YJ a reason to use glutamine...?

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    Thumbs up YJ a reason to use glutamine...?


    quote taken from http://www.nutrition-factor.com/buildingmuscle.htm

    "L-Glutamine-Glutamine has become more prominent as new studies reveal its unique contribution to protein synthesis (muscle growth), anti-proteolytic (prevents muscle tissue breakdown) functions and growth hormone elevating effects. Glutamine provides a critical link in muscle metabolism not shared by any other single amino acid.Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the intracellular free amino acid pool (most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue). It comprises 61% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle. Glutamine’s unique structure, containing two nitrogen side chains, consists of 19% nitrogen - making it the primary transporter of nitrogen into the muscle cell. In fact, glutamine alone is responsible for 35% of the nitrogen that gets into the muscle cell. Glutamine literally drives muscle building nitrogen into the muscle cell where it is synthesized for growth.

    Now for the exciting news - In a recent release of the prestigious American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the results of a study on glutamine revealed that a single 2 gram oral dose of glutamine elevated circulating growth hormone levels by over 430%! By keeping a consistently high level of circulating growth hormone, you are able to combat the catabolic effects of weight training, harness the anabolic activity of increased glucose and amino acid uptake, improve whole body nitrogen retention, and increase lean tissue protein accrual."

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    Originally posted by WiNgS
    quote taken from http://www.nutrition-factor.com/buildingmuscle.htm
    Kind of an odd source aye? Anywa, lets examine it with real life, hard data.....

    "L-Glutamine-Glutamine has become more prominent as new studies reveal its unique contribution to protein synthesis (muscle growth),
    'We conclude that glutamine supplementation during resistance training has no significant effect on muscle performance, body composition or muscle protein degradation in young healthy adults.' (1)

    Ah the big blow....

    "We conclude that intravenous infusion of amino acids increases the fractional rate of mixed muscle protein synthesis, but addition of glutamine to the amino acid mixture does not further stimulate muscle protein synthesis rate in healthy young men and women." (2)

    I dont think there's any hard evidence that glutamine has anything do do with protein synthesis, just an advertising tool.

    *1. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults.
    Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer T.
    College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

    *2. Metabolism 2000 Dec;49(12):1555-60 Related Articles, Links
    Intravenous glutamine does not stimulate mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy young men and women.
    Zachwieja JJ, Witt TL, Yarasheski KE.
    Exercise and Nutrition Program, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.


    anti-proteolytic (prevents muscle tissue breakdown)
    This is the main reason why people buy glutamine to start with. And yes, in very high doses it's been shown to repari damaged muscle, but not in weightlifters, but trauma patients, burn patients, etc. We'll have to wait and see when a study is done on bodybuilders to know what kind of effect is has on microtrauma, my guess is nothing significant.

    functions and growth hormone elevating effects.
    Again, bunk. It has been shown to lower IGF-1, thus raising GH, but not at a level significant enough to reap the full effects of evelvated growth hormone levels. Nothing like the cell volumizing effects it claims.

    Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the intracellular free amino acid pool (most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue). It comprises 61% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle.
    Exactly. Do you know how hard it is to deplete basal glutamine levels?? Do you know how much glutamine you get from protein sources and whole foods? To buy a separate glutamine supplement would be getting scammed.


    Now for the exciting news - In a recent release of the prestigious American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the results of a study on glutamine revealed that a single 2 gram oral dose of glutamine elevated circulating growth hormone levels by over 430%!
    LMAO! Well lets see the study....and let me guess, this place also sells glutamine

    Im still not buying it....
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    YJ not buying Glutamine! Since when??
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    YJ is not just anti-social.....he's anti-glutamine!
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    Wings-

    YJ is never gonna like glutamine for the following reasons:

    1. if you use any kind of protein supplement, you are getting enough glutamine

    2. glutamine is way too expenxive for its own good

    3. All "positive" studies on glutamine are usually made up by supplement companies that tend exagerate the results of the studies.

    4. So what if glutamine may have positive effects on muscle cell hydration...creatine does the same thing at a much lower price.

    5. Uhhh... (see the studies YJ posted on the uselessness of glutamine)


    PS. believe me I have tried to get YJ to even semi-like glutamine...didnt work
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    guys...please...dont get him started...yj...jus take a coupla liver tabs..it'll b ok...heh
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    its great to see YJ pick apart articles and destroy them, lol, ive wasted about £150 this month on glutamine (not going to use), hydroxycut 210 caps (got the worst side affects), 100% egg powder (more like 100% clumpy crap), but we all live and learn, atleast im not dumb enough to make the same mistake twice
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    Talking ok YJ try this on for size...


    L -Glutamine
    May 28, 1996
    Gastrointestinal surface protection and mucosa reconditioning
    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that preservation of the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the surface protection system„surfactants, mucus, and fiber„is important for the outcome in postoperative trauma patients, patients after bone marrow and liver transplantation, and patients with HIV or AIDS. Approximately 50% of the nourishment of the small intestine and > 80% of the nourishment of the large intestine comes from the lumen. This is especially deleterious to the large intestine. Within less than a week of intestinal starvation„even in the presence of intense parenteral nutrition„a mucosal atrophy is observed, promoting translocation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Enteral nutrition is crucial to the outcome in many of these conditions. If however, such a nutrition is based on simple carbohydrates, peptides, amino acids, or fatty acids, most of the nutrition administered will be absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Complex fibers and proteins can be regarded as nutrients especially destined to the lower gastrointestinal tract. They are fermented by the probiotic flora, normally colonizing the colonic mucosa, and the necessary nutrients: short-chain fatty acids and amino acids such as arginine and glutamine are produced at the level of the colonic mucosa. Careless antibiotic treatment reduces or eliminates this flora, induces local mucosal starvation, and makes the patients vulnerable to opportunistic infections and microbial intestinal translocation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review the role of the different ingredients of the surface protection system are discussed. A program to recondition the intestines, particularly the colonic mucosa by resupply of species-specific lactobacilli, surfactants, amino acids (especially glutamine), and oat fiber (beta-glucans) is suggested. Extensive experience in animal models and early experience in a patient population are summarized and discussed. Oat has been chosen as a substrate for fermentation because it contains 100 times more of membrane lipids (surfactants) than any other food, has a favorable amino acid pattern (rich in glutamine), and is rich in water-soluble, fermentable-fiber beta-glucans. More than 1000 isolates of human-specific lactobacilli have been studied. Some strains, especially those of plantarum type, have proven effective in colonizing the colonic mucosa, suppressing the potentially pathogenetic flora, and may have other probiotic effects as well. CONCLUSION: A totally new enteral formula has been designed based on probiotic bacteria and fiber and aimed at colonizing the intestinal mucosa with a local probiotic effect and fermentation of fiber. Bengmark S, Jeppsson B. Gastrointestinal surface protection and mucosa reconditioning. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995;19:410-415.

    Glutamine: a conditionally essential nutrient or another nutritional puzzle
    Malnutrition and infection are common among patients receiving bone marrow transplant. A recent randomized, double-blind study was conducted to determine whether the addition of glutamine to standard total parenteral nutrition solutions would improve nitrogen retention and reduce hospital morbidity in a group of 45 bone marrow transplant patients. The results showed improved nitrogen balance and reduced incidence of clinical infection in the glutamine-supplemented patients. Mobrahan S. Glutamine: a conditionally essential nutrient or another nutritional puzzle. Nutr Rev 1992;50:331-333.

    Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber
    In recent years, considerable research has focused on the physiologic effects and clinical uses of three dietary constituents thought to be trophic to the intestinal tract in human beings: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and dietary fiber. Glutamine is an important nitrogen-carrying amino acid that may be conditionally essential in certain disease states to support the gut barrier and immune function and overall protein use. Colonic irrigations with SCFA preparations have demonstrated enhanced healing of bowel tissue in animals and human beings. Dietary fiber supports bacterial SCFA production, normal stool output, and the gut barrier and immune function. However, optimal fiber doses for various medical conditions are not known, and the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, diarrhea, gas, and bloating necessitates careful selection of patients and daily monitoring of fiber tolerance. A review of the current literature indicates that widespread use of glutamine and SCFA additives parenterally and enterally awaits further evidence of safety and efficacy in human beings, establishment of appropriate doses, and advances in formulation technology. Administration of dietary fiber to enhance bowel motility should be considered in long-term tube-fed patients with intact GI function and sufficient fluid tolerance to permit hydration of fiber. Industrywide agreement on fiber analysis methods and labeling standards (eg, fiber fermentability vs solubility) would facilitate selection of enteral products. To streamline studies and optimize research efforts in future clinical trials, standard criteria for evaluating GI function, diarrheagenic factors, and intestinal outcome variables should be established. Evans MA, Shronts EP. Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 1992;92:1239-1246,1249.

    Safety of glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrient solutions in humans
    To determine the safety of glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition, seven normal volunteers were admitted to the Clinical Research Center for three 5-d study periods. The subjects received infusions of parenteral nutrients containing increasing doses of glutamine (0, 0.285, and 0.570 g.kg body wt-1.d-1) substituted for alanine and glycine. Each study period was preceded by greater than or equal to 2 wk of normal food intake. The diets were isocaloric (1.2X estimated basal metabolic rate) and isonitrogenous (1.5 g protein.kg-1.d-1) with nonprotein calories given as dextrose (38%) and fat emulsion (62%). The diets were all well tolerated and there were no untoward effects. Plasma glutamine concentrations increased significantly with glutamine administration but plateaued at concentrations approximately 25% above control values. Ammonia and glutamate, potentially toxic metabolites of glutamine, did not change significantly with glutamine enrichment. Nitrogen balance and hormonal concentrations were unchanged during the three dietary periods. Results of mental-status examinations and continuous performance testing were normal and unchanged throughout the three periods. Glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrient solutions are well tolerated with no associated signs of toxicity in normal humans. Lowe DK, Benfell K, Smith RJ, et al. Safety of glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrient solutions in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:1101-1106

    Antidepressive properties of L-glutamine. Preliminary report
    A brief review of the literature on this topic, and a comparison of the results obtained in children by administrating L-glutamine with those obtained by other antidepressive drugs, is primarily presented. Having been tested in a sampler of 43 adults, affected by different forms of depressive, neurasthenic and dissociative illnesses, L-glutamine is indicated as owning clear anti-depressive properties, and the asthenia as target-symptom for its therapeutical use. Out of the endogenous depression with slowed-down motor activity, indeed good results were found in all cases, in which a vital level had been reached by the illness. Since L-glutamine is noticed being a precursor of GABA, this fact itself could explain its antidepressive properties, but it is necessary to remember that they very complex metabolism of the drug is still mostly unknown. Cocchi R. Antidepressive properties of L-glutamine. Preliminary report. Acta Psychiatr Belg 1976;76:658-666.

    Glutamine-enriched diets support muscle glutamine metabolism without stimulating tumor growth
    Glutamine is a principal fuel utilized by rapidly growing tumors. Advanced malignant disease results in muscle glutamine depletion and weight loss. Concern exists about providing dietary glutamine to the host with cancer since it may stimulate tumor growth. This study examined the effects of oral glutamine on muscle glutamine metabolism and tumor growth. Twenty-four rats with large sarcomas were pair fed a glutamine-enriched or glutamine-free elemental diet. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After 6 days of feeding, the animals were anesthetized and arterial glutamine, hindquarter glutamine flux, muscle glutamine content, tumor weight, tumor DNA content, tumor glutaminase activity, and number of metaphase mitoses/high power field (HPF) in the tumor were determined. There was no difference in arterial glutamine between the two groups, but provision of a glutamine-enriched diet increased muscle glutamine content by 60% (2.31 +/- 0.21 mumole/g tissue vs 1.44 +/- 0.22 mumol/g tissue, P less than 0.05), which supported muscle glutamine release. There were no differences among tumor DNA content, tumor glutaminase activity, or tumor weight and there was no difference histologically in the number of metaphase mitoses/HPF. Glutamine-enriched oral diets may replete host glutamine stores and support muscle glutamine metabolism without stimulating tumor growth. Klimberg VS, Souba WW, Salloum RM, et al. Glutamine-enriched diets support muscle glutamine metabolism without stimulating tumor growth. J Surg Res 1990;48:319-323

    Efficacy of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in an experimental model of mucosal ulcerative colitis
    Intact intestinal epithelium and associated lymphatic tissue act as body defences against luminal toxins. This barrier may become threatened or compromised in inflammatory bowel disease, leading to an increase in mucosal permeability and subsequent translocation of endotoxins. The effect of oral glutamine on gut mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and on endotoxin levels in portal vein blood was studied in a guinea-pig model of carrageenan-induced colitis. Despite failure to show induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity by glutamine administration, the mean endotoxin level of portal vein blood in guinea-pigs fed a glutamine-enriched elemental diet was 25.3 pg/ml compared with 71.2 pg/ml in animals given a standard elemental diet (P < 0.01). A glutamine-enriched elemental diet may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Fujita T ,Sakurai K. Efficacy of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in an experimental model of mucosal ulcerative colitis. Br J Surg 1995;82:749-751.

    Effect of supplemental dietary glutamine on methotrexate concentrations in tumors
    This study evaluated the effects of supplemental dietary glutamine (GLN) on methotrexate sodium concentrations in tumors and serum of sarcoma-bearing rats following the initiation of methotrexate. After randomization to a GLN diet (+GLN) or GLN-free diet (-GLN), tumor-bearing rats received 20 mg/kg of methotrexate sodium by intraperitoneal injection. The provision of supplemental GLN in the diet increased methotrexate concentrations in tumor tissues at 24 and 48 hours (38.0 +/- 0.20 nmol/g for the +GLN group vs 28.8 +/- 0.10 nmol/g for the -GLN group and 35.6 +/- 0.18 nmol/g for the +GLN group vs 32.5 +/- 0.16 nmol/g for the -GLN group, respectively). Arterial methotrexate levels were elevated only at 48 hours (0.147 +/- 0.007 microns/L for the +GLN group vs 0.120 +/- 0.006 microns/L for the -GLN group). Tumor morphometrics were not different between the groups but significantly greater tumor volume loss was seen even at 24 hours (-2.41 +/- 1.3 cm3 for the +GLN group vs -0.016 +/- 0.9 cm3 for the -GLN group). Tumor glutaminase activity was suppressed in both groups at 48 hours, but more so in the +GLN group (0.94 +/- 0.13 mumol/g per hour for the +GLN group vs 1.47 +/- 0.22 mumol/g per hour for the -GLN group). This study suggests that GLN may have therapeutic as well as nutritional benefit in oncology patients. Klimberg VS, Pappas AA, Nwokedi E, et al. Effect of supplemental dietary glutamine on methotrexate concentrations in tumors. Arch Surg 1992;127:1317-1320.

    Glutamine preserves liver glutathione after lethal hepatic injury
    Glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant that protects tissues from free radical injury. Glutamine augments host defenses and may be important in GSH synthesis. Acetaminophen toxicity causes hepatic GSH depletion and hepatic necrosis. The authors hypothesized that glutamine-supplemented nutrition would enhance liver GSH stores and diminish hepatic injury and death after acetaminophen overdose. Wistar rats received either a standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution (STD) or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous glutamine-supplemented solution (GLN). On the 5th day of feeding, animals were given acetaminophen (400 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and then killed at various time points. Standard TPN solution animals had a rapid depletion of hepatic glutathione, whereas GLN animals were resistant to this drop and rapidly repleted hepatic GSH stores. Glutamine-supplemented animals maintained higher plasma glutamine concentrations, had lesser elevations in hepatic enzymes, and sustained significantly fewer complications compared with STD animals. The authors conclude that glutamine-supplemented nutrition preserves hepatic glutathione, protects the liver, and improves survival during acetaminophen toxicity. Glutamine may augment host defenses by enhancing antioxidant protection. Hong RW, Rounds JD, Helton WS, et al. Glutamine preserves liver glutathione after lethal hepatic injury. Ann Surg 1992;215:114-119.

    The colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis: an energy-deficiency disease?
    Suspensions of colonocytes (isolated colonic epithelial cells) were prepared from mucosa of the descending colon from 6 patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC), 4 with acute UC, and 7 control subjects. In each group metabolic performance was investigated by assessing utilisation of n-butyrate, the main respiratory fuel of the colonic mucosa, as well as utilisation of glucose and glutamine. In both acute and quiescent UC oxidation of butyrate to CO2 and ketones was significantly lower than in the control tissues, and the decrease correlated with the state of the disease. Enhanced glucose and glutamine oxidation compensated for decreased butyrate oxidation in UC, indicating that colonocytes in colitis were not metabolically degenerate cells. Failure of butyrate oxidation reflects a variable yet definite metabolic defect in the mucosa in UC. Diminished oxidation of butyrate can explain the characteristic distribution of colitis along the colon, especially the frequency of UC in the distal colon. It is suggested that failure of fatty-acid (n-butyrate) oxidation in UC is an expression of an energy-deficiency disease of the colonic mucosa. Roediger WE. The colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis: an energy-deficiency disease? Lancet 1980;2:712-715.

    Luminal glutamine perfusion alters endotoxin-related changes in ileal permeability of the piglet
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate whether luminal perfusion with glutamine or with oxygenated glutamine solutions prevents endotoxin-induced changes in mucosal permeability. METHODS: Three 15-cm segments of distal ileum were isolated in anesthetized 21-day-old piglets (n = 4) and perfused (50 mL/h) with RingerÍs lactate solution, RingerÍs lactate solution with 2% glutamine (wt/vol), glutamine, or glutamine purged with oxygen at 37 degrees C for 280 minutes. Plasma-to-lumen clearances of 51Cr-EDTA and urea were measured to assess mucosal permeability. At time 0 minutes, loading and maintenance IV infusions of markers were begun. Baseline permeabilities were obtained from time 60 to 80 minutes, and IV endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) was introduced from time 80 to 140 minutes. RESULTS: Results are expressed as the ratio of the clearances of the two probes (CEDTA/CUREA). Permeability increased from baseline in loops perfused with RingerÍs lactate solution vs loops perfused with glutamine purged with oxygen and with glutamine alone (p <.01). Saturation with oxygen was without effect inasmuch as glutamine alone negated permeability increases. Intestinal myeloperoxidase activity did not differ with perfusate (p >.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that endotoxin-induced permeability changes can be prevented or delayed by the supply of luminal glutamine at the time of insult. Dugan ME, McBurney MI. Luminal glutamine perfusion alters endotoxin-related changes in ileal permeability of the piglet. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995;19:83-87.

    Glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate prevent the decrease in muscle free glutamine concentration and influence protein synthesis after total hip replacement
    After surgical trauma, protein synthesis, as well as the concentration of free glutamine in muscle, decreases. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone does not prevent the decrease of glutamine in muscle, but TPN supplemented with glutamine or its precursor, alpha-ketoglutarate, maintains amino acid concentration in muscle and preserves protein synthesis. The aim of this study was to characterize a human trauma model using patients undergoing total hip replacement, and furthermore to investigate whether glutamine or alpha-ketoglutarate alone without TPN can prevent the postoperative decrease in muscle free glutamine. Metabolically healthy patients undergoing total hip replacement were randomized into three groups. The control group (n = 13) received glucose 2 g/kg body weight (BW) during surgery and the first 24 postoperative hours. The glutamine group (n = 10) received glucose 2 g/kg BW and glutamine 0.28 g/kg BW, and the alpha-ketoglutarate group (n = 10) received glucose 2 g/kg BW and alpha-ketoglutarate 0.28 g/kg BW. Muscle biopsies were performed before surgery and 24 hours postoperatively. Free glutamine concentration in muscle decreased from 11.62 +/- 0.67 to 9.80 +/- 0.36 mmol/kg wet weight in the control group (P < .01), whereas it remained unchanged in both the glutamine group and alpha-ketoglutarate group. Protein synthesis, as reflected by the concentration of total ribosomes, decreased significantly in the control group, but not in glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate groups. Polyribosome concentration decreased significantly in both the control and alpha-ketoglutarate groups. Total hip replacement can be used as a reproducible trauma model, with characteristic changes in the muscle amino acid pattern and protein synthesis 24 hours postoperatively. Glutamine, as well as cu-ketoglutarate, attenuated the decrease in free amino acids in muscle tissue after surgical trauma during hypocaloric infusion of glucose. Blomqvist BI, Hammarqvist F, von der Decken A, Wernerman J. Glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate prevent the decrease in muscle free glutamine concentration and influence protein synthesis after total hip replacement. Metabolism 1995;44:1215-1222.

    Glutamine prevents parenteral nutrition-induced increases in intestinal permeability
    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. This study evaluated changes in rat jejunal permeability and histology after total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or TPN supplemented with glutamine. Lactulose and mannitol were used to measure jejunal permeability, and fixed stained histologic specimens were used to measure mucosal dimensions. After the insertion of central venous catheters, 18 male rats were randomly divided into three groups: CHOW, saline infusion with a standard laboratory rat diet ad libitum; TPN; and GLN, 2% L-glutamine-supplemented TPN. The TPN and GLN groups received isocaloric, isovolumic, and isonitrogenous feedings. After 7 days of infusion, a laparotomy was performed, and lactulose and mannitol were instilled into the lumen of a 25-cm ligated segment of jejunum. Urine was collected for 5 hours and assayed for lactulose, mannitol, and creatinine. The jejunum was harvested, and wet weight, villus height, mucosal thickness, and villus width were measured. Intestinal permeability to lactulose and the lactulose to mannitol ratio significantly increased after TPN compared with CHOW, and these effects were prevented with the addition of glutamine to the TPN solution. Jejunal villus height and mucosal thickness significantly decreased following TPN but were not significantly different from CHOW when glutamine was added to the TPN solution. These data suggest that TPN was associated with increased jejunal permeability and that glutamine, when added to the TPN solution, prevented this effect. In addition, glutamine reduced TPN-associated atrophy of the jejunum. Li J, Langkamp-Henken B, Suzuki K, Stahlgren LH. Glutamine prevents parenteral nutrition-induced increases in intestinal permeability. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1994;18:303-307.

    Glutamine enhances selectivity of chemotherapy through changes in glutathione metabolism
    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy doses are limited by toxicity to normal tissues. Intravenous glutamine protects liver cells from oxidant injury by increasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) content. The authors hypothesized that supplemental oral glutamine (GLN) would increase the therapeutic index of methotrexate (MTX) by improving host tolerance through changes in glutathione metabolism. The authors examined the effects of oral glutamine on tumor and host glutathione metabolism and response to methotrexate. METHODS: Thirty-six 300-g Fischer 344 rats were implanted with fibrosarcomas. On day 21 after implantation, rats were randomized to receive isonitrogenous isocaloric diets containing 1 g/kg/day glutamine or glycine (GLY) by gavage. On day 23 after 2 days of prefeeding, rats were randomized to one of the following four groups receiving an intraperitoneal injection of methotrexate (20 mg/kg) or saline (CON): GLN+MTX, GLY+MTX, GLN-CON, or GLY-CON. On day 24, rats were killed and studied for arterial glutamine concentration, tumor volume, kidney and gut glutaminase activity, and glutathione content (tumor, gut, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung). RESULTS: Provision of the glutamine-enriched diets to rats receiving MTX decreased tumor glutathione (2.38 +/- 0.17 in GLN+MTX vs. 2.92 +/- 0.20 in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05), whereas increasing or maintaining host glutathione stores (in gut, 2.60 +/- 0.28 in GLN+MTX vs. 1.93 +/- 0.18; in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05). Depressed glutathione levels in tumor cells increases susceptibility to chemotherapy. Significantly decreased glutathione content in tumor cells in the GLN+MTX group correlated with enhanced tumor volume loss (-0.8 +/- 1.0 mL in GLN+MTX vs. +9.5 +/- 2.0 mL in GLY+MTX, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that oral glutamine supplementation will enhance the selectivity of antitumor drugs by protecting normal tissues from and possibly sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy treatment-related injury. Rouse K, Nwokedi E, Woodliff JE, et al. Glutamine enhances selectivity of chemotherapy through changes in glutathione metabolism.Ann Surg 1995;221:420-426.
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    Originally posted by WiNgS
    its great to see YJ pick apart articles and destroy them, lol, ive wasted about £150 this month on glutamine (not going to use), hydroxycut 210 caps (got the worst side affects), 100% egg powder (more like 100% clumpy crap), but we all live and learn, atleast im not dumb enough to make the same mistake twice
    well, dont feel too bad...several years ago i tried the celltech stuff...man i wish i had that money back so i could buy stuff i now know works! but at least you learned...and actually thats a good thing for the long run
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    Originally posted by msclbldrguy


    well, dont feel too bad...several years ago i tried the celltech stuff...man i wish i had that money back so i could buy stuff i now know works! but at least you learned...and actually thats a good thing for the long run
    oh yeh, and i wasted money on a $40 box of myoplex MRP's
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    Thumbs up Glutamine rules


    Post all the studies you want concerning the efficacy of glutamine as far as lab rats, aids patients, "young adults," etc. Just about every serious lifter knows it is invaluable in preserving muscle and preventing muscle loss. Calling it's well known and powerful effects "placebo" is a copout. I've been lifting since YJ was an infant, and I've tried every supplement there is. I know the difference between placebo and the real thing.

    Remember, when real world results fly in the face of a lab study, done at Harvard or anywhere else for that matter, go with results. Very few bodybuilders are sponsored by glutamine makers, yet in every article they advise its use. Tell Jay Cutler not to use glutamine and get laughed out of town. (And his only major sponsor is ISS-they don't market glutamine). If you get all you need from protein, I would think guys like Sarcev and Cutler would be getting more than they need @ over 500 gms protein per day.
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    Re: Glutamine rules


    Originally posted by John Benz
    Post all the studies you want concerning the efficacy of glutamine as far as lab rats, aids patients, &quot;young adults,&quot; etc. Just about every serious lifter knows it is invaluable in preserving muscle and preventing muscle loss. Calling it's well known and powerful effects &quot;placebo&quot; is a copout. I've been lifting since YJ was an infant, and I've tried every supplement there is. I know the difference between placebo and the real thing.
    Then by all means, explain the difference. We know the immune upgrade theory has been ruled out, the protein synthesis and glycogen shuttling has been ruled out, that leaves soft tissue recovery. I dont think anyone could afford to take enough glutamine to do this. From what I read, it takes 40+ grams to even physiologically effect musle repair, this is an honest, unbiased observation. How long you have been lifting is irrelevant. The only structural integrity improvement that cane be seen from abstracts and peer review studies is that of burn victims, etc. Those doses of glutamine are taken at moderate to high doses through an IV, not practical at all, nor does it apply to a bodybuilder.

    Remember, when real world results fly in the face of a lab study, done at Harvard or anywhere else for that matter, go with results. Very few bodybuilders are sponsored by glutamine makers, yet in every article they advise its use. Tell Jay Cutler not to use glutamine and get laughed out of town. (And his only major sponsor is ISS-they don't market glutamine). If you get all you need from protein, I would think guys like Sarcev and Cutler would be getting more than they need @ over 500 gms protein per day.
    Christ, You keep spouting off this bull**** like it serves relevance to 99% of the worlds bodybuilders. We're not IFBB pros, none of us ever will be. Jay Cutler also uses IGF1-, GH, Insulin, a Gram of Testosterone or more, high doses of EQ, Etc. I dont think Jay Cutler, myself, you or anyone on this board is comparable. When you're using GH and 500 grams of protein a day, glutamine is pointless, if they did take it, which I highly doubt they do, I dont think they would ever feel the ffects, if there were any. IFBB pro's are pushed and paid to endorse products, whether its from the company they represent or not. So to cite Jay Cutler as a valuable reference to the use of glutamine is laughable & raises the question if this debate should even be continued.
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    Re: Re: Glutamine rules


    Originally posted by YellowJacket


    Then by all means, explain the difference. We know the immune upgrade theory has been ruled out, the protein synthesis and glycogen shuttling has been ruled out, that leaves soft tissue recovery. I dont think anyone could afford to take enough glutamine to do this. From what I read, it takes 40+ grams to even physiologically effect musle repair, this is an honest, unbiased observation. How long you have been lifting is irrelevant. The only structural integrity improvement that cane be seen from abstracts and peer review studies is that of burn victims, etc. Those doses of glutamine are taken at moderate to high doses through an IV, not practical at all, nor does it apply to a bodybuilder.
    Ruled out by who? A bunch of lab technicians at Harvard who don't know what the inside of a gym looks like. 40 gms is not expensive for the insurance it provides. You would like to think experience is irrelevant. What is irrelevant is studies on burn victims etc. Lump all your studies in a stack and you can use them to wipe your ass. They are good for NOTHING else.
    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Christ, You keep spouting off this bull**** like it serves relevance to 99% of the worlds bodybuilders. We're not IFBB pros, none of us ever will be. Jay Cutler also uses IGF1-, GH, Insulin, a Gram of Testosterone or more, high doses of EQ, Etc. I dont think Jay Cutler, myself, you or anyone on this board is comparable. When you're using GH and 500 grams of protein a day, glutamine is pointless, if they did take it, which I highly doubt they do, I dont think they would ever feel the ffects, if there were any. IFBB pro's are pushed and paid to endorse products, whether its from the company they represent or not. So to cite Jay Cutler as a valuable reference to the use of glutamine is laughable &amp; raises the question if this debate should even be continued.
    I am stating facts as pertaining to practical application of Glutamine and the bodybuilder. The pros should feel far less need to use Glutamine regardless of other supps, as they take in so much protein. None of the pros I mention are endorsed by any maker of glutamine, nor do they mention brand; you would know this if you were as experienced as you sound. The only one spouting bull**** here is you. Get your facts straight; pull your head out of your ass, and quit quoting fractured fairy tales from your database of Flex Magazine articles.
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    but... Jay Cutler has also said, in a Flex rag, to use chrysin, and nutritional wizard Milos slipped a synthol needle directly into an artery...

    so, the studies vs. he-said, she-said debate continues...
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    Re: Re: Re: Glutamine rules


    Originally posted by John Benz

    Ruled out by who? A bunch of lab technicians at Harvard who don't know what the inside of a gym looks like. 40 gms is not expensive for the insurance it provides. You would like to think experience is irrelevant. What is irrelevant is studies on burn victims etc. Lump all your studies in a stack and you can use them to wipe your ass. They are good for NOTHING else.
    Rules out by SCIENCE. Where would we be without SCIENCE? Does a Harvard scientist who has more education than you and me combined really need to lift weights when he can observe the effects of glutamine on 8 other people?? Thats why science is beautiful, there's no opinion, theres no 'it worked for me', 1 human can study & test 8-15 people at a time on one product and save a lot of time. He doesnt need to be 250lbs with 8% BF and train 5 days a week to be intelligent and know what he's talking about. When muscles equal brains, let us know.....

    I am stating facts as pertaining to practical application of Glutamine and the bodybuilder. The pros should feel far less need to use Glutamine regardless of other supps, as they take in so much protein. None of the pros I mention are endorsed by any maker of glutamine, nor do they mention brand; you would know this if you were as experienced as you sound.
    You can downgrade my intelligence and 'experience' all you want, thats off topic and everyone but yourself knows better..... Oh ****! Jay Cutler gained 19lbs on Cell Tech in just 3 weeks! Check their website! Thats amazing, forget everything ever written about wasting money on Cell Tech, lets run out and stock up on tubs after tubs! Jay Cutler uses it!


    The only one spouting bull**** here is you. Get your facts straight; pull your head out of your ass, and quit quoting fractured fairy tales from your database of Flex Magazine articles.
    Flex, or PubMed or Medline, same difference. My studies and abstracts are from the most complex, accurate databses on the net, not some T-Mag bull**** that the synthol king compiled, I think we know who has the lame ass sources here.

    Lastely, if you would like to continue to debate these, by all means do. If you're going to make it a personal attack, dont waste my time, I do both very well. This isnt a personal issue, I have found 20+ abstracts that support the use of glutamine, I would send them to you, but they're bunk because they arent from T-mag rather a pencil neck scientist, so nevermind. (Not that they're useful, A couple could be, but)
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    Originally posted by Biggin
    but... Jay Cutler has also said, in a Flex rag, to use chrysin, and nutritional wizard Milos slipped a synthol needle directly into an artery...

    so, the studies vs. he-said, she-said debate continues...
    I'll take 20 abstracts from studies done on hundreds of people over Milos Synthol King's opinion, good point though
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket


    I'll take 20 abstracts from studies done on hundreds of people over Milos Synthol King's opinion, good point though
    My point exactly, and the reason I don't take you seriously. None of those people were bodybuilders. You said it all here.
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    Originally posted by John Benz

    My point exactly, and the reason I don't take you seriously. None of those people were bodybuilders. You said it all here.
    Have you lost your mind? These people do not have to be bodybuilders to understand how supplements & Nutrition work. Some of the greatest human nutritionists weigh around 140lbs, etc. If you take some guys opinion who shoots synthol in every major bodypart over Harvard, Duke, etc. Scientists who test several subjects at once, then I feel sorry for you, for you are on the wrong message board.

    You want people to believe glutamine is essential, then prove it. Beyond I use it, it works for me, so it must work. And 'well I think Jay Cutler uses it'. Ever wonder why I dont harp on the fact I wasted around $70 on glutamine? Just because it doesnt work for me doesnt mean Im going to cry scammer and assume it doesnt work for everyone. So instead, research it, defend it with science and data, etc. Take me seriously or not, this thread and the other glutamine thread speak for themselves.
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    Re: Re: Re: Re: Glutamine rules


    Originally posted by YellowJacket


    Rules out by SCIENCE. Where would we be without SCIENCE? Does a Harvard scientist who has more education than you and me combined really need to lift weights when he can observe the effects of glutamine on 8 other people?? Thats why science is beautiful, there's no opinion, theres no 'it worked for me', 1 human can study &amp; test 8-15 people at a time on one product and save a lot of time. He doesnt need to be 250lbs with 8% BF and train 5 days a week to be intelligent and know what he's talking about. When muscles equal brains, let us know.....
    . Oh ****! Jay Cutler gained 19lbs on Cell Tech in just 3 weeks! Check their website! Thats amazing, forget everything ever written about wasting money on Cell Tech, lets run out and stock up on tubs after tubs! Jay Cutler uses it!
    Science is only theory until proven. Those studies have INDICATED all sorts of things, nothing as pertains to a serious bodybuilder. Just checked Muscle Tech website. NO Jay Cutler. Nice try though
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    Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Glutamine rules


    Originally posted by John Benz

    Science is only theory until prove. Those studies have INDICATED all sorts of things, nothing as pertains to a serious bodybuilder. Just checked Muscle Tech website. NO Jay Cutler. Nice try though
    Whoa, someone skipped High school. Proven? What more do you want (LoL). I know its hard to swallow your pride and admit defeat, but jesus, this is dragging out very far off topic......

    As for Jay Cutler, it was a mere example, but he does use ProM3 which is a heavily overpriced protein blend.... but for get cutlers, IFBB pro's do use cell tech! look!
    Attached Images Attached Images  
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    errr Guys guys lol you guys keep fighting over glutamine, if you have $$ are rich and want to spend some lame ass on a supplement then do it, bodybuilders before supplements existed got huge, so what's the difference, again let's focus on our goals as bodybuilders and our primary targer : NUTRITION.
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket
    Have you lost your mind? These people do not have to be bodybuilders to understand how supplements &amp; Nutrition work. Some of the greatest human nutritionists weigh around 140lbs, etc. If you take some guys opinion who shoots synthol in every major bodypart over Harvard, Duke, etc. Scientists who test several subjects at once, then I feel sorry for you, for you are on the wrong message board.
    If I am on a message board where lab rat nonsense wins out over real world results by pros and non-pros alike, maybe I am. But then again, I realize who I am debating with, and you are the one with no grasp on the subject. I can hardly believe the ignorance crammed into your above post. ALL bull**** and it's like I'm beating my head on the wall. You are pathetic in your attempt to undermine a supp as valuable as Glutamine and have shown NO relevant evidence as to serious bodybuilders. I and everyone I know gets positive results from Glutamine. We don't use synthol. And only a moron would be so assinine as to attribute that to placebo.
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    Originally posted by RaulJimenez
    errr Guys guys lol you guys keep fighting over glutamine, if you have $$ are rich and want to spend some lame ass on a supplement then do it, bodybuilders before supplements existed got huge, so what's the difference, again let's focus on our goals as bodybuilders and our primary targer : NUTRITION.
    Can I adopt you? Ill stick with my protein, flax and liver tabs for Quick recovery. Rich or not, I still wouldnt spend money on glutamine.... Nutrition, ah, the often forgotten key to success.
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    Here is a novel idea, you two concede that you will never agree on this subject and let the two glutamine threads that now exist full of your guy's debate be the final disagreement on this subject. All told, deleted and undelted threads total at least 4 if I am not mistaken. Is it really necessary to debate it anymore? You will never agree on the subject, fine, let it be what it is. Agree to disagree and let others contribute something new to the debate if they find something otherwise can't we all just get along? Thanks.
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    Originally posted by John Benz

    If I am on a message board where lab rat nonsense wins out over real world results by pros and non-pros alike, maybe I am.
    Ok, last time, Reeeeeeeeaaaallllly slow..... pro's opinions are worthless. What Jay Cutler, Ronnie Coleman, etc. use has no effect on me, like I said, when you do $1K cycles and cycle year around, I would assume supplements are rare in your routine. And you keep moaning on about lab rats, so let's check my abstracts-

    In reference to this thread:
    http://www.anabolicminds.com/forum/s...&threadid=3440

    Study #1
    Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults.

    Study #2

    The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance

    Study #3

    The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.

    Study #4

    IV glutamine does not stimulate mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy young men and women.

    Study #5

    Effect of glutamine and protein supplementation on exercise-induced decreases in salivary IgA of athletes

    Study #6

    Effect of low- and high-carbohydrate diets on the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses to exercise in 12 untrained male subjects

    Study #7

    Carbohydrate supplementation during intense exercise and the immune response of cyclists.

    **This is only the first 7, I have found MANY more anti-glutamine studies, but they were conducted on pigs, etc. So I didnt even list them, although they're probably useful. So Im not sure where lab rats is coming from. All mine are done on humans.... shall we check your's?



    But then again, I realizxe who I am debating with, and you are the one with no grasp on the subject. I can hardly believe the ignorance crammed into your above post. ALL bull**** and it's like I'm beating my head on the wall. You are pathetic in your attempt to undermine a supp as valuable as Glutamine and have shown NO relevant evidence as to serious bodybuilders. I and everyone I know gets positive results from Glutamine. We don't use synthol. And only a moron would be so assinine as to attribute that to placebo.

    Ok, its established, Im a moron, I have no experience, I reply with asinine responses, etc. Ok, I have no credibility, fine. But what you and your buddys use and do well with serves no relevance to anyone on this board. Jweave does great on creatine, Im a creatine non-responder, so obviously I dont. in the grand scheme of things, personal opinions do not mean **** So my posts are bull****, blah blah blah, whatever, but once you resort to childish, personal bull****, that only means one thing........ and I think & everyone knows what that is. So I will bow out of this thread unless you have some real world data and abstracts to be debated, Im not going to play who's got bigger balls. (Mine are bigger.... j/k, no but really they are).
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    Originally posted by windwords7
    Here is a novel idea, you two concede that you will never agree on this subject and let the two glutamine threads that now exist full of your guy's debate be the final disagreement on this subject. All told, deleted and undelted threads total at least 4 if I am not mistaken. Is it really necessary to debate it anymore? You will never agree on the subject, fine, let it be what it is. Agree to disagree and let others contribute something new to the debate if they find something otherwise can't we all just get along? Thanks.

    I normally would agree, but a couple very good glutamine threads were deleted ( ) and as long as the personal **** continues, I will keep ramming the point home. Pathetic really, but Im satisfied now, so I will take your advice, and take my ball and bat and go home.
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    Quoting myself....


    Originally posted by windwords7
    Here is a novel idea, you two concede that you will never agree on this subject and let the two glutamine threads that now exist full of your guy's debate be the final disagreement on this subject. All told, deleted and undelted threads total at least 4 if I am not mistaken. Is it really necessary to debate it anymore? You will never agree on the subject, fine, let it be what it is. Agree to disagree and let others contribute something new to the debate if they find something otherwise can't we all just get along? Thanks.
    Let me quote myself again......
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket



    I normally would agree, but a couple very good glutamine threads were deleted ( ) and as long as the personal **** continues, I will keep ramming the point home. Pathetic really, but Im satisfied now, so I will take your advice, and take my ball and bat and go home.
    They were good threads and I apologize that they are gone. These have been excellent debates, for the most part, as well.
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket



    I normally would agree, but a couple very good glutamine threads were deleted ( ) and as long as the personal **** continues, I will keep ramming the point home. Pathetic really, but Im satisfied now, so I will take your advice, and take my ball and bat and go home.
    Ill do the same
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    Originally posted by windwords7


    They were good threads and I apologize that they are gone. These have been excellent debates, for the most part, as well.

    Dont worry about it, most of that same info. has been covered in this thread and the other.
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    YJ neednt post the studies twice for me... He changed my opinion.
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    Originally posted by ex_banana-eater
    YJ neednt post the studies twice for me... He changed my opinion.
    He also convinced me too bro, I haven't noticed a difference in my workouts w/out glutamine. You can use that $$ on your diet or goodies etc.
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    Glutamine is not a performance enhancer. The only difference you notice is a shortened recuperation time. You will see a difference in recovery, but only if your workouts are intense enough. If you are lifting heavy, glutamine is damn cheap insurance against muscle tears and soft tissue injuries.
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    Hehe, uh oh, here we go again.

    I can see how it "may" help in recup if you're really damaging the tissue enough, but I still don't see it helping in the extremes as those studies regarding trauma patients.

    I guess in the end if you have the cash and you feel it helps you then go for it... if not save your cash for some liver tabs...Ow Ow!
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    Originally posted by John Benz
    Glutamine is not a performance enhancer. The only difference you notice is a shortened recuperation time. You will see a difference in recovery, but only if your workouts are intense enough. If you are lifting heavy, glutamine is damn cheap insurance against muscle tears and soft tissue injuries.
    I notice a huge shortening of recuperation with about 44 grams of protein and a few liver tabs.


    In the final stages of my glutamine research, I notice that reputable brothers say, if you are going to use glutamine, post workout doses of 3-5 grams are ideal and anything after that will be secreted. So ok, 3-5 grams, that not much at all, and that would make a 300 grams tub of glutamine last a fairly long time. I think thats a fair assumption. But..... in 1 scoop of Optimum's 100% whey, you're getting 2 grams of glutamine, using two scoops like most do, you're getting 4 grams of glutamine post workout. Granted some protein powders have more glutamine, some less, but the point is, this is even more evidence as to why no one should be buying extra glutamine on the side. You just dont need it.

    In a thread with Lovetoeat, who is an avid glutamine user, actually defended my stance and I sort of defended his. My goal isnt to turn everyone off to glutamine, if you use it, and placebo or not you get results and are happy and can afford it, then by all means, ignore this data and do your thing, more power to you. Im simply disspelling rumors of supplement companies that promise all this bull**** with glutamine. And hopefully steering some newbies away from using it and using this as a means of justification to those who have wasted money on glutamine and wondered why it hurts when they sit down

    The guys above said it best, save your money and buy some chicken breasts, salmon fillets, protein powder and liver tabs.
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    YJ, what about glutamine and creatine competing for absorption? That's a bunch of crap, no?
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    Originally posted by bachovas
    YJ, what about glutamine and creatine competing for absorption? That's a bunch of crap, no?
    Both function on the Ca2+ ion. Some say yes, some say no, but no one can ever back it up with any science. I have a study somewhere, that shows how its possible they can compete for absorbtion, but unlikely if taken with low glycemic carbohydrates, as they both often are. Although this is 1 study, and only 1 study, Im still not 100% sure of it. I have not found any significant studies/articles (other than by a supplement company) thats says not to mix them. People have always dumped 5-10 grams of creatine in their protein shake and have had good results with it. If you wanted to be on the safe side, have your creatine in some grape juice post workout, and then 20 minutes later have your protein shake and I'll continue to look.
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    Originally posted by YellowJacket



    In a thread with Lovetoeat, who is an avid glutamine user, actually defended my stance and I sort of defended his.
    A few months ago I switched to the BCAA/glutamine combo from protein customizer and I really like it. I am taking 20-30 grams a day though so it isn't cheap.
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    While you can make some general conclusion that the protein supp you take is supplying enough glutamine, every one's body reacts slightly differently. Just give glutamine a try. It may or may not be of use to you. Decide for yourself and GET THE HELL ON WITH YOUR LIVES instead of arguing over some petty little **** like this!!
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    Originally posted by BioHazzard
    While you can make some general conclusion that the protein supp you take is supplying enough glutamine, every one's body reacts slightly differently. Just give glutamine a try. It may or may not be of use to you. Decide for yourself and GET THE HELL ON WITH YOUR LIVES instead of arguing over some petty little **** like this!!
    It reacts differently from person to person? Wow, thats a new concept, please, explain that one, preferably with some date or journal citations to back up your point or conclusion. Glutamine's effectiveness does not vary from person to person. Its a hit or miss concept because its a natural amino acid, it is know its source of action and its physiologically mechanics within the body, so there is no mystery as to how it functions.

    On a side note, this is a debate, not an arguement, and you have brought nothing to it but false claims and opinion. Good day.
  

  
 

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