries were either lower down or the exact level of perforation was uncertain. All these patients survived, and no contacts of the association have died as a direct result of sword swallowing and no deaths have been reported in the medical literature. There is historical evidence elsewhere, however, and deaths from swallowing swords and other items such as neon tubes are described on the internet (www.swordswallow.com/halloffame.php).

    Comparison with endoscopic injury
    The first endoscopy by Adolph Kussmaul in 1868 used mirrors and a gasoline lamp in a sword swallower,4 but rigid instruments, with their high rate of perforation, have largely been replaced.5 Patients injured during endoluminal procedures tend to be older and have pre-existing disease, the injuries usually complicating therapeutic manoeuvres.6 7 Iatrogenic perforation is sometimes not recognised until an instrument has passed well into the mediastinum of the patient, who is usually not fully conscious, and it tends to occur either adjacent to a lesion or where the pharynx narrows down to the oesophagus at or near Kilian's dehiscence.6 Most sword injuries were lower than this level, suggesting that the failure of a straight sword to negotiate the oesophageal lumen as it curves to fit the dorsal kyphosis may contribute to injury.
    As in iatrogenic perforation, penetration is the main cause of injury but lacerations and scissoring injuries occur. A sword rarely passes out into the mediastinum and, although an injured swallower may realise that the performance has not proceeded smoothly, the injury may be recognised only when surgical emphysema, pain, or other symptoms develop, and there is often a delay before medical advice is sought.

    Many factors, including delay and the size and site of the injury, have a bearing on outcomes. Mortality from iatrogenic perforation is quoted at 10-30%,7 8 but we did not find any deaths from sword swallowing.

    Our 46 respondents collectively had swallowed over 2000 swords in the three months before we contacted them but the complications relate to their professional lifetimes. Although the risk of sustaining life threatening injury is low for an experienced swallower while relaxed and concentrating on swallowing a single sword, the risk over a career is high. The prognosis for a sword swallower who does sustain upper gastrointestinal injury seems better than for patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.


    This is a good one!!!
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    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
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    Self-cannibalism: an unusual case of self-mutilation.

    * Ahuja N,
    * Lloyd AJ.

    Wallsend Community Mental Health Team, Sir G.B. Hunter Memorial Hospital, Wallsend, and School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. UK.

    PMID: 17464713 [PubMed - in process]


    Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    * Gage LJ.

    Coyote Point Museum, 1651 Coyote Point Drive, San Mateo, Califoria 94401, USA.

    A captive adult female American badger (Taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. Initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. When diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d. for over 18 mo, during which time no undesirable behaviors or noticeable side effects were observed.

    PMID: 17312776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Male genital self-amputation in the Middle East.

    * Shirodkar SS,
    * Hammad FT,
    * Qureshi NA.

    Department of Urology, Level 9 West Dubai Hospital, PO Box 7272, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Genital self-mutilation, whether partial or complete, is a rare condition, which usually occurs in psychotic patients and occasionally has a religious background. The initial management of complete genital self-mutilation usually involves a formation of perineal urethrostomy or a more complex procedure to form a short penile stump. Here, we present a case of complete genital self-mutilation in a psychotic male who was managed with simple urethral spatulation to form an anterior urethrostomy.

    PMID: 17457454 [PubMed - in process]
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    Incomplete oedipism and chronic suicidality in psychotic depression with paranoid delusions related to eyes.

    * Pompili M,
    * Lester D,
    * Tatarelli R,
    * Girardi P.

    McLean Hospital - Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. maurizio.pompili@uniroma1.it.

    ABSTRACT: Self-enucleation or oedipism is a term used to describe self-inflicted enucleation. It is a rare form of self-mutilation, found mainly in acutely psychotic patients. We propose the term incomplete oedipism to describe patients who deliberately and severely mutilate their eyes without proper enucleation.We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a five-year history of psychotic depression accompanied by paranoid delusions centered around his belief that his neighbors criticized him and stared at him. A central feature of his clinical picture was an eye injury that the patient had caused by pouring molten lead into his right eye during a period of deep hopelessness and suicidality when the patient could not resolve his anhedonia and social isolation. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy dramatically improved his disorder.

    PMID: 17118200 [PubMed - in process]


    Self-mutilation induced by cocaine abuse: the pleasure of bleeding.

    * Karila L,
    * Ferreri M,
    * Coscas S,
    * Cottencin O,
    * Benyamina A,
    * Reynaud M.

    Universite Paris-Sud, U669, Le Kremlin Bicetre (94). laurent.karila@pbr.ap-hop-paris.fr

    INTRODUCTION: Self-mutilation is direct and deliberate harm to one's body without conscious intent to die. It is observed in both men and women with various psychiatric disorders, but most of those who self-mutilate are women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, associated with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socioeconomic and legal complications. Amphetamine use, but not cocaine use, has previously been associated with severe self-injurious behavior. CASE: We report here a case of a female patient with recurring self-injurious behavior ("the pleasure of bleeding") induced by cocaine abuse. DISCUSSION: The clinical characteristics of self-mutilation are manifold and there is a lack of agreement about its etiology. The complex behavior associated with cocaine abuse may be one cause of self-mutilation. Dysfunction of the inhibitory brain circuitry caused by drug addiction could explain why this cocaine-addicted patient loses control and self-mutilates during cocaine use.

    PMID: 17259032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Okay, these aren't too wierd, but it makes you cringe just thinking about it.

    Bee sting of the cornea: a case study and review of the literature.

    * Caca I,
    * Ari S,
    * Ulu K,
    * Ayata A.

    Department of Ophthalmology, Dicle University Faculty of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey. ihsancaca@mynet.com

    Bee stings of the cornea are rarely reported, but have the potential for causing serious ophthalmological injuries. We present a case of corneal bee sting with retained stinger apparatus. A 35-year-old patient presented with an acute, corneal bee sting of the right eye 12 hours after he was stung. The patient suffered from pain, blurred vision, and epiphora. The right eye showed edema of the upper and lower eyelid, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, and striate keratitis of the paracentral cornea by biomicroscopic examination. The stinger was identified in the depth of the corneal infiltration. Visual acuity was 5/10. It was removed surgically. After 2 months, the eye only showed a minimal residual corneal opacification. Visual acuity was 10/10. We present a case of bee sting to the cornea with retained stinger apparatus and treatment of this unusual presentation.

    PMID: 17200591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Subclinical endophthalmitis following a rooster attack.

    * Lekse Kovach J,
    * Maguluri S,
    * Recchia FM.

    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    Ocular injury resulting from rooster attacks is rarely reported in the literature. Sadly, the target of these attacks is most often children younger than 3 years old, whose naivete of the aggressive, territorial behavior of birds can place them at risk. Acute sequelae of these attacks can result in a lifetime of visual impairment. The possibility of a subacute or occult infection is an unusual occurrence that must always be considered. In an effort to prevent future attacks and ocular casualties, we present a case of a 12-month-old boy who suffered an open globe following a rooster attack. The open globe was emergently repaired. One week later, a white cataract was noticed on examination in the absence of systemic or ocular signs of inflammation. Traumatic endophthalmitis and lenticular abscess were suspected during examination under anesthesia. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, and injection of intravitreal antibiotics were performed. Culture of lenticular and vitreous aspirates grew alpha-streptococcus. Alpha-streptococcal endophthalmitis can result from ocular injuries caused by rooster pecking. The infection may present insidiously and without typical ocular or systemic symptoms or signs. Management is challenging and may require surgery.

    PMID: 17189155 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Quote Originally Posted by rms80 View Post
    prld, Buff, and L'bane- you guys feel like co-authoring a study? I was thinking something like "Studies on the Interspecies Sexual Attraction of Emus to Human Beings" what do you think?!! Could make some big $$$$ if we win the Nobel Prize!!!
    Let's do it!!! LB you get the chain mail underwear going , and throw in some nipple rings(preferrebly shiny, sparkely ones.... Emus like the glow), let's drop the peacock outfit and go with a pink flamingo one(it's more calming to the Emu's eye's......plus it's seeeeexy ), Buff can be our control to test whether or not the birdies like'em regular or extra crispy.
    ~ Nothing can kill the Grimace!!


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    Quote Originally Posted by prld2gr8ns View Post
    Let's do it!!! LB you get the chain mail underwear going , and throw in some nipple rings(preferrebly shiny, sparkely ones.... Emus like the glow), let's drop the peacock outfit and go with a pink flamingo one(it's more calming to the Emu's eye's......plus it's seeeeexy ), Buff can be our control to test whether or not the birdies like'em regular or extra crispy.
    LOL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! I gotta get busy too, deciding where to vacation after we split the prize money...............
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    Chen Z, Toth T, Godfrey-Bailey L, Mercedat N, Schiff I, Hauser R.
    Vincent Memorial Obstetrics & Gynecology Service, Andrology Laboratory and In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Although semen quality has been discussed extensively with regard to age and season in the andrology literature, the results vary and firm conclusions are still outstanding. To investigate seasonal and age-related variations in human semen parameters, we analyzed data that were collected from an andrology clinic population. We performed a retrospective review of 551 semen analysis records collected from 1989 to 2000 from the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, total motile sperm, and morphology significantly decreased as age increased. In addition, as age increased, the percentage of sperm with tail defects increased. Sperm concentration was significantly higher in winter (mean 157.9 million/mL) than in fall (mean 119.1 million/mL) (P <.05). The mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was significantly higher in winter (9.2%) than in summer and spring (7.0% and 7.5%, respectively; P <.05). The mean percentage of sperm with head defects was significantly higher in fall and summer (74.0% and 72.3%, respectively) than in winter (68.6%; P <.05). Seasonal variations were found in sperm concentration and morphology, with higher sperm concentrations in winter than in fall, and a greater percentage of sperm with normal morphology in winter than in spring and summer. Sperm concentration was lowest in the fall, whereas the percentage of sperm with normal morphology was lowest in summer. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, total motile sperm, and morphology decreased as age increased.

    PMID: 12634309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Siva-Jothy MT, Stutt AD.
    Evolution and Behaviour Group, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. m.siva-jothy@sheffield.ac.uk

    Males of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, traumatically inseminate females by inserting a needle-like intromittent organ (penis) through the female's abdominal wall after she has fed. We demonstrate that: (i) mating duration determines ejaculate size; (ii) a female's first copulation in a bout of copulations always lasts longer than subsequent copulations; (iii) the intromittent organ bears sensillae; (iv) males use their intromittent organ to 'taste' whether their current mate has recently copulated; and (v) the consequence of detecting female mating status is the reduction of copulation duration and ejaculate size. We discuss why male bedbugs might show this pattern of ejaculate-size adjustment.

    PMID: 12769466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Link to original PDF: http://zoolhonours.animals.uwa.edu.a.../Kilgallon.pdf

    Summation of it from a different site:
    Men who view pornographic images of two men and a woman produce better-quality sperm than men viewing pornographic images of just women, an Australian study reveals.

    The finding suggests that humans may be capable of subconsciously increasing semen quality when faced with the possibility that their sperm will have to outrun those of other men in a woman’s reproductive tract.

    In the study, zoologists Leigh Simmons and Sarah Kilgallon of the University of Western Australia in Perth asked 52 heterosexual men aged between 18 and 35 years to ejaculate into a container after viewing the two types of image.

    The volunteers had previously abstained from sexual activity for two to six days. In samples from men who viewed the images containing the two men and a woman - the “sperm-competition” images - 52% of the sperm were motile. This compared with 49% sperm motility in the men who viewed the images of women only – a difference that was statistically significant after taking into account lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

    But there was also a seemingly contradictory finding. Men who viewed the sperm-competition images had fewer sperm in their ejaculate: 61 million per millilitre compared to 77 million per millilitre for the men who viewed the female-only images. More studies are needed to explain this finding.

    Rapid response
    “It’s a fascinating study. The effect is obviously immediate. This suggests that something [in the body] can be adjusted very, very quickly,” says Jon Evans of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, who studies sperm competition in guppy fish.

    The findings might suggest ways to improve the quality of sperm during fertility treatment.

    The postcoital struggle between sperm is well known in species in which females may mate with more than one partner. For example, male chickens allocate more sperm to an attractive hen with a large comb than an unattractive one, upping the chances that one of their sperm will get to the egg before those of other contenders. Bulls and boars used for artificial insemination by the farming industry produce better-quality semen if they are allowed to view other animals mating.

    However, Simmons is not suggesting that humans regularly indulge in multiple matings. “We need to step away from that in 2005. The risk of sperm competition is very low nowadays, but in the lineage of primates that resulted in humans there was probably sperm competition,” he says

    Previous studies have found that men who look at pornographic images depicting groups prefer the sorts of sperm-competition images used in the current study. Men may simply have evolved to find them more erotic so that they can respond appropriately to sperm competition, says Simmons.

    The study, which examined the role of lifestyle factors, also suggested that carrying cellphones might be associated with lower sperm counts and a lower percentage of motile sperm. But previous studies in this area have been equivocal.

    Journal reference: Biology Letters (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0324)
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    Quote Originally Posted by sean taylor View Post
    Link to original PDF: http://zoolhonours.animals.uwa.edu.a.../Kilgallon.pdf

    Summation of it from a different site:
    Men who view pornographic images of two men and a woman produce better-quality sperm than men viewing pornographic images of just women, an Australian study reveals.

    The finding suggests that humans may be capable of subconsciously increasing semen quality when faced with the possibility that their sperm will have to outrun those of other men in a woman’s reproductive tract.

    In the study, zoologists Leigh Simmons and Sarah Kilgallon of the University of Western Australia in Perth asked 52 heterosexual men aged between 18 and 35 years to ejaculate into a container after viewing the two types of image.

    The volunteers had previously abstained from sexual activity for two to six days. In samples from men who viewed the images containing the two men and a woman - the “sperm-competition” images - 52% of the sperm were motile. This compared with 49% sperm motility in the men who viewed the images of women only – a difference that was statistically significant after taking into account lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

    But there was also a seemingly contradictory finding. Men who viewed the sperm-competition images had fewer sperm in their ejaculate: 61 million per millilitre compared to 77 million per millilitre for the men who viewed the female-only images. More studies are needed to explain this finding.

    Rapid response
    “It’s a fascinating study. The effect is obviously immediate. This suggests that something [in the body] can be adjusted very, very quickly,” says Jon Evans of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, who studies sperm competition in guppy fish.

    The findings might suggest ways to improve the quality of sperm during fertility treatment.

    The postcoital struggle between sperm is well known in species in which females may mate with more than one partner. For example, male chickens allocate more sperm to an attractive hen with a large comb than an unattractive one, upping the chances that one of their sperm will get to the egg before those of other contenders. Bulls and boars used for artificial insemination by the farming industry produce better-quality semen if they are allowed to view other animals mating.

    However, Simmons is not suggesting that humans regularly indulge in multiple matings. “We need to step away from that in 2005. The risk of sperm competition is very low nowadays, but in the lineage of primates that resulted in humans there was probably sperm competition,” he says

    Previous studies have found that men who look at pornographic images depicting groups prefer the sorts of sperm-competition images used in the current study. Men may simply have evolved to find them more erotic so that they can respond appropriately to sperm competition, says Simmons.

    The study, which examined the role of lifestyle factors, also suggested that carrying cellphones might be associated with lower sperm counts and a lower percentage of motile sperm. But previous studies in this area have been equivocal.

    Journal reference: Biology Letters (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0324)

    That's a good one!!
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
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    Quote Originally Posted by prld2gr8ns View Post
    Let's do it!!! LB you get the chain mail underwear going , and throw in some nipple rings(preferrebly shiny, sparkely ones.... Emus like the glow), let's drop the peacock outfit and go with a pink flamingo one(it's more calming to the Emu's eye's......plus it's seeeeexy ), Buff can be our control to test whether or not the birdies like'em regular or extra crispy.
    They have a farm right up the road- no bs- they raise llamas and emus....
    Dirk Tanis, BA, MSci
    Chief Operating Officer, Applied Nutriceuticals
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    Quote Originally Posted by rms80 View Post
    They have a farm right up the road- no bs- they raise llamas and emus....
    Everything is falling into place! I can smell the prize money already..... I hope Buff checks in and see's that he is about to take one for the team.............
    Applied Nutriceuticals Representative
    Better Results Through Science
    Success occurs when everything you have is APPLIED.
    Have you heard about N.O. Uptake? ;-)
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lanbane View Post
    Everything is falling into place! I can smell the prize money already..... I hope Buff checks in and see's that he is about to take one for the team.............
    I'm sure he doesn't mind.... buff seems like the kind of guy that would do any thing for the betterment of AN. That being said, we might have to work something in with the llamas for the buffsters.
    ~ Nothing can kill the Grimace!!


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    No, RoboDebbie, NO!
    The news that Carnegie Mellon University now has a robotic receptionist is less impressive than the sad, dull pain behind the eyes one gets when considering the dreary inevitability of its name: "Roboceptionist." There's also some fairly horrifying information in the wire story about the backstory given the creature by four writers (and man, look how well that worked on "Viva Rock Vegas"): "Valerie... a drum-shaped contraption with a digitally animated face that appears on a computer display," wastes your time nattering on about "her boss, her psychiatrist and her dream of being a lounge star." The air of humanoid authenticity the designers were presumably going for actually breaks down right about there, because when was the last time you met a receptionist who was interested enough in you to do anything but stare vacantly at a point just off your left shoulder? I have met a few who are drum-shaped, but that's another story. Valerie seems to be intended for permanent installation at the university's computer science hall, but given the unpredictable nature of office staffing, I'd look for her to be replaced by an even more disengaged robotemp sometime this fall.

    Source: BBC News
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    I really hope my orginal post wins but I figured I'd throw down some more.



    Vascular changes during penile erection in the dog.
    C J Carati, K E Creed, and E J Keogh
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, University of Western Australia.
    Abstract1. The vascular effects of pelvic nerve stimulation on the penis were studied in dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone and halothane. Changes in pressure and blood flow were measured through scalp vein needles inserted into the erectile bodies. 2. The penis contains two types of erectile body, which responded independently during erection induced by pelvic nerve stimulation. Pressure in the corpus spongiosum increased immediately upon stimulation, but only reached one-third of the more delayed pressure response of the corpora cavernosa. 3. At rest, arterial inflow resistance into the corpora cavernosa was high, whereas venous outflow resistance was low. Pelvic nerve stimulation (10-50 V, 10-16 Hz, 1 ms) caused an immediate increase in arterial flow, an increase in corpus cavernosal pressure (CCP), and a decrease in venous outflow. Saline infusion experiments showed there was active venous occlusion. Upon cessation of stimulation, these parameters returned to pre-stimulation levels. 4. The time taken to reach 50% of maximum change in arterial inflow was significantly less than for CCP, which was significantly less than for venous outflow. Occlusion of the aorta 1 min after cessation of stimulation decreased the pressure in the arterial tree supplying the corpora cavernosa, but CCP remained elevated, indicating that both inflow and outflow resistances were high. Thus, inflow resistance had returned to its pre-stimulation state before outflow resistance. 5. Direct measurements of blood flow through the corpus cavernosum were made with a hydrogen probe. There was a transient increase in blood inflow as CCP increased during pelvic nerve stimulation. There was some blood flow while CCP was elevated, indicating that the venous occlusion was not complete. 6. Sympathetic chain stimulation caused an increase in arterial resistance, and a decrease in CCP and venous resistance. 7. Infusions of acetylcholine (330 micrograms min-1) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (1-3.3 micrograms min-1) decreased arterial resistance and increased CCP and venous resistance. 8. This study suggests that during pelvic nerve-induced erection, arterial flow into the corpus cavernosum increases, followed by an increase in CCP and an actively controlled decrease in venous outflow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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    Chinese men swapping tiger penis for Viagra
    Men's Health News
    Published: Monday, 10-Oct-2005
    Printer Friendly Email to a Friend




    Chinese men are selectively switching from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to Viagra to treat erectile dysfunction, but sticking with tradition for ailments such as arthritis, indigestion and gout, according to new research published in Environmental Conservation.
    The finding supports a prediction made by Australian and Alaskan researchers at the advent of Viagra's commercial release in 1998 that the new impotence drug might reduce demand for several animal species that are over-harvested to treat impotence with TCMs.

    Animals such as seals, sea horses and tigers have long been hunted because practitioners of TCM use their body parts for their presumed healing and virility qualities.

    The researchers surveyed 256 Chinese men, aged 50 to 76, who sought treatment at a large TCM clinic in Hong Kong. The men were questioned about their previous and current use of TCM and Western treatments for arthritis, indigestion, gout and impotence.

    The study's lead authors are Dr Bill von Hippel, a psychologist from the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), and his brother, Dr Frank von Hippel, a biologist from the University of Alaska, Anchorage. The von Hippels cite three key findings from the research.

    "First, significantly more men had formerly used a TCM treatment for impotence than were current users," says Bill von Hippel.

    "Second, they were significantly more likely to be using a Western treatment for impotence than a TCM treatment.

    "Finally, among men who formerly used either Western or TCM treatments for impotence, they were more likely to switch from a TCM treatment to a Western drug than vice versa. In fact, nobody had switched from a Western drug to a TCM treatment for impotence.

    "This was in contrast to their behaviour with the other three ailments - arthritis, indigestion and gout, where the men were more likely to be current users of a TCM treatment than a Western treatment.".

    These findings stand in contrast to prior research suggesting a mistrust of Western medicine in Asian markets.

    "When we proposed that Viagra might make inroads into TCM treatments for impotence, conservationists told us we were na? and that TCM consumers were unwilling to use a product outside their own medical tradition," says Bill von Hippel. "For example, there is still strong demand for tiger bone among TCM apothecaries who use it in the treatment of pain relief, despite the widespread availability of aspirin.

    "But the failure to achieve an erection isn't comparable to having a headache or the many other ailments for which consumers still prefer TCM treatments. Furthermore, Viagra differs from many other Western drugs, in that the effects are rapid and visible to the naked eye.

    "The fact is that prior to the commercial availability of Viagra in 1998, no product in any medical tradition had been proven to be an effective and non-intrusive treatment of erectile dysfunction. So despite their history of using traditional medicines and their alleged suspicions of Western medicine, the men we interviewed chose the product that works best."

    These findings are consistent with previous research by the von Hippels showing evidence of a post-Viagra decline during the 1990s in the harvesting of three species used in TCM impotence treatments.

    The pair attributed some of this decline to Viagra, despite scepticism among many academics and wildlife experts.

    In 2002, the global market for TCM products and treatments was valued at more than $20 billion, according to the Chinese firm Shenzhen Matrix Information Consulting.

    UNSW: The University of New South Wales - Sydney Australia - Home page
    Last edited by kjkriston; 05-04-2007 at 12:32 AM.
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    OK I am done post whoring for the night...sure do hope I win....


    March 07, 2007
    Leaving a little something extra behind after sex
    Female wasp spiders are a promiscuous lot. They'll have sex with several males over the course of a breeding season.

    So some of the guys sacrifice their very maleness to ensure any offspring the female has is their's. The use the tip of their own genitals as a sort of chastity belt - breaking off the member during intercourse in such a way that it plugs up the female's sexual orifice.

    Giving up their genitals may help save the male's life as well. The females usually attack and kill their male partners a few seconds after sex. The detaching genitals allow for a quick get-away. Read more about this study from the Universities of Bonn and Hamburg at ScienceDaily.com.
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    We have to post a SOURCE right? That would only make the info legit instead of some retarded made up story....just a clue for those without a source credited to their posts....? Am I right?
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    OK 1 more for the win...maybe...but I do have the source listed



    Not At All Unusual
    Lest you are tempted to believe that all of this is highly unusual and well out of the ordinary, you're in for quite a surprise. Homosexual behavior is not only common, but even more common in other species than in humans. While numbers are hard to come by, there are a few that present some interesting patterns. In ostriches, male homosexuality is much more common than bisexuality, but among mule deer, bisexuality is more common than homosexuality. Among our closest living relatives, the bonobo chimpanzees, few if any are either exclusively heterosexual or homosexual. Indeed, all that have been observed are exclusively permanently bisexual.
    As for numbers, here are a few:


    species percent homosexual percent bisexual percent heterosexual
    silver gulls (females) 10 11 79
    black headed gulls (both sexes) 22 15 63
    Japanese macaques (both sexes) 9 56 35
    bonobo chimpanzees (both sexes) 0 100 0
    galahs (both sexes) 44 11 44
    source: Bruce Bahemihl, Ph.D., Biological Exhuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, St. Martin's Press, 2000, page 35

    The occurence of homosexuality doesn't seem to be correlated with the predominance of a sex within a species. Some species show skewed sex ratios, but among them, homosexuality is not more common than in other species. For example, giant cowbirds and redwing blackbirds show male to female ratios as high as four to one, and in boat-tailed grackles and sparrow hawks, females predominate, but homosexuality has not been demonstrated in either species. Why is a mystery.

    Homosexuality in the animal kingdom is an undeniable fact. It is as natural as can be. Since it is so common, it is therefore logical for the opponents of gay rights to try to explain it away.


    Trying To Explain Away Animal Homosexuality
    "Pseudo-heterosexuality." This is the favorite explanation of gay rights opponents. They claim that homosexuality in animals is the result of a shortage of, or unavailability of, heterosexual mates. There are a number of problems with this hypothesis.
    First, in many species with skewed sex ratios, homosexuality is often seen more frequently in the sex which is in shorter supply rather than in the sex with a surplus of individuals.

    Second, in some species where homosexual bonds form in a surplus sex, the other sex does not form homosexual bonds when it is in surplus. Humboldt penguins are an example. Males form homosexual bonds when there is a surplus of males, but females do not do so when they are in surplus.

    Third, in other species, homosexual mountings occur with the same frequency regardless of whether there is a surplus, and sometimes even more frequently among balanced populations than skewed ones. Indeed, among yellow baboons, between 17% and 24% of younger individuals engage in same-sex mountings, when their sexes are roughly equal in their population, but among older yellow baboons, the males eventually outnumber the females by two-to-one, but homosexual mountings occur in only about 10% of such older individuals.

    The "deprived of heterosexuality" argument. A variation on the pseudo-heterosexuality argument, this argument postulates that lower ranked males are deprived of the opportunity to mate and therefore turn to other males for sexual satisfaction.

    The problem with this argument is that in many species in which harem-guarding occurs, there is no difference between higher ranking males and lower ranking ones as to the frequency of their homosexual mountings. This has been demonstrated in musk oxen, American bison, and New Zealand sea lions among others.

    Among female homosexual pairs of Japanese macaques and Hanuman langurs engaging in homosexual behaviors, males approaching the pair may be threatened or even attacked.

    When homosexual bonding does occur in the absence of opposite sex pairs, members of such a pair often resist attempts to 'convert' them back into heterosexual relationships. Even when deprived of their bonded partner, white-fronted Amazon parrots will not revert, and long-eared hedgehogs have refused heterosexual partners for as long as two and a half years, much of their natural lifetime. In the case of Stellar's sea eagles and female barn owls, both housed without opposite sexed members of their species, homosexual pair bonds among females were strong enough that when inseminated, they coparented the chicks that resulted.

    Homosexual bonds can be tight. Among male rhesus macaques, crab-eating macaques, bottlenosed dolphins, cheetahs and black-headed gulls with homosexual bonded partners, the members of the pair exhibited considerable distress at being separated from their partners. In all cases, the individuals ignored opposite sex partners offered them, and showed considerable joy and exhuberance at the reintroduction of their partners.

    The "Mistaken Identity" hypothesis. This one seeks to explain animal homosexuality by claiming that the same sex partner is 'confused' and unable to identify a member of the opposite sex.

    The problem here is that in some animals, the difference between sexes are obvious. Vastly different body color, shape or size are an obvious clue, yet in these species, homosexual bonds still form, even when body shape precludes easy homosexual mounting.

    Another problem with this hypothesis is the fact that homosexual couples often engage in very different courtship rituals than do heterosexual couples. If it were a case of mistaken identity, how would this happen? In the case of bisexual animals, it has been seen that one set of courtship rituals are used by the same individual when courting homosexual versus heterosexual partners. This would not happen if the problem were a case of mistaken identity.

    The "Gross Abnormalities of Behavior" hypothesis. The assumption here is that the behavior is a manifestation of a disease process.

    Scientists looking into this hypothesis often examine animals for genital abnormalities, on the assumption that there is some kind of hormonal imbalance. The fact is that they rarely ever find abnormalities, never with enough frequency for it to be statistically meaningful. That's because of the mistaken assumption by some scientists that homosexuality is some sort of hermaphroditic condition. It's not, and that's why they never find what they're looking for.

    If homosexuality were a manifestation of a disease process, why is homosexuality observed in roughly the same degree in captive populations versus wild populations, or in diverse wild populations? Whatever would be causing the disease cannot be equally present in all cases, both in the field and in the wild, so differences in occurrence should show up. But they rarely do. Why?

    The "population control" hypothesis. The problem with this one is that field observations directly counter it. It has been observed in ochre-bellied flycatchers and ruffed grouse populations among others, that even when opposite sex partners, territories and breeding grounds are all available, some individuals still form homosexual bonds, and the ratio by which they do rarely differs even when the population is under stress.


    Something's Not Quite Right At The Zoo
    Critics of this research like to point out that if homosexuality actually existed in animals, it would have been observed in zoos. Well, it has been, and for as long as zoos have been kept.
    Zoo keepers who have observed this behavior historically ascribed it to the presence of stressors that exist in zoos that are not present in the wild. That was always the assumption. Such factors as same-sex isolation. Lack of stimulating activities. Unnatural living quarters. Unnatural diet. Then when field reports of similar behaviors started coming in, the existence of homosexuality in animals became to great to ignore. Today, animal behaviorists are unanimous in accepting the fact of animal homosexuality.


    Conclusion
    There's clearly a wide range of homosexual behaviors in the animal kingdom. It's widespread, common and impossible to deny or explain away any longer. Homosexuality is natural as green grass in summer, and it's high time we accepted that fact.
    The birds do it. It's been described in 130 species of birds. The southeastern blueberry bees do it. Same sex pairs of animals kiss and caress each other with obvious affection and tenderness. Male pairs and female pairs form long-lasting pair-bonds and reject, threaten, even fight off potential opposite sex partners when they are presented with them. Same sex partners engage in almost every conceivable means of sexual expression throughout the animal kingdom.

    It's high time we quit criminalizing something that is so normal, so natural, so harmless and so common among animals and recognize that what we call "sodomy" is really quite natural after all.

    The Natural "Crime Against Nature"
    A Brief Survey of Homosexual Behaviors In Animals
    An essay in hypertext by Scott Bidstrup
    "The universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose."
    --J.B.S. Haldane, evolutionary biologist
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    I think I should win for mere quantity of F-ed-up studies...or maybe a tie for first...me and BP co-winners..........?
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    I thought this was a little weird:

    Structured Management and Counseling for Patients with a Complaint of a Small Penis.


    * Ghanem H,
    * Shamloul R,
    * Khodeir F,
    * Elshafie H,
    * Kaddah A,
    * Ismail I.

    Cairo University-Andrology, Cairo, Egypt.

    Introduction. Penile augmentation surgery has become increasingly common though there is no consensus about the management strategy for men with a complaint of small penis. Aim. To introduce and evaluate the outcome of a structured management and counseling protocol for patients with a complaint of a small-sized penis. Methods. A structured protocol for consultation and management of (physically normal) patients with a complaint of a small penis through a descriptive study comprised of a series of 250 patients. Main Outcome Measures. Percentage of patients who elect to undergo penile augmentation surgery. Results. Only nine patients (3.6%) chose to seek further surgical intervention. Two had a buried penis, two had true micropenis and five had normal penile size. Conclusions. Using a structured management and counseling protocol, most men chose not to undergo penile augmentation surgery, even when offered for free.
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    Quote Originally Posted by kjkriston View Post
    I think I should win for mere quantity of F-ed-up studies...or maybe a tie for first...me and BP co-winners..........?
    Hey now...what about me??
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    Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker.Haydock J, Koenig WD, Stanback MT.
    Department of Biology, Gonzaga University, 502 E. Boone Ave., Spokane, WA 99258, USA. haydock@gonzaga.edu

    Social groups of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) range in size from unaided pairs to 15 adults. Behavioural indicators of mate guarding, assumed incest avoidance and observations of egg-laying indicate that social organization ranges from monogamous pairs to groups with up to seven male and three female putative cobreeders plus up to 10 nonbreeding helpers. In addition, groups occasionally lack a putative breeder throughout the breeding season. Here we report results from multilocus DNA fingerprinting of 372 nestlings from 123 nests in groups with putative cobreeders of one or both sexes. No extra-group fertilizations were found. Putative cobreeding males within social groups shared paternity. However, the most reproductively successful male was, on average, almost three times as successful as the next most successful and additional males only occasionally sired offspring. In contrast, cobreeding females shared parentage equally. Helpers never bred incestuously when their opposite-sex parent (or another relative, such as their uncle) held breeding status in the group. However, during breeding male vacancies, 14 nestlings were produced when helper males bred incestuously with their mother. Both male and female helpers usually became successful cobreeders with their same-sex parent following replacement of the opposite-sex breeder(s) by unrelated individuals.
  

  
 

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