William Llewellyn was right. About ten years ago Llewellyn invented the theory that the fatty acid arachidonic acid be a key factor in muscle growth could be. Llewellyn took a supplement containing arachidonic acid in the market, and funded a study that although no anabolic effect discovered, but ergogenic effects demonstrated. Yet this anabolic effect is probably, according to researchers at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.
The body converts the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid or GLA , GLA and then to arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is another precursor of hormone-like signal substances such as PGE2 and PGF2a. How exactly, that you see below.
Arachidonic acid has a bad reputation. The fatty acid, or rather its metabolites, could boost inflammation, and thus responsible for the negative effects of a diet with excess n-6 fatty acids. Llewellyn has always stressed that it is not so simple. Some metabolites of arachidonic acid inhibit inflammation correct. [vpxsports.com January 4, 2013]
Llewellyns business Molecular Nutrition sponsored seven years ago a study in which young bodybuilders arachidonic acid were administered. Their anaerobic capacity increased substantially, but the subjects were not muscular. Published in January 2013 the New Zealand researcher James Mark Worth a test tube study showing the Llewellyns theory indeed makes sense.
Mark Worth suggested C2C12 muscle cells exposed to different concentrations of arachidonic acid. The higher the concentration, the thicker, the muscle fibers that the cells formed, and the more protein laid them down.
Exposure to arachidonic acid inhibited the increase in the total number of muscle fibers, says the figure left. Click on it for a bigger version. Dark bars = muscle cells exposed to arachidonic acid.
Right, you see that arachidonic acid resulted in an increase in the number of muscle fibers bigger - with more than five nuclei. This means that arachidonic muscle fibers bigger late.
The researchers repeated their experiments with compounds containing the COX-2 enzyme. COX-2 converts arachidonic acid into PGE2 . By blocking these remained almost nothing about the anabolic effect of arachidonic acid. Experiments with a non-metabolizable version of arachidonic acid also yielded nothing.
" The Findings of the present study show That an Increased availability of free arachidonic acid and Subsequent metabolism by the COX-2 pathway just have a stimulatory effect on in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth , "the researchers conclude.
Source: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013 Jan 1, 304 (1): C56-67.