Chromium (Just Take A Multi)
04-22-2003 12:50 AM
Chromium (Just Take A Multi)
We all know we should take Cr, but should we worry about getting more than is contained in a multi (as with C, B-12, Calcium + D, etc) ? No, as I believe it can be shown below that excess supplementation has no effect on fat loss, muscle gain, and (as per the most recently added studies) insulin sensitivity, as this was mentioned in some other threads. There ARE studies on rats, cats, and obese diabetes suffering fatties that seem to conclude that Cr can potentially help in these instances, but in already healthy individuals? Just fix what little deficiency you have, and rest assured you've taken care of business. I've added a few and highlighted in red the main points of the rest, to make for easier viewing.
Effects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002 Jun;12(2):125-35
Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, Davey SL, Hinton J, Evans WJ.
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
This study assessed the effect of resistive training (RT), with or without highdose chromium picolinate (Cr-pic) supplementation, on body composition and skeletal muscle size of older women. Seventeen sedentary women, age range 54-71 years, BMI 28.8 +/- 2.4 kg/m2, were randomly assigned (double-blind) to groups (Cr-pic, n = 9; Placebo, n = 8) that consumed either 924 micrograms Cr/d as Cr-pic or a low-Cr placebo (< 0.2 microgram Cr/d) during a 12-week RT program (2 day/week, 3 sets.exercise-1.d-1, 80% of 1 repetition maximum). Urinary chromium excretion was 60-fold higher in the Cr-pic group, compared to the Placebo group (p < .001), during the intervention. Resistive training increased maximal strength of the muscle groups trained by 8 to 34% (p < .001), and these responses were not influenced by Cr-pic supplementation. Percent body fat and fat-free mass were unchanged with RT in these weight-stable women, independent of Cr-pic supplementation. Type I and type II muscle fiber areas of the m. vastus lateralis were not changed over time and were not influenced by Cr-pic supplementation. These data demonstrate that high-dose Cr-pic supplementation did not increase maximal strength above that of resistive training alone in older women. Further, these data show that, under these experimental conditions, whole body composition and skeletal muscle size were not significantly changed due to resistive training and were not influenced by supplemental chromium picolinate.
04-22-2003 12:51 AM
Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program.
J Am Coll Nutr 2001 Aug;20(4):293-306
Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II.
Department of Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of chromium picolinate (CP) supplementation on body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), selected biochemical parameters and iron and zinc status in moderately obese women participating in a 12-week exercise program. METHODS: Forty-four women, 27 to 51 years of age, were randomly assigned to two groups based on their body mass index. Subjects received either 400 microg/day of chromium as a CP supplement or a placebo in double-blind fashion and participated in a supervised weight-training and walking program two days per week for 12 weeks. Body composition and RMR were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Selected biochemical parameters and iron and zinc status were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. RESULTS: Body composition and RMR were not significantly changed by CP supplementation. No significant differences in fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, serum C-peptide and serum lipid concentrations or in iron and zinc indices were found between the two groups over time. Serum total cholesterol concentration significantly decreased (p = 0.0016) over time for all subjects combined, probably as a result of the exercise training. Exercise training significantly reduced total iron binding capacity (TIBC) by 3% for all subjects combined (p = 0.001 1). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of 400 microg/day of chromium as a CP supplement did not significantly affect body composition, RMR, plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, serum C-peptide and serum lipid concentrations or iron and zinc indices in moderately obese women placed on an exercise program. The changes in serum total cholesterol levels and TIBC were a result of the exercise program.
04-22-2003 12:54 AM
Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity.
Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):585S-93S
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9034, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Magnesium, zinc, and chromium are mineral elements required in modest amounts to maintain health and optimal physiologic function. For physically active persons, adequate amounts of these micronutrients are needed in the diet to ensure the capacity for increased energy expenditure and work performance. Most physically active individuals consume diets that provide amounts of magnesium and zinc sufficient to meet population standards. Women tend to consume less of these minerals than is recommended, in part because they eat less food than men. Inadequate intakes of magnesium and zinc have been reported for participants in activities requiring restriction of body weight. Dietary chromium is difficult to estimate because of a lack of appropriate reference databases. Acute, intense activity results in short-term increases in both urine and sweat losses of minerals that apparently diminish during recovery in the days after exercise. Supplemental magnesium and zinc apparently improve strength and muscle metabolism. However, evidence is lacking as to whether these observations relate to impaired nutritional status or a pharmacologic effect. Chromium supplementation of young men and women does not promote muscle accretion, fat loss, or gains in strength. Physically active individuals with concerns about meeting guidelines for nutrient intake should be counseled to select and consume foods with high nutrient densities rather than to rely on nutritional supplements. The indiscriminate use of mineral supplements can adversely affect physiologic function and impair health.
04-22-2003 12:56 AM
Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss.
Nutr Rev 1998 Sep;56(9):266-70
Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Normal dietary intake of chromium in humans and farm animals is often suboptimal. In addition to its effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism, chromium has been reported to increase lean body mass and decrease percentage body fat, which may lead to weight loss in humans. The effects of chromium on body composition are controversial but are supported by animal studies, which increase their validity. A subject's response to chromium depends on his or her chromium status, diet consumed, type and amount of supplemental chromium, and study duration. There have been no confirmed negative effects of chromium in nutritional studies. Chromium is only a small part of the puzzle in the control of weight loss and body composition, and its effects, if present, will be small compared with those of exercise and a well-balanced diet.
04-22-2003 01:00 AM
Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997 Aug;29(8):992-8
Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, Ivy JL.
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA.
Chromium supplementation may affect various risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), including body weight and composition, basal plasma hormone and substrate levels, and response to an oral glucose load. This study examined the effects of chromium supplementation (400 micrograms.d-1), with or without exercise training, on these risk factors in young, obese women. Chromium picolinate supplementation resulted in significant weight gain in this population, while exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation resulted in significant weight loss and lowered the insulin response to an oral glucose load. We conclude that high levels of chromium picolinate supplementation are contraindicated for weight loss in young, obese women. Moreover, our results suggest that exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation may be more beneficial than exercise training alone for modification of certain CAD and NIDDM risk factors.
04-22-2003 01:00 AM
Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required?
Sports Med 1997 Jun;23(6):341-9
Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA. email@example.com
It is estimated that most individuals are not ingesting sufficient amounts of chromium in their diets. Although there is little information on chromium intake in athletes, many athletes ingest more calories than do non-athletes so their chromium intake should be adequate. However, athletes who restrict calories to maintain low bodyweights could compromise their chromium status. Some evidence also shows that exercise may increase chromium loss into the urine. At present, it is not known whether this loss necessitates additional chromium in the diet or whether the body will increase retention in response to the loss.Chromium deficiency is thought to contribute to glucose intolerance and unhealthy blood lipid profiles. The primary function of chromium is to potentiate the effects of insulin, and thereby alter glucose, amino acid and fat metabolism.Chromium supplements have been purported to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, the preponderance of evidence has not supported this claim. There is little information available on the long term use of chromium supplements, but at present, supplements within the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Allowance (ESADDI) level do not appear harmful. The prudent course of action for athletes would be to ingest foods rich in chromium and *perhaps* take a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing no more than the ESADDI of chromium.
04-22-2003 01:00 AM
Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men.
Am J Clin Nutr 1996 Jun;63(6):954-65
Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, ND, USA.
The effects of 8 wk of daily chromium supplementation (3.3-3.5 mumol as chromium chloride or chromium picolinate) or placebo (0.1 mumol Cr) and weight training were examined in 36 men in a double-blind design. Strength, mesomorphy, fat-free mass, and muscle mass increased with resistance training independently of chromium supplementation (P < 0.0001). Protein, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron intakes equalled or exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) or estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) during training and did not change significantly from pretraining intakes (P > 0.05). Chromium supplementation increased the serum chromium concentration and urinary chromium excretion without a difference as a result of the chemical form of chromium (P < 0.05). Resistance training was associated with a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum ferritin, total-iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, the ratio of enzymatic to immunoreactive ceruloplasmin, and plasma copper, independently of chromium supplementation. However, transferrin saturation was decreased more with chromium picolinate supplementation (24%) than with chromium chloride or placebo (10-13%). Compared with pretraining values, urinary magnesium excretion increased (P < 0.05) and urinary zinc output tended to decrease during the first 4 wk of resistance training and then returned to baseline values for the final 4 wk, which suggests an adaptation in mineral excretion in response to weight training. These findings suggest that routine chromium supplementation has no beneficial effects on body- composition change or strength gain in men. Whether chromium supplementation of individuals with diminished chromium nutriture facilitates propitious changes in body structure and function remains to be determined.
04-22-2003 01:01 AM
Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996 Jan;28(1):139-44
Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, Dotson CO, Anderson RA, Rogers MA.
Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.
Sixteen untrained males (23 +/- 4 yr), were studied to determine the effects of chromium (Cr) supplementation (200 micrograms.d-1) and a 12-wk resistive exercise training program on muscle strength, body composition, and Cr excretion. The subjects trained 3 times per week with two sets of 8-10 repetitions at 90% of 1 repetition maximum using Keiser variable resistance machines. Food records were used to estimate Cr intake (approximately 36 micrograms.d-1), energy intake, and the percent kJ from protein. The resistive training program resulted in significant increases in total body muscular strength in both the Cr and placebo groups (24% and 33%; P < 0.05). Body weight, percent body fat, lean body mass, and skinfold thicknesses were unchanged in either group after resistive training. Cr excretion increased in the Cr group after 6 wk of Cr supplementation (0.15 +/- 0.08 vs 1.52 +/- 1.26 micrograms.d-1; P < 0.01) and remained higher at 12 wk of training (2.03 +/- 1.73). These results indicate that Cr supplementation, in conjunction with a progressive, resistive exercise training program, does not promote a significant increase in strength and lean body mass, or a significant decrease in percent body fat. Cr supplementation results in a significant increase in Cr excretion that is not altered by resistive training.
04-22-2003 01:01 AM
Trace mineral requirements for athletes.
Int J Sport Nutr 1994 Jun;4(2):104-19
Clarkson PM, Haymes EM.
Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003.
This paper reviews information pertaining to zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium requirements of athletes. Exercise increases zinc loss from the body, and dietary intake for some athletes, especially females, may be inadequate. Blood copper levels are altered by exercise, but there is no information to suggest that copper ingestion or status is compromised in athletes. Studies have shown that urinary chromium excretion is increased by exercise, but whether this leads to an increased requirement is still unknown. There is concern that athletes may not ingest sufficient quantities of chromium; however, there are inadequate data to confirm this. The limited data that exist show that athletes do not have altered selenium status. There is no conclusive evidence that supplementation with any of these trace minerals will enhance performance. A diet containing foods rich in micronutrients is recommended. However, for those athletes concerned that their diets may not be sufficient, a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing no more than the RDA may be advised.
04-22-2003 01:01 AM
Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes.
J Sports Sci 1991 Summer;9 Spec No:91-116
Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003.
This paper examines whether mineral supplements are necessary for athletes, and whether these supplements will enhance performance. Macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace minerals (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron) are described. Calcium supplements are important for the health of bones. Athletes tend to have enhanced calcium status as assessed by bone mineral density, with the notable exception of female amenorrhoeic athletes. Magnesium status is adequate for most athletes, and there is no evidence that magnesium supplements can enhance performance. Phosphorus status is adequate for athletes. Phosphorus supplementation over an extended period of time can result in lowered blood calcium, however, some studies have shown that acute 'phosphate loading' will enhance performance. Athletes may have a zinc deficiency induced by poor diet and loss of zinc in sweat and urine. Limited data exist on the relationship of performance and zinc status. Widespread deficiencies in copper have not been documented, and there are no data to suggest that copper supplementation will enhance performance. There is no reason to suspect a selenium deficiency in athletes. The relationship between selenium status and performance has not been established, but selenium may play a role as an antioxidant. Because of the low intakes of chromium for the general population, there is a possibility that athletes may be deficient. Exercise may create a loss in chromium because of increased excretion into the urine. Many athletes, particularly female, are iron depleted, but true iron deficiencies are rare. Iron depletion does not affect exercise performance but iron deficiency anaemia does. Iron supplements have not been shown to enhance performance except where iron deficiency anaemia exists. In conclusion, poor diets are perhaps the main reason for any mineral deficiencies found in athletes, although in certain cases exercise could contribute to the deficiency. Mineral supplementation may be important to ensure good health, but few studies have definitively documented any beneficial effect of mineral supplementation on performance.
04-22-2003 01:02 AM
Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis on anabolism.
Int J Sport Nutr 1992 Jun;2(2):111-22
Lefavi RG, Anderson RA, Keith RE, Wilson GD, McMillan JL, Stone MH.
Health and Human Performance Laboratory, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro 30460.
As the biologically active component of glucose tolerance factor (GTF), the essential trace mineral chromium is now being marked to athletes. GTF potentiates insulin activity and is responsible for normal insulin function. Thus, insulin's effects on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism are dependent upon the maintenance of adequate chromium stores. Due to excessive chromium loss and marginal chromium intake, athletes may have an increased requirement for chromium. Therefore, in some circumstances the dietary supplementation of a chromium compound may be efficacious. The restoration and maintenance of chromium stores via supplementation would promote optimal insulin efficiency, necessary for high-level athletic performance. However, potential anabolic effects of enhanced insulin function would likely be marginal, and reports of short-term anabolic increases from the supplementation of an organic chromium compound need to be confirmed.
04-22-2003 01:02 AM
Effect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and women.
Metabolism 1999 May;48(5):546-53
Joseph LJ, Farrell PA, Davey SL, Evans WJ, Campbell WW.
Noll Physiological Research Center and Graduate Program in Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA.
The effect of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) with or without chromium picolinate (Cr-pic) supplementation on glucose tolerance was assessed in moderately overweight older men and women (age, 62 +/- 4 years; body mass index [BMI], 29.1 +/- 2.5 kg/m2). Seventeen men and 15 women were randomized to groups that consumed either 17.8 micromol chromium per day (924 microg Cr/d) as Cr-pic or a placebo (<0.1 microg Cr/d) while performing RT twice weekly. For all 32 subjects combined, fasting glucose increased but there were no changes in insulin or C-peptide concentrations after 12 weeks of RT. In response to an oral glucose challenge, the glucose and C-peptide areas under the curve (AUCs) were unchanged, whereas there was a 19% decrease in the insulin AUC (from 68 +/- 53 to 55 +/- 29 x 10(3) pmol/L/180 min, P = .045). The RT responses for the fasting concentration or AUC for glucose, insulin, or C-peptide were not influenced by Cr-pic. The decrease in the insulin AUC without any change in insulin secretion, as evidenced by a lack of change in the C-peptide AUC, suggests enhanced insulin clearance from the circulation with RT. Collectively, these data suggest that RT decreases the insulin response following an oral glucose challenge in older moderately overweight men and women without affecting glucose tolerance. The data also suggest that the decrease in circulating insulin may result from an increase in insulin clearance, not a decrease in insulin secretion. High-dose Cr-pic supplementation had no effect on any measure of glucose metabolism during RT.
04-22-2003 01:02 AM
Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in healthy, nonobese, older men and women.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000 May;55(5):M260-3
Amato P, Morales AJ, Yen SS.
Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0633, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org <email@example.com>
BACKGROUND: Chromium is an essential nutrient required for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium supplementation in humans has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and improve serum lipid parameters and to reduce body fat; parameters that worsen with aging. As a result, chromium picolinate has been widely promoted as a health aid for the general population. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in nonobese, healthy men and women of advanced age. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 19 subjects (9 men and 10 women), aged 63-77, were given either chromium picolinate, 1,000 microg/d, or a placebo for 8 weeks. Serum lipids were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were measured with the minimal-model intravenous glucose tolerance test and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, respectively, at baseline and after 8 weeks of chromium or placebo supplementation. RESULTS: No significant change in serum lipids, insulin sensitivity, or body composition was observed in the chromium group compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Chromium picolinate supplementation alone does not appear to improve insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, or change body composition in nonobese, healthy men and women of advanced age.
04-22-2003 01:03 AM
Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis.
Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Jul;76(1):148-55
Althuis MD, Jordan NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT.
Statistics Collaborative, Inc, Washington, DC, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org <mailto:email@example.com v>
BACKGROUND: Several authors, mostly on the basis of nonrandomized studies, have suggested dietary t*****ent chromium supplementation as an attractive option for the management of type 2 diabetes and for glycemic control in persons at high risk of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of chromium on glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in individuals with glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: The study design was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RESULTS: The authors identified 20 reports of RCTs assessing the effect of chromium on glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)). This review summarizes data on 618 participants from the 15 trials that reported adequate data: 193 participants had type 2 diabetes and 425 were in good health or had impaired glucose tolerance. The meta-analysis showed no association between chromium and glucose or insulin concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. A study of 155 diabetic subjects in China showed that chromium reduced glucose and insulin concentrations; the combined data from the 38 diabetic subjects in the other studies did not. Three trials reported data on Hb A(1c): one study each of persons with type 2 diabetes, persons with impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy subjects. The study of diabetic subjects in China was the only one to report that chromium significantly reduced Hb A(1c). CONCLUSIONS: Data from RCTs show no effect of chromium on glucose or insulin concentrations in nondiabetic subjects. The data for persons with diabetes are inconclusive. RCTs in well-characterized, at-risk populations are necessary to determine the effects of chromium on glucose, insulin, and Hb A(1c).
04-22-2003 02:45 AM
The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent.
Sports Med 2003;33(3):213-30
Department of Chemistry and Coalition for Biomolecular Products, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.
The element chromium apparently has a role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mammals. As this role probably involves potentiation of insulin signalling, chromium dietary supplementation has been postulated to potentially have effects on body composition, including reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass. Because the supplement is absorbed better than dietary chromium, most studies have focused on the use of chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)]. Cr(pic)(3) has been amazingly popular with the general public, especially with athletes who may have exercise-induced increased urinary chromium loss; however, its effectiveness in manifesting body composition changes has been an area of intense debate in the last decade. Additionally, claims have appeared that the supplement might give rise to deleterious effects.However, over a decade of human studies with Cr(pic)(3) indicate that the supplement has not demonstrated effects on the body composition of healthy individuals, even when taken in combination with an exercise training programme. Recent cell culture and in vivo rat studies have indicated that Cr(pic)(3) probably generates oxidative damage of DNA and lipids and is mutagenic, although the significance of these results on humans taking the supplement for prolonged periods of time is unknown and should be a focus for future investigations. Given that in vitro studies suggest that other forms of chromium used as nutritional supplements, such as chromium chloride, are unlikely to be susceptible to generating this type of oxidative damage, the use of these compounds, rather than Cr(pic)(3), would appear warranted. Potential neurological effects (both beneficial and deleterious) from Cr(pic)(3) supplementation require further study.
04-22-2003 03:00 AM
Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998 Dec;30(12):1730-7
Walker LS, Bemben MG, Bemben DA, Knehans AW.
Department of Health & Sport Sciences, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 14 wk of chromium picolinate supplementation during the final 16 wk of a preseason resistance and conditioning program on body composition and neuromuscular performance in NCAA Division I wrestlers. During this phase of training, wrestlers are primarily interested in trying to improve physical performance and wrestling technique and are not engaged in severe, acute weight loss practices commonly employed before competition. METHODS: This double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled study involved 20 wrestlers from the University of Oklahoma assigned to either a treatment group (Cr+3; N = 7; 20.4 yr +/- 0.1) receiving 200 micrograms chromium picolinate daily, a placebo group (P; N = 7; 19.9 yr +/- 0.2), or a control group (C; N = 6; 20.2 yr +/- 0.1) using a stratified random sampling technique based on weight classification. Body composition, neuromuscular performance, metabolic performance, and serum insulin and glucose were measured before and immediately following the supplementation and training period. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant changes in body composition for any of the groups. Aerobic power increased significantly (P < 0.002) in all groups, independent of supplementation. There were significant trial and group x trial interactions for upper body endurance (P = 0.038) and relative bench press power (P = 0.050). Post-hoc analyses revealed that the C group increased upper body endurance (P = 0.006), but none of the pre- to post-test changes in bench press power were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chromium picolinate supplementation coupled with a typical preseason training program does not enhance body composition or performance variables beyond improvements seen with training alone.
04-22-2003 09:58 AM
Damn you've been a busy boy there biggins. Nice job.
04-22-2003 04:20 PM
The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes.
J Strength Cond Res 2001 May;15(2):161-6
Livolsi JM, Adams GM, Laguna PL.
Division of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State University-Fullerton, 92634-9480, USA.
Fifteen women softball athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, the chromium treatment group (n = 8) and the placebo control group (n = 7) to examine the effect of chromium, in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation, on muscular strength, body composition (body weight, percent body fat, and lean body mass), and urinary excretion. The CrPic supplementation consisted of a 500 ug dosage taken once per day. All participants trained 3 times per week with 2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using variable resistance machines and free weights. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in muscular strength or body composition were found after 6 weeks of resistance training. In addition, chromium excretion (microg per 24 every hours) was examined and increased significantly with the treatment group after the 6-week period.
04-22-2003 05:00 PM
Good findings Biggin , I see some studies revealing it increases insulin sensivity , others saying ti doesn't ****ign science is always changing ****s.
04-22-2003 05:42 PM
this is true Raul, it DOES seem as though there are positive effects in those with Cr deficiency, or decreased sensitivity to insulin (i.e., the majority of the population ), which is why I assume we do see studies showing very positive effects on diabetics, etc, but since we're talking about those with already carefully monitored longstanding diets I'm not convinced it has any real benefit beyond baseline consumption.
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