Vitamin C read- why vitamin C is included in Osteobolin-C
- 04-05-2007, 10:33 AM
Vitamin C read- why vitamin C is included in Osteobolin-C
Guys (and girls) I am going somewhere with this, I promise
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2000 Nov;20(11):1029-35.Click here to read Links
Influence of vitamin C supplementation on cytokine changes following an ultramarathon.
* Nieman DC,
* Peters EM,
* Henson DA,
* Nevines EI,
* Thompson MM.
Departments of Health and Exercise Science and Biology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA. [email protected]
The influence of vitamin C supplementation on the pattern of change in plasma cytokine concentrations was measured in 29 runners following a 90-km ultramarathon. The study was based on a 3 (groups) by 4 (blood samples at 16 prerace, postrace, and 24 h and 48 h postrace) repeated measures design. Groups included placebo control (n = 7) and two groups supplementing vitamin C at 500 mg/day (vit C-500, n = 10) or 1500 mg/day (vit C-1500, n = 12) for 7 days before the race, on race day, and for 2 days after the race. All measured plasma cytokine concentrations were significantly elevated immediately postrace, with the magnitude of increase for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) much smaller than for IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Cortisol increased in all groups immediately after the race but significantly less in the vit C-1500 group. Group x time interaction statistics were not significant for any of the plasma cytokines. However, when the placebo and vit C-500 groups were combined (n = 17) and compared with the vit C-1500 group (n = 12), immediate postrace plasma concentrations were significantly lower in the vit C-1500 group for IL-1RA (-57%) and IL-10 (-57%), with a trend measured for IL-6 (-27%, p = 0.11) and IL-8 (-26%, p = 0.14). In summary, runners completing the 90-km Comrades Ultramarathon experienced strong increases in concentrations of plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-1RA, and IL-8. These increases were attenuated in runners ingesting 1500 mg but not 500 mg vitamin C supplements for 1 week prior to the race and on race day.
- 04-05-2007, 11:03 AM
Int J Sports Med. 2001 Oct;22(7):537-43.Click here to read Links
Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running.
* Peters EM,
* Anderson R,
* Nieman DC,
* Fickl H,
* Jogessar V.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa. [email protected]
The effects of vitamin C supplementation on the alterations in the circulating concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) which accompany ultramarathon running were measured using immuno-chemiluminescence, radioimmunoassay and ELISA procedures. Forty-five participants in the 1999 Comrades 90 km marathon were divided into equal groups (n = 15) receiving 500 mg/day Vit C (VC-500), 1500 mg/day Vit C (VC-1500) or placebo (P) for 7 days before the race, on the day of the race, and for 2 days following completion. Runners recorded dietary intake before, during and after the race and provided 35 ml blood samples 15 - 18 hrs before the race, immediately post-race, 24 hrs post race and 48 hrs post-race. Twenty-nine runners (VC-1500, n = 12; VC-500, n = 10; P, n = 7) complied with all study requirements. All post-race concentrations were adjusted for plasma volume changes. Analyses of dietary intakes and blood glucose and anti-oxidant status on the day preceding the race and the day of the race did not reveal that carbohydrate intake or plasma vitamins E and A were significant confounders in the study. Mean pre-race concentrations of serum vitamin C in VC-500 and VC-1500 groups (128 +/- 31 and 153 +/- 34 micromol/l) were significantly higher than in the P group (83 +/- 39 micromol/l). Immediate post-race serum cortisol was significantly lower in the VC-1500 group (p < 0.05) than in P and VC-500 groups. When the data from VC-500 and P groups was combined (n = 17), immediate post-race plasma adrenaline, IL-10 and IL-1Ra concentrations were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the VC-1500 group. The study demonstrates an attenuation, albeit transient, of both the adrenal stress hormone and anti-inflammatory polypeptide response to prolonged exercise in runners who supplemented with 1500 mg vitamin C per day when compared to < or = 500 mg per day.
04-05-2007, 11:05 AM
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Dec;11(4):466-81. Links
Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise.
* Thompson D,
* Williams C,
* McGregor SJ,
* Nicholas CW,
* McArdle F,
* Jackson MJ,
* Powell JR.
Department of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Taths, UK.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation affects recovery from an unaccustomed bout of exercise. Sixteen male subjects were allocated to either a placebo (P; n = 8) or vitamin C group (VC; n = 8). The VC group consumed 200 mg of ascorbic acid twice a day, whereas the P group consumed identical capsules containing 200 mg of lactose. Subjects performed a prolonged (90-min) intermittent shuttle-running test 14 days after supplementation began. Post-exercise serum creatine kinase activities and myoglobin concentrations were unaffected by supplementation. However, vitamin C supplementation had modest beneficial effects on muscle soreness, muscle function, and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, although plasma interleukin-6 increased immediately after exercise in both groups, values in the VC group were lower than in the P group 2 hours after exercise (p < .05). These results suggest that prolonged vitamin C supplementation has some modest beneficial effects on recovery from unaccustomed exercise.
04-05-2007, 11:07 AM
J Physiol. 2004 Jul 15;558(Pt 2):633-45. Epub 2004 May 28.Click here to read Click here to read Links
Supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits the release of interleukin-6 from contracting human skeletal muscle.
* Fischer CP,
* Hiscock NJ,
* Penkowa M,
* Basu S,
* Vessby B,
* Kallner A,
* Sjoberg LB,
* Pedersen BK.
Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
Contracting human skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the exercise-induced increase of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although antioxidants have been shown to attenuate the exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-6, it is unknown whether antioxidants inhibit transcription, translation or translocation of IL-6 within contracting human skeletal muscle. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled design with randomization, young healthy men received an oral supplementation with either a combination of ascorbic acid (500 mg day(-1)) and RRR-alpha-tocopherol (400 i.u. day(-1)) (Treatment, n= 7), or placebo (Control, n= 7). After 28 days of supplementation, the subjects performed 3 h of dynamic two-legged knee-extensor exercise at 50% of their individual maximal power output. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were obtained at rest (0 h), immediately post exercise (3 h) and after 3 h of recovery (6 h). Leg blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasonography. Plasma IL-6 concentration was measured in blood sampled from the femoral artery and vein. The net release of IL-6 was calculated using Fick's principle. Plasma vitamin C and E concentrations were elevated in Treatment compared to Control. Plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), a marker of lipid peroxidation, increased in response to exercise in Control, but not in Treatment. In both Control and Treatment, skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA and protein levels increased between 0 and 3 h. In contrast, the net release of IL-6 from the leg, which increased during exercise with a peak at 3.5 h in Control, was completely blunted during exercise in Treatment. The arterial plasma IL-6 concentration from 3 to 4 h, when the arterial IL-6 levels peaked in both groups, was approximately 50% lower in the Treatment group compared to Control (Treatment versus Control: 7.9 pg ml(-1), 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.0-10.7 pg ml(-1), versus 19.7 pg ml(-1), CI 13.8-29.4 pg ml(-1), at 3.5 h, P < 0.05 between groups). Moreover, plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), C-reactive protein and cortisol levels all increased after the exercise in Control, but not in Treatment. In conclusion, our results show that supplementation with vitamins C and E attenuated the systemic IL-6 response to exercise primarily via inhibition of the IL-6 protein release from the contracting skeletal muscle per se.
04-05-2007, 11:13 AM
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Jun;16(3):270-80. Links
Effect of high dose vitamin C supplementation on muscle soreness, damage, function, and oxidative stress to eccentric exercise.
* Bryer SC,
* Goldfarb AH.
Exercise and Sport Science Dept, University of North Carolina Greensboro, 27402-6170, USA.
This study investigated if vitamin C supplementation before and after eccentric exercise could reduce muscle soreness (MS), oxidative stress, and muscle function. Eighteen healthy men randomly assigned to either a placebo (P) or vitamin C (VC) (3 g/d) treatment group took pills for 2 wk prior and 4 d after performing 70 eccentric elbow extensions with their non-dominant arm. MS increased in both groups with significantly reduced MS for the first 24 h with VC. Range of motion was reduced equally in both groups after the exercise (P > or = 0.05). Muscle force declined equally and was unaffected by treatment. VC attenuated the creatine kinase (CK) increase at 48 h after exercise with similar CK after this time. Glutathione ratio (oxidized glutathione/total glutathione) was significantly increased at 4 and 24 h with P but VC prevented this change. These data suggest that vitamin C pretreatment can reduce MS, delay CK increase, and prevent blood glutathione oxidation with little influence on muscle function loss.
04-05-2007, 01:03 PM
04-05-2007, 03:02 PM
04-05-2007, 03:23 PM
04-05-2007, 03:46 PM
Thanks to BuffHunk on this one- this was his original post:
Vitamin C as an Anti-Inflammatory!
This vitamin acts as an anti-inflammatory, relieving arthritis pain, and rids the body of free radicals. Vitamin C is vital to any arthritic therapeutic program, because Vitamin C has an intimate therapeutic relationship with each of the major causes of arthritis: physical structure of joints and bones, collagen; immune response against infectious agents; nutritional deficiency; and stress.
Vitamin C is an requirement for almost every step in the creation of collagen, a fiber like protein which forms the strong connective tissue required for strong bones, cartilage, the same structures which breakdown or deform in arthritic diseases. Hence, Vitamin C should play a role in any health promoting and arthritic prevention program, in order for wound healing and regeneration of connective tissues to proceed at optimal levels. Vitamin C also plays a roles Arteriosclerosis, the clogging up of arteries with cholesterol, which interferes with normal circulation and metabolism of bones and joints, leading to gradual deterioration and ultimately to arthritis.
The role of Vitamin C in maintaining and strengthening immune resistance to infection, and especially in the function of particular white cells, is yet another part of Vitamin C's power against arthritis. Considerable research points to a major role played by microorganisms, perhaps an RNA virus in association with a cell-wall deficient organism, in arthritis. Vitamin C's multi-faceted role in stimulating lymphocyte production, modulating the levels of circulating antibodies. Vitamin C also play a role in the production of the body's natural anti-viral substance, interferon, and in the inhibition of the prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2, which are involved in inflammatory responses - swelling, arthritis pain, tenderness and heat. Lastly Vitamin C's therapeutic effects in dampening allergic responses, which are often a critical component of arthritis, all speak to Vitamin C's essential role in the successful treatment of arthritis.
Researchers compared the diets of 73 participants who developed inflammatory polyarthritis during an eight-year period, and 146 who remained arthritis-free. After analysis, researchers concluded that people who developed arthritis ate fewer fruits and vegetables than those who did not develop the disease. Participants who ate the least fruits and vegetables had twice the risk of developing inflammatory arthritis. The results were even more striking it came to vitamin C: Individuals with low daily levels of vitamin C were three times more likely to develop joint inflammation compared to those with the highest daily intake, the researchers said.
There was also a significant difference in how much vitamin C people with arthritis consumed compared to those who did not develop arthritis. Participants who consumed the lowest amounts of vitamin C were three times more likely to develop the arthritic condition than those who consumed the highest amounts of vitamin C. The positive effect of vitamin C on rheumatoid arthritis may be because:
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, fighting molecules which trigger rheumatoid inflammation.
Vitamin C serves a role as a cofactor in collagen synthesis, the main protein in joint tissue and bone.
Vitamin C plays a role in fighting infection and may work to control inflammation which is linked to infection. Some believe infection can trigger flares of rheumatoid arthritis.
04-05-2007, 04:17 PM
A recent study by Devi and Shyamala revealed that a component of Osteobolin-C, Cissus Quadrangularis, attenuates neutrophil infilatration and pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The article, printed in the Journal of Herb Pharmacotherapy, found that CQD actually blunted these compounds, allowing for less proenzymes that could result in eventual tissue damage.
In times of tendon injury, joint injury, arthritis, and general connective matrix overuse injuries, loss of tissue can occur, through the degradation of proteoglycans and collagens through active proteinases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the joint contribute to this process by acting on different cells present to produce these proteinase enzymes. Unfortunately, the replacement of collage after its destruction is difficult, so it is necessary to find some sort of attenuative remedy.
All classes of proteinases are involved in tissue turnover, however, in times of injury or disease, these enzymes can overload an area- when this occurs, the reaction of cytokines and connective tissue produce certain MMPs (members of the matrix metalloproteinase family- say that five times fast!!!) TNFalpha, IL-1 and IL-8- (IL= interleukins). Other types of MMPs can be found in the specific granules of neutrophils and are released when these cells are stimulated.
As stated before, during times of injury or disease, MMPs overload in the damaged area. Unfortunately, they can sometimes do more harm than good. They are needed for turnover of the cartilaginous matrix, BUT they are also implicated in the destruction of connective tissue, because when an injury occurs, MMP synthesis and interaction increases in health cartilage, resulting in a subsequent decrease in matrix synthesis (collagenolysis).
Limiting the action of cytokines and neutophils will drastically attenuate this decrease in matix integrity- but how is this accomplished? Osteobolin-C (Cissus Quadrangularis PLUS VITAMIN C- LOOK AT ALL THE DATA ) limits the action of cytokines and neutrophils in damaged tissue, allowing for the repair of the connective tissue matrix!! By preventing subsequent localized interaction of cytokines and neutrophils with healthy connective tissue, a proper balance collagenase production can be restored! Osteobolin-C also allows for the mobilization of chondroblasts, along with mucopolysaccarides (the "cement" that holds collagen together), calcium, and phosphorous at the injured area, further speeding the re-synthesis, and preventing future training-related injuries!!
04-05-2007, 04:33 PM
04-05-2007, 09:12 PM
[ Osteobolin-C (Cissus Quadrangularis PLUS VITAMIN C- LOOK AT ALL THE DATA ) limits the action of cytokines and neutrophils in damaged tissue, allowing for the repair of the connective tissue matrix!! By preventing subsequent localized interaction of cytokines and neutrophils with healthy connective tissue, a proper balance collagenase production can be restored! Osteobolin-C also allows for the mobilization of chondroblasts, along with mucopolysaccarides (the "cement" that holds collagen together), calcium, and phosphorous at the injured area, further speeding the re-synthesis, and preventing future training-related injuries!![/QUOTE]
Just had to quote this, to make sure no one misses it amidst the other data.
Great Posting D. You have earned the rank of #1 Stunna.
Wha, wha, wha, what..........
04-06-2007, 12:53 AM
04-06-2007, 03:49 PM
What are your thought on this:
"...ascorbic acid isn't a vitamin at all and actually does nothing in the prevention or treatment of scurvy (scurvy is a disease caused by lack of vitamin C). The controversy began in the 1930's when vitamin C was first discovered. If you ask the medical community they'll say vitamin C is nothing more than ascorbic acid, it being the isolated "vitamin". Doctor Royal Lee, considered the world's greatest nutritionist, was, as far back as the 1940's, providing evidence that the anti-infection vitamin C complex does not consist simply of ascorbic acid; it isn't even part of it.
Rather, ascorbic acid is what protects and preserves acting as the "shell" of the vitamin C complex. The discoverer of vitamin C, Dr. Albert Szent Gyorgi, stated that ascorbic acid was not the active anti-scurvy factor of the C complex. Dr. Gyorgi reported that with the isolated ascorbic acid he could not stop the various characteristics of scurvy which were reliably cured with the so-called "impure"vitamin C from food sources. Later a factor of the C complex was discovered and dubbed rutin.
This new compound fell under what would prove to be a large inventory of other natural compounds referred to as vitamin P. Doctor Royal Lee described vitamins as being "biological wheels within wheels" and used the term synergist to portray the functional interdependence of biologically related nutrient factors. In other words, vitamins do not function in a chemically isolated form. In the case of vitamin C, rutin would be a synergist of the ascorbic acid as well as the rest of the C complex.
According to Doctor Lee, the C complex consists of P factors, which enhance capillary and vessel wall strength, and J factors, which increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. As well, there is an enzyme in the center of the C complex called tyrosinase that is an organic copper enzyme. These factors, and many others, are protected by the ascorbic acid shell which acts as an antioxidant guard. This tells us that using just the ascorbic acid, "the preserver of the C complex," would be like preparing a meal and eating the plate. Ascorbic acid does not provide therapeutic benefits without its synergists.
In nature though, when found with the C complex, ascorbic acid acts as a deliverer of sorts by carrying, protecting, and dropping the vitamin C into the body. Naturally, all of this is conveniently overlooked by the commercial providers of vitamins since the idea of synergists is not advantageous to production and profit. What they do is reduce a natural vitamin, "full of healing potential," to an isolated chemical duplicate that is easily synthesized in a lab and mass produced to be sold as a pill or food additive. "
MOTIV8 II Challenge
-=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-
04-06-2007, 05:24 PM
This is pretty tough one- I pretty much have to go with what I know about pharmacophores, L-enatiomers, and stereoisomers, and all of the published research on Vitamin C/ascorbic acid studies (they pretty much all use ascorbic acid). The whole concept of steroisomers and L-enantiomers and how ascorbic acid and Vitamin C are related is that the two are complete mirror images of one another structurally. Because they carry this mirror image in structure as stereoisomers/enantiomers, they are SUPPOSED to carry the exact same physical and chemical characteristics. However, in chemistry, molecular biology, and genetics, this does not ALWAYS hold true (just most of the time)- there is legitimacy to what you just posted, for a lot of different reasons (I will go into them later- but first my line of thought).
Here is what I have been taught in biochem and through pretty much everything I have ever read on the subject- the pharmacophere of vitamin C is the ascorbate ion, meaning that ascorbate carries the same molecular framework as vitamin C that is necessary for the action of the molecule. More simply put: as a pharmacophere of Vitamin C, ascorbate can occupy the same receptor site as vitamin C, and impart the same effects biologically. Since vitamin C IS an enantiomer of ascorbate (mirror image), they occupy the same molecular framework, meaning that they SHOULD carrry the same characteristics, both structurally and biologically.
Our company uses Ascorbic Acid (E300), labeled as Vitamin C. To my knowledge, it is not a racemic mixture (meaning an equal molecular mix of enatiomer versions vitamin C/ascorbic acid) to create an equal plane- a trait common in chiral molecules. Remember, the two compounds are mirror images of one another- a racemic mixture would simply mean equal amounts of both. L-ascorbate is a very weakly acidic sugar molecule that is related (at least somewhat) to glucose. It occurs either attached to hydrogen (ascorbic acid), or metal, forming mineral ascorbate (or E301,E302,or E303)- that being said, the part of what I am not following from the previous post is, if ascorbic acid is a molecular (shell), what is the chemical structure of some of these "sub" molecules, and are they simply found in "natural" C sources? If so, are they related to phytochemicals un-associated with the ascorbate molecule?
Really curious on this one- there is a difference between chemical vitamins and whole food- but how much? That is million dollar question
04-06-2007, 05:31 PM
Interesting. Very thorough response as usual.
BTW, that stuff I posted was from an article I wrote when I was 18 so it's a bit unspecific. Back then, I didn't know what a stereoisomer was.
MOTIV8 II Challenge
-=The Big Squirrel Nut Swingers=-
04-06-2007, 06:00 PM
So where we are at right now is: Cissus Quadrangularis IS a natural source of Vitamin C, so even if there is a difference between L-enantiomers, Osteobolin-C is actually chemically complete in this aspect, because it has both E300 Vitamin C/ascorbic acid, plus an added "natural" dose of constituent vitamin C (the phytochemical "X-Factor" no pun intended )
So what is my point? Going back to what I said earlier- the stereoisomer/L-enantiomer "theory" (there are never any absolute facts in medicine, or otherwise, except death)- there are a couple notable examples (in molecular genetics as well) where "exact" structural and DNA similarities just didn't pan out....
Best example I can think of is Chase the steer (think that was his name)- Chase was a prize-winning bull raised by a rancher outside of Austin, Texas. He was the ranchers best friend- Chase followed the rancher everywhere, and they would wrestle, play, and just generally hang out. Anyway, long story short, after many years, Chase died. The rancher was heartbroken, but just by dumb luck, Texas A&M (or UT, not sure which) happened to be running a cloning experiment with cattle. They took a DNA sample from Chase, and voila!! Just as fast as you could say "re-pet," the rancher had Chase back- in cloned form. Same genetics, same markings, same growth patterns, same everything- except for one thing- the new Chase was not anything like the old one- he was mean as **** (where Chase had been gentle), and actually ended turning on the rancher, goring and almost killing him. After this incident- I think they ended up having to put Chase II down.
The fact of the matter is: I think there are a lot of factors found in natural foods that are enormously beneficial, and cannot be duplicated by chemical isomers- there are a lot of things medical science still has not learned, and I think we have "processed out" a large % of all the useful nutritional components in food (at least health-wise).
04-06-2007, 06:04 PM
04-06-2007, 07:52 PM
04-06-2007, 08:36 PM
04-07-2007, 11:26 AM
04-08-2007, 02:44 PM
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