Vinegar

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    Vinegar


    Vinegar


    Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects.


    AuthorsBrighenti F, et al. Show all Journal
    Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Apr;49(4):242-7.


    Affiliation
    DiSTAM (Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche), University of Milan, Italy.


    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of sodium acetate and acetic acid from vinegar on blood glucose and acetate response to a mixed meal in healthy subjects.


    DESIGN: Five healthy subjects consumed in random order six test meals consisting of 100 g of sliced lettuce dressed with olive oil (Blank), olive oil plus 1 g acetic acid in the form of vinegar (AcOH), or olive oil plus sodium acetate in the form of vinegar neutralized to pH 6.0 with sodium bicarbonate (AcNa). On three occasions test meals were followed by a challenge consisting of 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread (Bread). Glucose and acetate concentrations were measured in arterialized capillary blood before and until 95 min after the meals. Ultrasonography was performed in four other subjects to measure gastric emptying times after AcOH + Bread and AcNa + Bread.


    RESULTS: Blood acetate response over 95 min was markedly reduced after AcOH and AcOH+Bread meals compared to AcNa and AcNa + Bread. Similarly, the glucose response was depressed by 31.4% (P = 0.0228) after AcOH+Bread with respect to AcNa + Bread and Blank + Bread. No difference was observed between gastric emptying times after AcOH + Bread and AcNa + Bread.


    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that oral acetic acid and acetate might have a different effect on acetataemia and that a limited dose of vinegar, in the form of salad dressing, is sufficient to influence significantly the glycaemic response to a mixed meal in normal subjects by a mechanism related to acidity but not to gastric emptying.

    Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycemia.


    AuthorsJohnston CS, et al. Show all Journal
    J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Dec;105(12):1939-42.


    Affiliation
    Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa 85212, USA. carol.Johnston@asu.edu


    Abstract
    Mealtime glycemic load is associated with risk for chronic disease. This study examined whether complementary foods (vinegar and peanut products) could lower postprandial glycemia without altering mealtime glycemic load. Eleven healthy subjects consumed two test meals (bagel and juice, glycemic load=81; or chicken and rice, glycemic load=48) under three conditions (control, vinegar, or peanut) using a randomized, crossover design. Vinegar or peanut ingestion reduced the 60-minute glucose response to both test meals by approximately 55%, but these reductions were significant only for the high-glycemic load meal. After consumption of the high-glycemic load meal, energy consumption for the remainder of the day was weakly affected by the vinegar and peanut treatments, a reduction of approximately 200 to 275 kcal (P=.111). Regression analyses indicated that 60-minute glucose response to the test meals explained 11% to 16% of the variation in later energy consumption. In conclusion, the addition of vinegar or peanut products to a high-glycemic load meal significantly reduced postprandial glycemia.


    PMID 16321601

    Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects.


    AuthorsLeeman M, et al. Show all Journal
    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Nov;59(11):1266-71.


    Affiliation
    Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden. Margareta.Leeman@inl.lth.se


    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cold storage and vinegar addition on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a potato meal in healthy subjects.


    SUBJECTS AND SETTING: A total of 13 healthy subjects volunteered for the study, and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. Experimental design and test meals:The study included four meals; freshly boiled potatoes, boiled and cold stored potatoes (8 degrees C, 24 h), boiled and cold stored potatoes (8 degrees C, 24 h) with addition of vinaigrette sauce (8 g olive oil and 28 g white vinegar (6% acetic acid)) and white wheat bread as reference. All meals contained 50 g available carbohydrates and were served as a breakfast in random order after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were collected at time intervals during 120 min for analysis of blood glucose and serum insulin. Glycaemic (GI) and insulinaemic indices (II) were calculated from the incremental areas using white bread as reference.


    RESULTS: Cold storage of boiled potatoes increased resistant starch (RS) content significantly from 3.3 to 5.2% (starch basis). GI and II of cold potatoes added with vinegar (GI/II=96/128) were significantly reduced by 43 and 31%, respectively, compared with GI/II of freshly boiled potatoes (168/185). Furthermore, cold storage per se lowered II with 28% compared with the corresponding value for freshly boiled potatoes.


    CONCLUSION: Cold storage of boiled potatoes generated appreciable amounts of RS. Cold storage and addition of vinegar reduced acute glycaemia and insulinaemia in healthy subjects after a potato meal. The results show that the high glycaemic and insulinaemic features commonly associated with potato meals can be reduced by use of vinegar dressing and/or by serving cold potato products.

    Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar.


    AuthorsLiljeberg H, et al. Show all Journal
    Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 May;52(5):368-71.


    Affiliation
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund University, Sweden.


    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible influence of acetic acid (administered as vinegar) on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses, and the potential involvement of a modified gastric emptying rate was studied by use of paracetamol as a marker.


    DESIGN: The white bread reference meal as well as the corresponding meal supplemented with vinegar had the same content of starch, protein and fat. The meals were served in the morning after an over-night fast and in random order. Capillary blood samples for analysis of glucose, insulin and paracetamol were collected postprandially.


    SETTING: The study was performed at the Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.


    SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers, seven women and three men, aged 22-51 y, with normal body mass indices were recruited.


    RESULTS: The presence of acetic acid, given as vinegar, significantly reduced the postprandial glucose (GI=64) and insulin responses (II=65) to a starchy meal. As judged from lowered paracetamol levels after the test meal with vinegar, the mechanism is probably a delayed gastric emptying rate.


    CONCLUSIONS: Fermented foods or food products with added organic acids should preferably be included in the diet in order to reduce glycaemia and insulin demand.

    Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.


    FULL TEXT - Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects With Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes

    Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of rats.


    AuthorsFushimi T, et al. Show all Journal
    J Nutr. 2001 Jul;131(7):1973-7.


    Affiliation
    Central Research Institute, Mitsukan Group Company Limited, Handa 475-8585, Japan. tfushimi@mitsukan.co.jp


    Abstract
    To investigate the efficacy of the ingestion of vinegar in aiding recovery from fatigue, we examined the effect of dietary acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion in rats. Rats were allowed access to a commercial diet twice daily for 6 d. After 15 h of food deprivation, they were either killed immediately or given 2 g of a diet containing 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 g acetic acid/100 g diet for 2 h. The 0.2 g acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentration than the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of citrate in this group in both the liver and skeletal muscles were >1.3-fold greater than in the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, the concentration of xylulose-5-phosphate in the control group was significantly higher than in the 0.2 and 0.4 g acetic acid groups (P < 0.01). In gastrocnemius muscle, the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate in the control group was significantly lower and the ratio of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6-phosphate was significantly higher than in the 0.2 g acetic acid group (P < 0.05). This ratio in the soleus muscle of the acetic acid fed groups was <0.8-fold that of the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, acetic acid may activate gluconeogenesis and inactivate glycolysis through inactivation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate synthesis due to suppression of xylulose-5-phosphate accumulation. In skeletal muscle, acetic acid may inhibit glycolysis by suppression of phosphofructokinase-1 activity. We conclude that a diet containing acetic acid may enhance glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle.



    The efficacy of acetic acid for glycogen repletion in rat skeletal muscle after exercise.


    AuthorsFushimi T, et al. Show all Journal
    Int J Sports Med. 2002 Apr;23(3):218-22.


    Affiliation
    Central Research Institute, Mitsukan Group Co. Ltd., Handa, Japan. tfushimi@mitsukan.co.jp


    Abstract
    We examined the effect of acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion by using swimming-exercised rats. Rats were trained for 7 days by swimming. After an overnight fast, they were subjected to a 2-hr swimming exercise. Immediately afterward, they were given by gavage 2 ml of one of the following solutions: 30 % glucose only or 30 % glucose with 0.4 % acetic acid. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation before, immediately after exercise and 2 hours after the feeding. Exercise significantly decreased soleus and gastrocnemius glycogen content, and feeding significantly increased liver, soleus and gastrocnemius glycogen content. In soleus muscle, acetate feeding significantly increased glycogen content and the ratio of glycogen synthase in the I form (means +/- SEM: 4.04 +/- 0.41 mg/g-tissue and 47.0 +/- 0.7 %, respectively) in contrast to no acetate feeding (3.04 +/- 0.29 mg/g-tissue and 38.1 +/- 3.4 %, respectively). Thus, these findings suggest that the feeding of glucose with acetic acid can more speedily accelerate glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle than can glucose only.

    Antihypertensive effects of acetic acid and vinegar on spontaneously hypertensive rats.


    AuthorsKondo S, et al. Show all Journal
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Dec;65(12):2690-4.


    Affiliation
    Central Research Institute, Mitsukan Group Corporation, Aichi, Japan. shino_k@mitsukan.co.jp


    Abstract
    To clarify the possibility of a preventive effect of dietary vinegar on blood pressure, long-term administration of vinegar or the acetic acid to SHR was examined. As a result, it was observed that acetic acid itself, the main component of vinegar, significantly reduced both blood pressure (p<0.05) and renin activity (p<0.01) compared to controls given no acetic acid or vinegar, as well as vinegar. There were no significant differences in angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in various organs. As for the mechanism of this function, it was suggested that this reduction in blood pressure may be caused by the significant reduction in renin activity and the subsequent decrease in angiotensin II. From this study, it was also suggested that the antihypertensive effect of vinegar is mainly due to the acetic acid in it.


    PMID 11826965

    A red wine vinegar beverage can inhibit the renin-angiotensin system: experimental evidence in vivo.


    AuthorsHonsho S, et al. Show all Journal
    Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jul;28(7):1208-10.


    Affiliation
    Department of Pharmacology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Japan.


    Abstract
    A new beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Budo-no-megumi) was developed for people who wish to take effective amount of both polyphenols and vinegar. Since the beverage was recently demonstrated to exert hypotensive effect in rats, we analyzed its underlying mechanisms in this study. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital, and the blood pressure and lead II ECG were continuously monitored (n=6). The effects of recommended volume of the beverage (3 ml/kg, p.o.) on the renin-angiotensin system were assessed in vivo. At the basal control state, the increase in the mean blood pressure induced by the angiotensin I (1 microg/kg, i.v.) and norepinephrine (0.3-3 microg/kg, i.v.) were +57+/-2 and +36+/-8 mmHg, respectively. Sixty minutes after the administration of the beverage, the angiotensin I-induced pressor response decreased to +45+/-7 mmHg at 60 min (p<0.05), whereas no significant change was detected in the norepinephrine-induced pressor response. In another parallel series of the experiment using Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6), the serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity was 39.4+/-1.2 IU/l at basal control state, which was slightly but significantly decreased to 37.0+/-1.4 IU/l at 60 min after the administration of the beverage (p<0.01). These results suggest that previously described hypotensive action of the beverage may be partly induced by the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Antihypertensive effects of acetic acid and vinegar on spontaneously hypertensive rats.


    AuthorsKondo S, et al. Show all Journal
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Dec;65(12):2690-4.


    Affiliation
    Central Research Institute, Mitsukan Group Corporation, Aichi, Japan. shino_k@mitsukan.co.jp


    Abstract
    To clarify the possibility of a preventive effect of dietary vinegar on blood pressure, long-term administration of vinegar or the acetic acid to SHR was examined. As a result, it was observed that acetic acid itself, the main component of vinegar, significantly reduced both blood pressure (p<0.05) and renin activity (p<0.01) compared to controls given no acetic acid or vinegar, as well as vinegar. There were no significant differences in angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in various organs. As for the mechanism of this function, it was suggested that this reduction in blood pressure may be caused by the significant reduction in renin activity and the subsequent decrease in angiotensin II. From this study, it was also suggested that the antihypertensive effect of vinegar is mainly due to the acetic acid in it.


    PMID 11826965

    Acetic acid activates hepatic AMPK and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.


    AuthorsSakakibara S, et al. Show all Journal
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jun 2;344(2):597-604. Epub 2006 Apr 5.


    Affiliation
    Central Research Institute, Mizkan Group Co., Ltd., Aichi 475-8585, Japan.


    Abstract
    Acetic acid (AcOH), which is a short-chain fatty acid, is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. To test the hypothesis that feeding of AcOH exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes, we fed either a standard diet or one containing 0.3% AcOH to KK-A(y) mice for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels were lower in mice fed AcOH for 8 weeks than in control mice. AcOH also reduced the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, which is in part regulated by 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver. Finally, sodium acetate, in the form of neutralized AcOH, directly activated AMPK and lowered the expression of genes such as for glucose-6-phosphatase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in rat hepatocytes. These results indicate that the hypoglycemic effect of AcOH might be due to activation of AMPK in the liver.


    PMID 16630552
    "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates

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    Vinegar/apple cider vinegar do have some very interesting effects. The one human study I've seen (with reasonable doses) showed that it mildly decreased weight relative to controls, but that both LBM AND fat mass were lower in the vinegar-treated subjects. Sounds like it could be significantly stimulating AMPK, even at reasonable doses.
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    It looks as if I'll continue to stick to my oil and vinegar salad dressing
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