Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis & Athletes

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    Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis & Athletes


    Article Written by Rehan Jalali


    Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis and Athletes


    Do you want your muscles to feel pumped all the time? Do you want more energy during your workouts? Then fill up your glycogen stores! Glycogen is the storage form of glucose (blood sugar). Muscle glycogen resynthesis or as some say glycogen supercompensation is an important aspect in bodybuilding. Some bodybuilders are so bent on only protein intake that they forget that 2/3 of total glycogen stores are found in skeletal muscle (the other 1/3 being found in the liver). The glycogen found in muscle is generally used for the muscle only and not to maintain blood sugar levels. The glycogen stores in the liver are responsible for maintaining proper blood sugar levels. There are several ways to enhance or improve glycogen stores which will be discussed in a latter part of this article. In this short synopsis of glycogen metabolism as it relates to bodybuilding, I want to explore the details of this interesting topic.


    2. Biochemistry
    Let's start with some basics of glycogen metabolism. If you don't have some knowledge of biochemistry or just simply don't care how it works, please skip to the part about how to increase glycogen stores and current research on this topic. Carbohydrates, specifically glucose, are an important energy source for many human tissues including skeletal muscle. It would not be practical or efficient for your body to store significant amounts of glucose in solution. Therefore, carbohydrate reserves are stored in the form of the branch chained polysaccharide called glycogen. The average bodybuilder sustains about 85 millimoles of glycogen per kilogram of skeletal muscle. A millimole is a simple measurement of the amount of certain compounds in your body. Supercompensation glycogen studies have shown that a trained athlete can achieve at least 175 millimoles. I will discuss how to achieve these glycogen levels in a latter part of this article. When a glycogen-containing muscle cell requires glucose, say during weight training, glucose monomers are removed one at a time from glycogen molecules. This reaction is catalyzed by glycogen phosphorylase. The glucose at this point is released in the form of Glucose-1-phosphate. The first step of glycolysis (the energy producing pathway in muscle cells) is glucose-6-phosphate. Muscle cells contain an enzyme called phosphoglucomutase which can convert glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate at which point it can take part in the steps of glycolysis. Due to the attached phosphate group in this process, none of the glucose resulting from glycogen hydrolysis are able to leave the cell in which they were produced. Liver cells on the other hand, are able to dephosphorylate glucose. Due to this dephosphorylation, the glycogen stores in the liver can release glucose into the blood stream to regulate blood sugar. Glycogen synthesis (the production of glycogen to be stored ) requires the phosphorylation of glucose or the addition of a phosphate group. This allows for activation of the molecule as well as containment within muscle cells. After phosphorylation, glucose reacts with UTP (uridine tri-phosphate) to form UDP glucose. This reaction is effectively irreversible. UDP- glucose monomers are then converted to glycogen by the enzyme glycogen synthase (with the liberation of the UDP). Glycogen synthase activation is considered to be an important regulatory step in glycogen synthesis (1). Glycogenin, a glycoprotein, serves as a guide for all glycogen synthesis. It has a function of priming glycogen synthesis as well as activating glycogen synthase. I will discuss this interesting compound further a little later. Muscle glycogen reserves are mobilized in situations of stress. Phosphorylase kinase is an enzyme which catalyses glycogen phosphorylase. The activity of glycogen phosphorylase is increased by epinephrine (adrenaline). Muscle contraction is initiated by a rise in Ca+2 ion concentration. Ca+2 ions also increase the activity of phosphorylase kinase. Proper calcium intake is essential for muscle contraction . I would recommend at least 1600mg of calcium daily for bodybuilders. A secondary beneficial effect of calcium is that it has been shown to lower blood pressure. Magnesium and potassium supplementation may also be necessary for proper electrolyte balance if taking a calcium supplement.

    When glucose is ingested and goes into the blood stream from the digestive tract, it stimulates the release of the peptide hormone insulin from the pancreas. Insulin binds to specific receptors in cell membranes and facilitates diffusion of glucose into the cell. Normally the cell membranes are impermeable to glucose , but when a cell receptor is activated the membrane allows for a rapid entry of glucose into the cells. Insulin also helps activate glycogen synthase (2) and allows cell membranes to become more permeable to certain amino acids, creatine, and some minerals. Insulin causes glucose transport proteins (GLUT) to increase their activity allowing for increased glucose uptake by muscle cells. Two of these transporters have been found in skeletal muscle: GLUT 1, which is present in low levels, and GLUT 4, which is the major isoform in muscle and is responsible for the increase in glucose transport in response to insulin and muscle contractions (2, 3, 4, 5) A rapid transport of glucose into the cell requires the presence of GLUT 4 transporters on the cell surface, and translocation of these from the Golgi apparatus requires insulin. It is believed that both insulin and exercise stimulate the translocation of GLUT 4 transporters from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle (6). According to some research, there may be two separate intracellular pools of glucose transporters, one accessible for translocation by the actions of insulin and one accessible by the effect of exercise (7). Both exercise (muscle contraction to be specific) and insulin stimulate an increase in glucose uptake by muscle. It has also been established that glycogen can be resynthesized from lactate in skeletal muscle (8). There is ample evidence which suggests that exercise during recovery impede glycogen synthesis. This is why I recommend that you refrain from any cardiovascular work right after resistance training. It may inhibit glycogen resynthesis and not let you recover from your weight training session. The best time for cardiovascular work is early in the morning on an empty stomach. This may allow for the most fat loss.


    There have only been two comprehensive studies (9,10) that have investigated muscle glycogen synthesis after resistance exercise. Pascoe et al (9) reported a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen levels after resistance training. Robergs et al (10) reported muscle glycogen degradations of about 38% after resistance training. Muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise (weight lifting) is considerably faster than prolonged aerobic exercise (8). Eccentric exercise has been associated with ultrastructural muscle damage, leakage of intracellular enzymes, delayed onset muscle soreness , AND reduced rates of glycogen resynthesis (11,12). Some evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory cells which enter muscle tissue in response to the eccentrically induced damage compete with the muscle cells for available plasma glucose (12). In addition, these inflammatory cells may produce a metabolic factor that shifts muscle metabolism towards glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) and away from glycogen synthesis. It is speculated that the damage resulting form eccentric exercise interfered with the insertion of the GLUT 4 protein into the plasma membrane and increased the rate of degradation or the rate of production of this glucose transporter protein (12). The evidence sited above shows that eccentric contractions and subsequent muscle damage impair muscle glycogen resynthesis. I would recommend more explosive, concentric type of movements to enhance glycogen resynthesis after resistance training. This would especially be necessary while carbohydrate loading/depleting (before a bodybuilding competition for example). The recruitment of more fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibers may also enhance glycogen synthesis (8).



    Exercise stimulates muscle glucose uptake both directly and by increasing the sensitivity of this process to insulin. Increased fat intake and intracellular triglycerides may cause insulin resistance and hamper muscle glycogen resynthesis. According to one study, exercise increased insulin sensitivity in normal subjects because of a two fold increase in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in muscle, due to an increase in insulin-stimulated glucose transport-phosphorylation (13). Since insulin sensitivity is highest after resistance exercise, it is vital to take a high glycemic index drink immediately after training. This stimulates the secretion of insulin to allow rapid muscle glycogen resynthesis. The general formula is to consume about 1.5 grams of high glycemic index carbohydrates per kilogram of bodyweight after weight training. Glycogen restoration rate is higher following glucose feeding as compared with fructose feeding because of glucose's higher glycemic index rating. Some people have mentioned to me that protein is also needed along with carbohydrates to increase muscle glycogen resynthesis. I believe if you consume a high glycemic index carbohydrate after training at the amount given above, then additional protein will not improve muscle glycogen resynthesis (14). If you are on a ketogenic type of a diet than consuming certain amino acids (namely branched chain) may allow for an insulin response causing an increase in muscle glycogen resynthesis. By the way, supercompensated muscle glycogen levels can maintained at least three days after carb loading on a moderate carbohydrate diet according to a study at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego.

    Glycogenin, which I mentioned previously, primes glycogen synthesis. The amount of glycogenin will influence how much glycogen a cell can store (15). Thus the production of active glycogenin primer in the cell has the potential to be the overall rate limiting process in glycogen formation. A company called Upstate Biotechnology markets glycogenin but not for human consumption. I don't believe that the FDA has approved synthetic glycogenin for human consumption. Another component of glycogen metabolism has been discovered which may even have greater influence on total glycogen stores than does glycogenin. This is the low molecular mass form of glycogen called proglycogen (15). If proglycogen could be converted into macroglycogen , muscle glycogen levels may increase significantly. I believe that this will be the next big step in glycogen resynthesis advancements.


    3. Increasing muscle glycogen levels
    Now on to the most critical part of muscle glycogen resynthesis. How do you increase muscle glycogen levels? There are several supplements and techniques to allow for increased glycogen storage. One way is taking a glutamine supplement. Glutamine causes a significant increase in muscle glycogen deposition through an unknown mechanism. According to one university study, a physiological concentration of glutamine stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic pre-cursors (16). So glutamine along with your post workout high glycemic index carbohydrates may increase glutamine and glycogen in the muscle. I would recommend at least 5-10 grams of glutamine at this time to allow for glycogen recompensation. In another research study on humans, an intravenous drip of glutamine, raising blood levels about 70% above normal, increased muscle glycogen (17). Some top quality glutamine supplements I would recommend are Cytovol by EAS and SuperGlu by GURUetc. There is also a doctor named Elias Meezan who is in the process of patenting artificial primers for glycogen synthesis. Properties of these compounds enable them to readily penetrate cells chemically intact so that they have access to glycogenin and glycogen synthase. The unique structural and metabolic properties of these compounds make it highly likely that in addition to priming glycogen synthesis on their own, they could act synergistically with other drugs to stimulate glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis. This is real exciting news for bodybuilders and diabetics as well. Next, there are those glucose disposing agents or so called "insulin mimickers" such as vanadyl sulfate, chromium picolinate, metformin, and phenformin. Alpha lipoic acid also shows potential as a glucose disposing agent. In Germany, it is used as a treatment for peripheral neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes. It speeds the removal of glucose from the blood stream, at least partly by enhancing insulin function and reducing insulin resistance. The richest food source of alpha lipoic acid is red meat. Vanadyl sulfate helps to trigger glucose transporters much like insulin, obviously meaning increased glycogen stores and better assimilation of protein by muscle tissue. Higher glycogen stores mean better "pumps" in the gym and more energy during workouts. Chromium picolinate helps insulin function by regulating glucose tolerance factor which helps insulin bind to muscle cells. This may especially be important to insulin resistant bodybuilders. Metformin, which is sold as Glucophage in America, is an extremely powerful glucose disposing agent used to manage diabetes. Phenformin is similar but causes the negative side effect of lactic acidosis. Metformin is a prescription item. Phenformin can be found in Mexico where it is sold under the brand name of Debeone. Doing explosive concentric movements and limiting eccentric type of training (i.e. long negatives) may also increase glycogen stores. Carbohydrate depleting and then reloading (glycogen supercompensation) may allow you to increase glycogen stores two fold, as mentioned above.



    So basically to allow for the most glycogen stores I would definitely recommend a vanadyl or chromium supplement. V2G by EAS and Vanadyl ph by Sportpharma seem to be two effective vanadyl supplements. Training intensely, depleting glycogen stores, may also allow for rapid glycogen resynthesis. There is a great advantage to carb loading before a bodybuilding competition. The method I recommend is this: 7 days out from a show, start carb depleting by consuming 1 gram of carbohydrates per kilogram of bodyweight. This depleting phase will increase glycogen synthase activity and prime your body for glycogen supercompensation. Training during this time should consist of heavy, explosive (concentric) movements for low repetitions. Glucagon levels will start rising at this point to help maintain blood sugar levels. After three days of depleting, start carb loading by consuming 3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight daily along with a glutamine and glucose disposing supplement for three days. Consume a greater amount of those carbs earlier in the day and taper down as the day progresses. Make sure to consume plenty of complex carbohydrates during the loading phase such as sweet potatoes ,vegetables, brown rice, and multi-grain oatmeal. The loading phase should allow for glycogen supercompensation and fill your glycogen stores to the gills causing enlarged muscles and harder definition. You should try carb loading/depleting about 3 weeks before the show to make sure it works perfectly. The slightest mistake can cause water retention and a smooth appearance to muscles. This formula has worked for me in many competitions over the years.



    In conclusion, glycogen resynthesis plays an important role in bodybuilding and proper carbohydrate depleting/loading can make the difference between winning a bodybuilding competition or looking like a balloon and losing. Advances in glycogen synthesis are currently being made and the future looks bright for bodybuilders.


    References
    Ivy JL (1991). Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise. Sports Med 11(1), 6-19

    Newsholme EA, Leech AR. (1984). Biochemistry for the medical sciences. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 38-42; 312-30; 444-454

    Friedman JE, Neufer PD, Dohm GL. (1991). Regulation of glycogen resynthesis following exercise. Dietary considerations. Sports Med 11(4), 232-243.

    Rodnick KJ, Henriksen EJ, James DE, et al. (1992). Exercise training, glucose transporters, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles. Am. J. Physiol. 262(1), C9-C14

    Klip A, Ramal T, Young DA, et al. (1987). Insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporters in rat hindlimb muscles. FEBS Lett. 224(1), 224-230

    Wallberg-Henriksson H, Constable SH, Young DA, et al. (1988). Glucose transport into rat skeletal muscle: interaction between exercise and insulin. J. Appl. Physiol. 65(2), 909-913

    Gao J,Ren J, Gulve EA, et al. (1994). Additive effect of contractions and insulin on GLUT-4 translocation into the sarcolemma. J Appl Physiol 77(4), 1597-1601

    Pascoe DD, Gladden LB. (1996). Muscle glycogen resynthesis after short term, high intensity exercise and resistance exercise. Sports Med 21(2), 98-118

    Pascoe DD, Costill DL, Fink WJ, et al. (1993). Glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle following resistive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25(3), 349-354

    Robergs RA, Pearson DR, Costill DL, et al. (1991). Muscle glycogenolysis during differing intensities of weight-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 70(4), 1700-1706

    O'Reily KP, Warhol MJ, Fielding RA, et al . (1987). Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage impairs muscle glycogen repletion. J. Appl. Physiol. 63(1), 252-256

    Costill DL, Pascoe DD, Fink WJ, et al. (1990). Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 69(1), 46-50

    Perseghin G, Price TB, Petersen KF, Roden M, Cline GW, Gerow K, Rothman DL, Shulman GI (1996). Increased glucose transport-phosphorylation and muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise training in insulin-resistant subjects. N. Engl. J. Med. 335(18), 1357-1362

    Zawadski KM, Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. (1992). Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol 72(5), 1854-1859

    Alonso MD, Lomako J, Lomako WM, Whelan WJ, et al. (1995). A new look at the biogenesis of glycogen. FASEB J. 9(12), 1126-1137

    Lavoinne A, Baquet A, Hue L (1987). Stimulation of glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis by glutamine in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochem. J. 248(2), 429-437

    Varnier M, Leese GP, Thompson J, Rennie MJ, et al. (1995). Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 269(2), E309-E315

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    Since insulin sensitivity is highest after resistance exercise, it is vital to take a high glycemic index drink immediately after training. This stimulates the secretion of insulin to allow rapid muscle glycogen resynthesis. The general formula is to consume about 1.5 grams of high glycemic index carbohydrates per kilogram of bodyweight after weight training. Glycogen restoration rate is higher following glucose feeding as compared with fructose feeding because of glucose's higher glycemic index rating. Some people have mentioned to me that protein is also needed along with carbohydrates to increase muscle glycogen resynthesis. I believe if you consume a high glycemic index carbohydrate after training at the amount given above, then additional protein will not improve muscle glycogen resynthesis (14). If you are on a ketogenic type of a diet than consuming certain amino acids (namely branched chain) may allow for an insulin response causing an increase in muscle glycogen resynthesis. By the way, supercompensated muscle glycogen levels can maintained at least three days after carb loading on a moderate carbohydrate diet according to a study at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego.
    This is really nice , Bobo come here fast!!




    How do you increase muscle glycogen levels? There are several supplements and techniques to allow for increased glycogen storage. One way is taking a glutamine supplement. Glutamine causes a significant increase in muscle glycogen deposition through an unknown mechanism. According to one university study, a physiological concentration of glutamine stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic pre-cursors (16). So glutamine along with your post workout high glycemic index carbohydrates may increase glutamine and glycogen in the muscle. I would recommend at least 5-10 grams of glutamine at this time to allow for glycogen recompensation. In another research study on humans, an intravenous drip of glutamine, raising blood levels about 70% above normal, increased muscle glycogen (17).
    Really good too , in fact I loved the article YJ very impressive studies, I'm up for all to take ALA , is a great antioxidants plus the mimical insulin activity makes it a guru supplement to have if you got some spare $$.
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    Should I pick this apart one sentence at a time? It might take a few hours
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    Haha take your time BOBO , i'm up for your insights on this insulin topic @ postworkout
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    Originally posted by RaulJimenez


    This is really nice , Bobo come here fast!!






    Really good too , in fact I loved the article YJ very impressive studies, I'm up for all to take ALA , is a great antioxidants plus the mimical insulin activity makes it a guru supplement to have if you got some spare $$.
    I see what he say's. Guess what, he's right. On the other hand he forgets to mention the study in which complex carbs and simple high glycemic carbs were compared and there was no difference in muscle glycogen synthesis. So I'd rather use lower GI, get the same benefit


    The glutamine reference is the funniest of them all. He claims that that glutamine increases glycogen synthesis but uses in intrevenous glutamine drip as a reference study. Well I trust many of you know the difference between orally ingesting an amino acid and taking it intrevenously. You can also look at the numerous studies I've already posted along with YJ, proving it doesn't increase glycogen synthesis.

    He also seems to love insulin but recommends a carbohydrate only drink after weight training. I guess he's not familiar with the study proving that the combination of a carbohydrate/protein mix increases the glucose response which in turn increases the insulin response.


    Overall its a good read but filled with many inaccuracies.
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    Originally posted by RaulJimenez
    Haha take your time BOBO , i'm up for your insights on this insulin topic @ postworkout
    There's a few points on the top of my head. Let me see if I can round up some of these studies.
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    The main reason why I posted this was for the reasons mentioned by Bobo. I knew he'd love the glutamine reference, but we both have provided studies that show otherwise. This a 'ghetto' article in my opinion, generally good info. but like Bobo said, some minor misleading points. But thats why I love posting them, for critiques, etc.
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    You are right in the glutamine study though , the study refers to intravenous glutamine which is a different world from taking it orally which gets destroyed easily in the gut. appart from that I too give it a good reading thanks YJ and proves again that ALA is a great supplement if you have some spare $$ to spend.
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    Re: Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis & Athletes


    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Article Written by Rehan Jalali





    Glutamine causes a significant increase in muscle glycogen deposition through an unknown mechanism. According to one university study, a physiological concentration of glutamine stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic pre-cursors (16). So glutamine along with your post workout high glycemic index carbohydrates may increase glutamine and glycogen in the muscle. I would recommend at least 5-10 grams of glutamine at this time to allow for glycogen recompensation. In another research study on humans, an intravenous drip of glutamine, raising blood levels about 70% above normal, increased muscle glycogen (17).

    Nope, sorry.

    The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.

    van Hall G, Saris WH, van de Schoor PA, Wagenmakers AJ.

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. RH01769@RH.DK

    The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order. Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks. The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion of the control and free glutamine drinks, implying that further research is needed on the potential protein effect.
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    Yep that was the study I was looking for, YJ gave me that link yesterday and I couldn't find it, proves otherwise of what the above article says.
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    Re: Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis & Athletes


    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Some people have mentioned to me that protein is also needed along with carbohydrates to increase muscle glycogen resynthesis. I believe if you consume a high glycemic index carbohydrate after training at the amount given above, then additional protein will not improve muscle glycogen resynthesis (14).
    Nope, sorry.

    Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise.

    Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB 3rd, Ivy JL.

    Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas, Austin 78712.

    Carbohydrate, protein, and carbohydrate-protein supplements were compared to determine their effects on muscle glycogen storage during recovery from prolonged exhaustive exercise. Nine male subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Immediately and 2 h after each exercise bout, they ingested 112.0 g carbohydrate (CHO), 40.7 g protein (PRO), or 112.0 g carbohydrate and 40.7 g protein (CHO-PRO). Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately and 4 h after exercise. During recovery the plasma glucose response of the CHO treatment was significantly greater than that of the CHO-PRO treatment, but the plasma insulin response of the CHO-PRO treatment was significantly greater than that of the CHO treatment. Both the CHO and CHO-PRO treatments produced plasma glucose and insulin responses that were greater than those produced by the PRO treatment (P less than 0.05). The rate of muscle glycogen storage during the CHO-PRO treatment [35.5 +/- 3.3 (SE) mumol.g protein-1.h-1] was significantly faster than during the CHO treatment (25.6 +/- 2.3 mumol.g protein-1.h-1), which was significantly faster than during the PRO treatment (7.6 +/- 1.4 mumol.g protein-1.h-1). The results suggest that postexercise muscle glycogen storage can be enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement as a result of the interaction of carbohydrate and protein on insulin secretion
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    Obvisouly this guy hasn't done enough reading.
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    I have both those studies big boy, very nice. We should find his e-mail and flame him.....
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    I have both those studies big boy, very nice. We should find his e-mail and flame him.....
    Thats just the tip of the iceburg. I love how he actually mentions Metormin. I think he's been living in a hole.

    Effects of short term metformin administration on androgens in normal men.

    Shegem NS, Nasir AM, Jbour AK, Batieha AM, El-Khateeb MS, Ajlouni KM.

    National Center for Diabetes Endocrinology and Genetics, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of metformin on androgens in normal men. METHODS: A total of 12 healthy males volunteered to participate in the study. A blood sample was obtained from each of them and analyzed for the following: Testosterone (total and free), sex hormone binding globulin dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition, each participant was subjected to a glucose tolerance test and his insulin level was measured. Metformin 850 mg twice daily for 2-weeks was given to each subject after which the above tests were repeated. A paired t-test was used to assess the statistical significance of any observed differences before and after metformin. RESULTS: After metformin administration, there was a significant reduction in serum level of total testosterone (p=0.0001), free testosterone (P=0.002), and 17 hydroxyprogesterone (p=0.0001). There was also a significant increase in serum level of sex hormone binding globulin (p=0.009) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (P=0.0008). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone showed no significant changes. Similarly, there were no changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, weight, or blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Metformin administration was associated with a reduction in total testosterone, free testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and an increase in sex hormone binding globulin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in normal males. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation.



    I just had too.
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    So uh.....who wants to do the e-mail flame?

    rehan@tsrf.com
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    So uh.....who wants to do the e-mail flame?

    rehan@tsrf.com

    I'll get too emotional. Plus if he's advising competitors, let him. It just weakens the competition.
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    talking about iv glutamine, i read about that on anabolex, apparently some guy purchased medical grade injectable l-glutmine and used it on a regular basis. he said it was in a different league altogether than oral glutmine. i pm:ed him for the source, seems like it might have potential...

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    I guess... seems like too much trouble unless it really is completely radical ****... but hey, whateva
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    Why the **** you would 'drip' glutamine? Oh god, people will try anything these days.
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Why the **** you would 'drip' glutamine? Oh god, people will try anything these days.
    Not to mention the fact that lasts about a whole hour within your system. I forget the study but it was use of amino's used intravenously and they cleared from the system extremely fast. Now it would be different if you used a constant supply like a "drip" but I have better things to do then sit around the house hooked up to a glutamine IV drip.
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    Yea, maybe if it were fina or something, not a scam ass supplement
  22. I am faster than 80% of all snakes
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Yea, maybe if it were fina or something, not a scam ass supplement
    Well yeah, then I would have to adjust my schedule
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    I wonder how I would be able to go to university with a drip of Fina !!!!
  

  
 

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