Ergogenic effects of arginine (beyond NO)

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    Ergogenic effects of arginine (beyond NO)


    I know how much everyone enjoys bashing arginines use (specifically WRT nitric oxide) but there does exist evidence that supports arginine supplementation

    Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on vasodilation and VO2max in male soccer players

    Summary

    Study aim: To determine the effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on vasodilation, blood flow and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in soccer players.

    Material and methods: A group of 24 healthy male soccer players aged 20 - 26 years volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into 3 groups: experimental, placebo and control. Experimental group was given L-arginine (6 g orally) and the placebo group - starch (6 g orally) daily for a week; subjects from the control group remained untreated. Before the test and at the end of the week blood samples were collected, and systemic blood pressures, blood flows and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, by Queens College step test) were recorded. Blood samples were assayed for HDL, LDL, triglyceride and urea concentrations. The study was conducted in a randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled fashion consisting of 7-day treatment periods.

    Results: Oral supplementation of L-arginine significantly (p<0.01) decreased blood pressure indices and increased VO2max (p<0.01), blood flow (p<0.05), femoral artery diameter (p<0.05) and urea levels (p<0.05). There was no change in blood lipid levels (p<0.05). No significant changes were noted in the placebo and control groups.

    Conclusions: Oral supplementation of L-arginine may have beneficial effect on vasodilation and VO2max, therefore may increase the exercise capacity of soccer players.
    So arginine supplementation may induce vasodilation and increase VO2 max, which is a direct marker of exercise capacity!
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    Isn't Agmatine a byproduct/analogue of arginine? If so, what's the point of arginine anymore as agmatine is "better"?
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    Quote Originally Posted by Whacked View Post
    Isn't Agmatine a byproduct/analogue of arginine? If so, what's the point of arginine anymore as agmatine is "better"?
    It decarboxylated version of arginine. The whole structure is the same except for the very end of it.

    I would say why use arginine for VO2 max purposes if there are Nitrates around

    Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):149-59.
    Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans.
    Larsen FJ, Schiffer TA, Borniquel S, Sahlin K, Ekblom B, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E.


    Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):117-8.
    Can dietary nitrates enhance the efficiency of mitochondria?
    Nair KS, Irving BA, Lanza IR.


    Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Oct;43(10):1979-86.
    Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes.
    Bescós R, Rodríguez FA, Iglesias X, Ferrer MD, Iborra E, Pons A.


    Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Jan 15;48(2):342-7. Epub 2009 Nov 12.
    Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.
    Larsen FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B.


    Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2007 Sep;191(1):59-66. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
    Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise.
    Larsen FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B.
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    Thanks. I got a thread around here somewhere as I just jumped on Nitrates (PowerShock). Was NOT looking for Nitrates that contained creatine. Are there any others on this variety?

    Quote Originally Posted by rob112 View Post
    I would say why use arginine for VO2 max purposes if there are Nitrates around
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    Quote Originally Posted by Whacked View Post
    Thanks. I got a thread around here somewhere as I just jumped on Nitrates (PowerShock). Was NOT looking for Nitrates that contained creatine. Are there any others on this variety?
    I seen recently Thermolife is working on some new improved formulas, so maybe a new Pump-bol will be in the works. Most I see are creatine based. I have about a half tub of Pump-bol left. Never tried power shock. Looks interesting. Never tried a pre/intra bcaa nitrate product.

    Keep in mind some creatine based products have little creatine. I believe SAN's product is like a gram IIRC.
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    There is also tons of evidence showing that arginine does not increase vasodilation and/or NO.

    And for every study proving an ergogenic effect, I can post 5 showing no ergogenic effect. In fact, I can even post one showing it hinders performance:

    Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    Greer BK, Jones BT.
    Source

    Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. greerb@sacredheart.edu

    Abstract

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.


    Considering arginine has been extensively studied and the majority of studies have come to the conclusion that it is not beneficial to a bodybuilder, I see no reason to use arginine when citrulline and nitrates are readily available.
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    I just started the VPX PowerShock and I cannot say I notice anything

    Quote Originally Posted by rob112 View Post
    I seen recently Thermolife is working on some new improved formulas, so maybe a new Pump-bol will be in the works. Most I see are creatine based. I have about a half tub of Pump-bol left. Never tried power shock. Looks interesting. Never tried a pre/intra bcaa nitrate product.

    Keep in mind some creatine based products have little creatine. I believe SAN's product is like a gram IIRC.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Whacked View Post
    Isn't Agmatine a byproduct/analogue of arginine? If so, what's the point of arginine anymore as agmatine is "better"?
    I have been hesitant to try agmatine. The effect it has as
    an NDMA antagonist along with the uncertainty on its effects on alpha
    2-adrenoceptor binding sites has kept me from trying it

    See this thread for more info Agmatine : Food for thought....
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
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    Cool thread. Thanks for sharing.

    I will let you two brainiacs discuss and I'll sit back and try to learn something.

    PS: Has this ever been discussed? I stopped taking Agmatine b/c I felt sluggish/crappy on it. I never figured out if it was d/t a lowered BP it may impart OR possibly from it's purported ability to modulate blood sugar (making me hypo)?

    Beats me, but I felt bad enough on it PRE-W/O to stop using. Shame b/c it appears to be popular notwithstanding this recent discussion.

    Note: Im the exception not the rule as this stuff is pretty popular but I have read a few others experience the same phenomenon.


    Quote Originally Posted by JudoJosh View Post
    I have been hesitant to try agmatine. The effect it has as
    an NDMA antagonist along with the uncertainty on its effects on alpha
    2-adrenoceptor binding sites has kept me from trying it

    See this thread for more info Agmatine : Food for thought....
    A-Minds HYPE-SLAYER! All posts & feedback are guaranteed to be unsolicited and legit
    "The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge. Fools despise wisdom & instruction"
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    Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance

    It has recently been reported that dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, which increases plasma nitrite (NO(2)(-)) concentration, a biomarker of nitric oxide (NO) availability, improves exercise efficiency and exercise tolerance in healthy humans. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase (NOS), would elicit similar responses. In a double-blind, crossover study, nine healthy men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml of a beverage containing 6 g of l-arginine (Arg) or a placebo beverage (PL) and completed a series of "step" moderate- and severe-intensity exercise bouts 1 h after ingestion of the beverage. Plasma NO(2)(-) concentration was significantly greater in the Arg than the PL group (331 &#177; 198 vs. 159 &#177; 102 nM, P &lt; 0.05) and systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (123 &#177; 3 vs. 131 &#177; 5 mmHg, P &lt; 0.01). The steady-state O(2) uptake (VO(2)) during moderate-intensity exercise was reduced by 7% in the Arg group (1.48 &#177; 0.12 vs. 1.59 &#177; 0.14 l/min, P &lt; 0.05). During severe-intensity exercise, the Vo(2) slow component amplitude was reduced (0.58 &#177; 0.23 and 0.76 &#177; 0.29 l/min in Arg and PL, respectively, P &lt; 0.05) and the time to exhaustion was extended (707 &#177; 232 and 562 &#177; 145 s in Arg and PL, respectively, P &lt; 0.05) following consumption of Arg. In conclusion, similar to the effects of increased dietary NO(3)(-) intake, elevating NO bioavailability through dietary L-Arg supplementation reduced the O(2) cost of moderate-intensity exercise and blunted the VO(2) slow component and extended the time to exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise.
    The author concluded the effect of the increased availability of nitrite, that is accompanied by an elevation in bioavailability NO, reduced the O2 cost of moderate intensity exercise, which resulted in an extension of the time till exhaustion during severe intensity exercise.
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    Heh, I really don't want to re-enter the arginine debate. I have sparred with Aleksander in the past (very bright guy, as is Josh), but I don't have the energy to keep it going. Just note that my viewpoint is not biased, as SNS makes a very well-selling Arginine product. I have objectively reviewed the literature: the good, the bad, and the ugly, and I've come to the conclusion that with citrulline available [and superior in numerous respects (i.e. producing favorable effects like increasing bicarbonate reabsorption in the renal system)], there is simply no need to supplement arginine.
    http://pescience.com/
    http://selectprotein.com/
    The above is my own opinion and does not reflect the opinion of PES
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    Hmmm...

    Dietary l-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen 110-day-old barrows were fed for 60 days a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet supplemented with 1.0% Arg or 2.05% l-alanine (isonitrogenous control). Blood samples, longissimus dorsi muscle and overlying subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 170-day-old pigs for biochemical studies. Serum concentrations of leptin, alanine and glutamine were lower, but those for Arg and proline were higher in Arg-supplemented pigs than in control pigs. The percentage of oleic acid was higher but that of stearic acid and linoleic acid was lower in muscle of Arg-supplemented pigs, compared with control pigs. Dietary Arg supplementation increased mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase in muscle, while decreasing those for lipoprotein lipase, glucose transporter-4, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α in adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA levels for hormone sensitive lipase were higher in adipose tissue of Arg-supplemented pigs compared with control pigs. These results indicate that Arg differentially regulates expression of fat-metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, therefore favoring lipogenesis in muscle but lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our novel findings provide a biochemical basis for explaining the beneficial effect of Arg in improving the metabolic profile in mammals (including obese humans).
    via the FT

    Arg supplementation up-regulates expression of lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle. In contrast, the Arg treatment down-regulates expression of lipogenic genes and increases expression of lipolytic genes in white adipose tissue. Such changes in expression of lipid-metabolic genes favor the storage of lipids in skeletalmuscle but the loss of fat from subcutaneous adipose tissue in growing-finishing pigs.
    There also was an increase in oleic acid concentration in skeletal muscle

    Such a physiological effect of Arg is beneficial for humans, because oleic acid stimulates glucose uptake by skeletal muscle for oxidation, thereby potentially reducing the availability of circulating glucose for fatty acid synthesis in other tissues. Additionally, palmitoleate (C16:1n7) has recently been identified as a lipokine to enhance muscle insulin action and suppress hepatosteatosis in mice.
    So perhaps arginine may also help to shed some pounds
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    Quote Originally Posted by mr.cooper69 View Post
    Heh, I really don't want to re-enter the arginine debate. I have sparred with Aleksander in the past (very bright guy, as is Josh), but I don't have the energy to keep it going. Just note that my viewpoint is not biased, as SNS makes a very well-selling Arginine product. I have objectively reviewed the literature: the good, the bad, and the ugly, and I've come to the conclusion that with citrulline available [and superior in numerous respects (i.e. producing favorable effects like increasing bicarbonate reabsorption in the renal system)], there is simply no need to supplement arginine.
    While I do agree that arginines NO-boosting effects are indeed debatable, I also believe it to be a cheap and effective ergogenic aide.

    As for citrulline, I am also a fan of its use.

    Short-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged men

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular tone, contributing to the functional regulation of arterial stiffness. Although oral L-citrulline could become the effective precursor of L-arginine (substrate for endothelial NO synthase) via the L-citrulline/ L-arginine pathway, little is known about the efficacy of L-citrulline application on arterial stiffness.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the short-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in humans.

    METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 15 healthy male subjects (age: 58.3 &#177; 4.4 years) with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV; index of arterial stiffness &gt;1400 cm/sec) were given 5.6g/day of L-citrulline (n=8) or placebo (n=7) for 7 days. baPWV and various clinical parameters were measured before (baseline) and after oral supplementation of L-citrulline or placebo.

    RESULTS: Compared with the placebo group, baPWV was significantly reduced in the L-citrulline group (p&lt;0.01). No significant differences in blood pressure (BP) were found between the two groups, and no correlation was observed between BP and baPWV. The serum nitrogen oxide (NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate) and NO metabolic products were significantly increased only in the L-citrulline group (p&lt;0.05). Plasma citrulline, arginine and the ratio of arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase (arginine/ADMA ratio) were significantly increased in the L-citrulline group compared with the placebo group (p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.01, p&lt;0.05, respectively). Moreover, there was a correlation between the increase of plasma arginine and the reduction of baPWV (r=-0.553, p&lt;0.05).

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that short-term L-citrulline supplementation may functionally improve arterial stiffness, independent of blood pressure, in humans.
    So we have a reduction in arterial stiffness, an increase in NO metabolism and it appears it also reduces an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, so essentially more NO can be made.
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    Quote Originally Posted by JudoJosh View Post
    While I do agree that arginines NO-boosting effects are indeed debatable, I also believe it to be a cheap and effective ergogenic aide.

    As for citrulline, I am also a fan of its use.



    So we have a reduction in arterial stiffness, an increase in NO metabolism and it appears it also reduces an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, so essentially more NO can be made.
    Indeed, not to mention human studies showing increased aerobic AND anaerobic performance and reduced soreness.
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