New pes erase pro - dangerous?
- 01-30-2014, 11:26 AM
New pes erase pro - dangerous?
I did a bit of research onnew ingredients and came across two pubmed studies that caught my attention.
Now i must say i usually have no clue what these studies are about but a few bits stood out and now if someone with more knowledge could help me wether this applies to humans or not it would be great.
Oxidative stress and genotoxic responses to resin acids in Mediterranean mussels.
AuthorsGravato C, et al. Show all Journal
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2005 Jun;61(2):221-9.
This study represents the first attempt to investigate the genotoxic effects and oxidative stress of resin acids in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk). Mussels were exposed to 2.7 microM abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) for 6, 12, 18, and 24h. Gill and hepatopancreas conjugation activity, antioxidant defense system, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and DNA damage were determined as reduced (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, LPO, and DNA strand breaks. AA caused significant GST inhibition in mussel gills at 12, 18, and 24h. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, GPx and CAT, was inhibited at 24 and 18 h, respectively, in mussel gills. A significant increase in gill LPO was observed at 24h. The DNA integrity of mussel hepatopancreas significantly decreased after 12 and 24 h exposure to AA. A significant increase in LPO was observed after 6h exposure to DHAA, in either mussel gills or hepatopancreas. DNA integrity was significantly decreased in mussel hepatopancreas after 12 and 24 h exposure to DHAA. AA induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in mussels, because it promoted increases in LPO in gills and DNA strand breaks in hepatopancreas. DHAA promoted oxidative damage and genotoxicity in mussels, as significant increases were observed in LPO in gills and hepatopancreas and in DNA strand breaks in hepatopancreas.
And second one
Cell transformation activities of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid: safety assessment of possible contaminants in paper and paperboard for food contact use.
AuthorsOhmori K, et al. Show all Journal
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Apr;26(4):568-73. doi: 10.1080/02652030802471221.
Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHA) have been detected in virgin paper products and recycled paper products used for food packaging. In order to evaluate the cell transformation activities of AA and DHA, the Bhas 42 cell-transformation assay for initiation and promotion was carried out. Tested in the initiation stage, AA and DHA did not significantly increase transformation frequencies. On the other hand, both chemicals induced transformed foci dose dependently at the promotion stage. The highest transformed foci induced by AA was about 13 foci/well at 60 nmol ml(-1), and that of DHA was about 16 foci/well at 40 nmol ml(-1) (solvent control = 2.3 +/- 1.4 foci/well). The present results suggest that AA and DHA may have tumour-promoting potential.
- 01-30-2014, 12:21 PM
Data on a mussel is irrelevant...as you are a mammal (an animal). DHAA is very safe in animal models
Dehydroabietic acid, is a gum resin found in Pine bark that is commonly used as a food additive and has been deemed safe by various scientific panels    . Toxicity data on dehydroabietic acid shows that the LD50 in male rats is 3690-4000mg/kg and the LD50 in female rats is 1710-3690mg/kg, which, when extrapolating for a body-surface-area human equivalent dose and taking the highest and lowest dose across all genders, leads to a translated dose of between 19,306mg and 45,161mg for a 70kg human 
1. Mitani, K., M. Fujioka, A. Uchida, and H. Kataoka. "Analysis of Abietic Acid and Dehydroabietic Acid in Food Samples by In-tube Solid-phase Microextraction Coupled with Liquid Chromatography–mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography A 1146.1 (2007): 61-66. Web.
2. "Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Glycerol Esters of Gum Rosin for the Proposed Uses as a Food Additive." EFSA Journal 8.7 (2010): 1654. Web.
3. Speijers, G.J. A. "Glycerol Ester of Wood Rosin (WHO Food Additives Series 37)." 865. Glycerol Ester of Wood Rosin (WHO Food Additives Series 37). National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014.
4. Takahashi, Nobuyuki, Ran Yao, Min-Sook Kang, Mari Senda, Chieko Ando, Kanako Nishimura, Tsuyoshi Goto, Shizuka Hirai, Yoichiro Ezaki, and Teruo Kawada. "Dehydroabietic Acid Activates Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ and Stimulates Insulin-dependent Glucose Uptake into 3T3-L1 Adipocytes." BioFactors37.4 (2011): 309-14. Web.
5. Villeneuve, David C., Algis P. Yagminas, Irma A. Marino, and George C. Becking. "Toxicity Studies on Dehydroabietic Acid." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18.1 (1977): 42-47. Web.
- 01-30-2014, 12:25 PM
Thanks for the answer...thats why posting here was the right decision..taken my worries before ordering
01-30-2014, 03:49 PM
What about my bicep mussel? ...bad joke
Seriously though, what natty said!
02-11-2014, 02:52 PM
Wah wah wah....lol
Yes from my understanding and the information provided by Natty, I don't see any major issues or concerns. Before joining Performax Labs, I was an avid user of PES products and I have full confidence in their product offerings, legit group of guys over there. I'll have to look deeper into: "DHAA promoted oxidative damage and genotoxicity in mussels, as significant increases were observed in LPO in gills and hepatopancreas and in DNA strand breaks in hepatopancreas." However just because we have MUSCLES doesn't mean we can just assume MUSSEL genotoxicity is similar in humans.
Former- Performax Labs Online Company Rep.
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