..Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body weight and brain weight, at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment, exhibited no significant difference between the four groups. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment of HCA-SX over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any changes in hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or histopathological changes.
..Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity.
The primary end point of this study was the effects of 12 weeks of G cambogia extract administration on visceral fat accumulation. The secondary end points were body indices (including height, body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio) and laboratory values (including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid).
This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects aged 20 to 65 years with a visceral fat area >90 cm2 were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with G cambogia (containing 1000 mg of HCA per day) or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks to assess any rebound effect. Each subject underwent a computed tomography scan at the umbilical level at −2, 0, 12, and 16 weeks.
Forty-four subjects were randomized at baseline, and 39 completed the study (G cambogia group, n=18; placebo group, n=21). At 16 weeks, the G cambogia group had significantly reduced visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat areas compared with the placebo group (all indices P<0.001). No severe adverse effect was observed at any time in the test period. There were no significant differences in BMI or body weight at week 12, but there were slight numeric decreases in body weight and BMI in men. There were no signs of a rebound effect from week 12 to week 16.
G cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation in subjects, regardless of sex, who had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. No rebound effect was observed. It is therefore expected that G cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of accumulation of visceral fat.
.Effects of acute (&minus-hydroxycitrate supplementation on substrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in humans
Background: (&minus-Hydroxycitrate (HCA), a competitive inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, should reduce the extramitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool. It has been hypothesized that HCA ingestion can reduce malonyl-CoA concentrations and consequently increase fatty acid oxidation in vivo.
Objective: This study investigated the acute effects of HCA supplementation on substrate utilization at rest and during exercise in endurance-trained humans.
Design: Ten cyclists [(x? ± SD) age: 24 ± 2 y, weight: 73 ± 2 kg, maximal oxygen uptake: 4.95 ± 0.11 L/min, maximal work output (Wmax): 408 ± 8 W] were studied at rest and during 2 h of exercise at 50% Wmax on 2 occasions. Both 45 and 15 min before exercise and 30 and 60 min after the start of exercise, 3.1 mL/kg body wt of an HCA solution (19 g/L) or placebo was ingested. Total fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were assessed. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals at rest and every 30 min during exercise.
Results: Plasma HCA concentrations increased after HCA ingestion up to 0.39 ± 0.02 mmol/L (82.0 ± 4.8 mg/L). However, no significant differences in total fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were observed between trials. Accordingly, plasma glucose, glycerol, and fatty acid concentrations did not differ between trials. Plasma lactate concentrations were significantly lower in the HCA than in the placebo trial after 30 min of exercise but at the end of the exercise period they did not differ between trials.
Conclusion: HCA, even when provided in large quantities, does not increase total fat oxidation in vivo in endurance-trained humans.Comparative effects of (--)-hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo-hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo.
(--)-Hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo-hydroxycitrate were investigated for their effects on lipid synthesis in vivo under conditions of either high carbohydrate feeding or 24 hr fasting. Changes in rates of lipid synthesis resulting from the oral administration of these compounds were monitored with the use of radiolabeled H2O, alanine, and acetate. In the fed rat, (--)-hydroxycitrate significantly reduced the incorporation of H2O and alanine into fatty acids and cholesterol. An increased incorporation of labeled H2O into fatty acids but no change in cholesterol synthesis in the fasted rat suggested that (--)-hydroxycitrate may be an activator of acetyl CoA carboxylase. With (--)-hydroxycitrate administration, acetate incorporation into fatty acids and cholesterol was subject to pool dilution effects under fed or fasted states. (+)-allo-Hydroxycitrate was ineffective in modulating the rates of fatty acid synthesis under either nutritional condition. Both (--)-hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo-hydroxycitrate were shown to be in vitro activators of acetyl CoA carboxylase, the former being a much stronger activator than the latter. Thus, stereospecificity of the hydroxycitrate isomers was demonstrated in both the inhibition of lipid synthesis (previously shown to occur at adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase) and the stimulation of fatty acid synthesis (possibly occurring at acetyl CoA carboxylase).FT- http://jbc.org/content/246/3/629.full.pdfEffect of (--)-Hydroxycitrate on Fatty Acid Synthesis by Rat Liver in Vivo
Incorporation of 3H from 3H2O was used to measure the rate of fatty acid synthesis in rat liver. (--)-Hydroxycitrate strongly inhibits fatty acid synthesis in vivo.
Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat
Young Zucker lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) female rats were fed the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (-)-hydroxy-citrate as a dietary admixture for 39 days. In the lean rats, (-)-hydroxycitrate treatment decreased body weight, food intake, percent of body fat, and fat cell size. In the obese rat, food intake and body weight were reduced but the percent of body fat remained unchanged. Throughout the treatment period, obese rats maintained a fat cell size equivalent to their obese controls. Although a reduction in fat cell number in the obese rats occurred during the treatment period, marked hyperplasia was observed during the posttreatment period. The results of this study indicate that the obese rat, despite a substantial reduction in body weight produced by (-)-hydroxycitrate, still defends its obese body composition.Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial
CONTEXT: Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia, competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase. As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in overweight human subjects.
DESIGN: Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
SETTING: Outpatient weight control research unit.
PARTICIPANTS: Overweight men and women subjects (mean body mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], approximately 32 kg/m2).
INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound (1500 mg of hydroxycitric acid per day) or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy diet. The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat mass was measured at weeks 0 and 12.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body weight change and fat mass change.
RESULTS: A total of 135 subjects were randomized to either active hydroxycitric acid (n = 66) or placebo (n = 69); 42 (64%) in the active hydroxycitric acid group and 42 (61%) in the placebo group completed 12 weeks of treatment (P = .74). Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of weight during the 12-week treatment period (P<.001); however, between-group weight loss differences were not statistically significant (mean [SD], 3.2 [3.3] kg vs 4.1 [3.9] kg; P = .14). There were no significant differences in estimated percentage of body fat mass loss between treatment groups, and the fraction of subject weight loss as fat was not influenced by treatment group.
CONCLUSIONS: Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo.Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.
The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and that when taken as directed, HCA-SX is a highly effective adjunct to healthy weight control.