Ergogenic benefits of nitrates
- 08-30-2012, 11:32 PM
Ergogenic benefits of nitrates
Besides the pumps it produces (which is what it is most commonly known for) it seems to much more from a performance-enhancing standpoint.
Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance.
PURPOSE: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and to improve high-intensity exercise tolerance. However, it is presently unknown whether it may enhance performance during simulated competition. The present study investigated the effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on power output (PO), VO2, and performance during 4- and 16.1-km cycling time trials (TT).
METHODS: After familiarization, nine club-level competitive male cyclists were assigned in a randomized, crossover design to consume 0.5 L of beetroot juice (BR; containing ∼ 6.2 mmol of nitrate) or 0.5 L of nitrate-depleted BR (placebo, PL; containing ∼ 0.0047 mmol of nitrate), ∼ 2.5 h before the completion of a 4- and a 16.1-km TT.
RESULTS: BR supplementation elevated plasma [nitrite] (PL = 241 ± 125 vs BR = 575 ± 199 nM, P < 0.05). The VO2 values during the TT were not significantly different between the BR and PL conditions at any elapsed distance (P > 0.05), but BR significantly increased mean PO during the 4-km (PL = 279 ± 51 vs BR = 292 ± 44 W, P < 0.05) and 16.1-km TT (PL = 233 ± 43 vs BR = 247 ± 44 W, P < 0.01). Consequently, BR improved 4-km performance by 2.8% (PL = 6.45 ± 0.42 vs BR = 6.27 ± 0.35 min, P < 0.05) and 16.1-km performance by 2.7% (PL = 27.7 ± 2.1 vs BR = 26.9 ± 1.8 min, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation with 0.5 L of BR improves cycling economy, as demonstrated by a higher PO for the same VO2 and enhances both 4- and 16.1-km cycling TT performance.Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.
The anion nitrate-abundant in our diet-has recently emerged as a major pool of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-independent NO production. Nitrate is reduced stepwise in vivo to nitrite and then NO and possibly other bioactive nitrogen oxides. This reductive pathway is enhanced during low oxygen tension and acidosis. A recent study shows a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise attributable to dietary nitrate. We went on to study the effects of dietary nitrate on various physiological and biochemical parameters during maximal exercise. Nine healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 30+/-2.3 years, VO(2max) 3.72+/-0.33 L/min) participated in this study, which had a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Subjects received dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol/kg/day) or placebo (NaCl) for 2 days before the test. This dose corresponds to the amount found in 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable such as spinach or beetroot. The maximal exercise tests consisted of an incremental exercise to exhaustion with combined arm and leg cranking on two separate ergometers. Dietary nitrate reduced VO(2max) from 3.72+/-0.33 to 3.62+/-0.31 L/min, P<0.05. Despite the reduction in VO(2max) the time to exhaustion trended to an increase after nitrate supplementation (524+/-31 vs 563+/-30 s, P=0.13). There was a correlation between the change in time to exhaustion and the change in VO(2max) (R(2)=0.47, P=0.04). A moderate dietary dose of nitrate significantly reduces VO(2max) during maximal exercise using a large active muscle mass. This reduction occurred with a trend toward increased time to exhaustion implying that two separate mechanisms are involved: one that reduces VO(2max) and another that improves the energetic function of the working muscles.Nitrate supplementation's improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists.
Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO?) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are available regarding the effect of nitrate ingestion on athletic performance, and no study has investigated the potential ergogenic effects of a small-volume, concentrated dose of beetroot juice. The authors tested the hypothesis that 6 d of nitrate ingestion would improve time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures crossover design, 12 male cyclists (31±3 yr, VO2peak=58±2 ml·kg?¹·min?¹, maximal power [Wmax]=342±10 W) ingested 140 ml/d of concentrated beetroot (~8 mmol/d nitrate) juice (BEET) or a placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice; PLAC) for 6 d, separated by a 14-d washout. After supplementation on Day 6, subjects performed 60 min of submaximal cycling (2×30 min at 45% and 65% Wmax, respectively), followed by a 10-km time trial. Time-trial performance (953±18 vs. 965±18 s, p<.005) and power output (294±12 vs. 288±12 W, p<.05) improved after BEET compared with PLAC supplementation. Submaximal VO? was lower after BEET (45% Wmax=1.92±0.06 vs. 2.02±0.09 L/min, 65% Wmax 2.94±0.12 vs. 3.11±0.12 L/min) than with PLAC (main effect, p<.05). Whole-body fuel selection and plasma lactate, glucose, and insulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Six days of nitrate supplementation reduced VO? during submaximal exercise and improved time-trial performance in trained cyclists.Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanistic bases for the reported reduction in the O(2) cost of exercise following short-term dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, seven men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml/day of either nitrate-rich beet root juice (BR, 5.1 mmol of NO(3)(-)/day) or placebo (PL, with negligible nitrate content) for 6 consecutive days, and completed a series of low-intensity and high-intensity "step" exercise tests on the last 3 days for the determination of the muscle metabolic (using (31)P-MRS) and pulmonary oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) responses to exercise. On days 4-6, BR resulted in a significant increase in plasma [nitrite] (mean +/- SE, PL 231 +/- 76 vs. BR 547 +/- 55 nM; P < 0.05). During low-intensity exercise, BR attenuated the reduction in muscle phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]; PL 8.1 +/- 1.2 vs. BR 5.2 +/- 0.8 mM; P < 0.05) and the increase in Vo(2) (PL 484 +/- 41 vs. BR 362 +/- 30 ml/min; P < 0.05). During high-intensity exercise, BR reduced the amplitudes of the [PCr] (PL 3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. BR 1.6 +/- 0.7 mM; P < 0.05) and Vo(2) (PL 209 +/- 30 vs. BR 100 +/- 26 ml/min; P < 0.05) slow components and improved time to exhaustion (PL 586 +/- 80 vs. BR 734 +/- 109 s; P < 0.01). The total ATP turnover rate was estimated to be less for both low-intensity (PL 296 +/- 58 vs. BR 192 +/- 38 microM/s; P < 0.05) and high-intensity (PL 607 +/- 65 vs. BR 436 +/- 43 microM/s; P < 0.05) exercise. Thus the reduced O(2) cost of exercise following dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation appears to be due to a reduced ATP cost of muscle force production. The reduced muscle metabolic perturbation with NO(3)(-) supplementation allowed high-intensity exercise to be tolerated for a greater period of time.Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study.
Dietary supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) has been shown to reduce resting blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and to increase tolerance to high-intensity cycling. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological effects of BR were consequent to its high NO(3)(-) content per se, and not the presence of other potentially bioactive compounds. We investigated changes in blood pressure, mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Q(max)), and physiological responses to walking and moderate- and severe-intensity running following dietary supplementation with BR and NO(3)(-)-depleted BR [placebo (PL)]. After control (nonsupplemented) tests, nine healthy, physically active male subjects were assigned in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design to receive BR (0.5 l/day, containing ∼6.2 mmol of NO(3)(-)) and PL (0.5 l/day, containing ∼0.003 mmol of NO(3)(-)) for 6 days. Subjects completed treadmill exercise tests on days 4 and 5 and knee-extension exercise tests for estimation of Q(max) (using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy) on day 6 of the supplementation periods. Relative to PL, BR elevated plasma NO(2)(-) concentration (183 ± 119 vs. 373 ± 211 nM, P < 0.05) and reduced systolic blood pressure (129 ± 9 vs. 124 ± 10 mmHg, P < 0.01). Q(max) was not different between PL and BR (0.93 ± 0.05 and 1.05 ± 0.22 mM/s, respectively). The O(2) cost of walking (0.87 ± 0.12 and 0.70 ± 0.10 l/min in PL and BR, respectively, P < 0.01), moderate-intensity running (2.26 ± 0.27 and 2.10 ± 0.28 l/min in PL and BR, respectively, P < 0.01), and severe-intensity running (end-exercise O(2) uptake = 3.77 ± 0.57 and 3.50 ± 0.62 l/min in PL and BL, respectively, P < 0.01) was reduced by BR, and time to exhaustion during severe-intensity running was increased by 15% (7.6 ± 1.5 and 8.7 ± 1.8 min in PL and BR, respectively, P < 0.01). In contrast, relative to control, PL supplementation did not alter plasma NO(2)(-) concentration, blood pressure, or the physiological responses to exercise. These results indicate that the positive effects of 6 days of BR supplementation on the physiological responses to exercise can be ascribed to the high NO(3)(-) content per se.Acute administration of inorganic nitrate reduces VO(2peak) in endurance athletes.
PURPOSE: Humans can reduce inorganic nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a single dose of inorganic nitrate before exercise might enhance the tolerance of endurance athletes to high intensity exercise.
METHODS: Eleven cyclists (age = 34.3 ± 4.8 yr, VO(2peak) = 65.1 ± 6.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects received dietary supplementation with nitrate (NaNO(3) 10 mg·kg(-1) of body mass) or a placebo (NaCl) 3 h before exercise. They then performed a cycle ergometer test that consisted of four 6-min submaximal workloads, corresponding to 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 W·kg(-1) of body mass, interspersed with 3 min of passive recovery. After a 5-min recovery period, subjects performed one incremental exercise test until exhaustion.
RESULTS: Plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly higher (P < 0.05) 3 h after supplementation (nitrate = 250 ± 80 μM, nitrite = 2313 ± 157 nM) than after the placebo (nitrate = 29 ± 8 μM, nitrite = 1998 ± 206 nM) at resting conditions. Nitrate supplementation significantly reduced VO(2peak)(nitrate = 4.64 ± 0.35 L·min(-1), placebo = 4.82 ± 0.33 L·min(-1), P = 0.010) and the ratio between VO(2) and power at maximal intensity (nitrate = 11.2 ± 1.1 mL·min(-1)·W(-1), placebo = 11.8 ± 1.1 mL·min(-1)·W(-1), P = 0.031). This reduction of VO(2) occurred without changes in the time to exhaustion (nitrate = 416 ± 32 s, placebo = 409 ± 27 s) or in the maximal power (nitrate = 416 ± 29 W, placebo = 410 ± 28 W).
CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of inorganic nitrate acutely reduces VO(2peak)without compromising the maximal exercise performance.PESCIENCE.COM
"The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
- 08-30-2012, 11:33 PM
Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise.
Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) over 4-6 days has been shown to reduce the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and to improve exercise tolerance. However, it is not known whether shorter (or longer) periods of supplementation have similar (or greater) effects. We therefore investigated the effects of acute and chronic NO(3)(-) supplementation on resting blood pressure (BP) and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity exercise and ramp incremental cycle exercise in eight healthy subjects. Following baseline tests, the subjects were assigned in a balanced crossover design to receive BR (0.5 l/day; 5.2 mmol of NO(3)(-)/day) and placebo (PL; 0.5 l/day low-calorie juice cordial) treatments. The exercise protocol (two moderate-intensity step tests followed by a ramp test) was repeated 2.5 h following first ingestion (0.5 liter) and after 5 and 15 days of BR and PL. Plasma nitrite concentration (baseline: 454 ± 81 nM) was significantly elevated (+39% at 2.5 h postingestion; +25% at 5 days; +46% at 15 days; P < 0.05) and systolic and diastolic BP (baseline: 127 ± 6 and 72 ± 5 mmHg, respectively) were reduced by ~4% throughout the BR supplementation period (P < 0.05). Compared with PL, the steady-state Vo(2) during moderate exercise was reduced by ~4% after 2.5 h and remained similarly reduced after 5 and 15 days of BR (P < 0.05). The ramp test peak power and the work rate at the gas exchange threshold (baseline: 322 ± 67 W and 89 ± 15 W, respectively) were elevated after 15 days of BR (331 ± 68 W and 105 ± 28 W; P < 0.05) but not PL (323 ± 68 W and 84 ± 18 W). These results indicate that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation acutely reduces BP and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and that these effects are maintained for at least 15 days if supplementation is continued.Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans
Pharmacological sodium nitrate supplementation has been reported to reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise in humans. In this study, we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot juice (BR) would reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and enhance the tolerance to high-intensity exercise. In a double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled, crossover study, eight men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml/day of either BR (containing 11.2 +/- 0.6 mM of nitrate) or blackcurrant cordial (as a PL, with negligible nitrate content) for 6 consecutive days and completed a series of "step" moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests on the last 3 days. On days 4-6, plasma nitrite concentration was significantly greater following dietary nitrate supplementation compared with PL (BR: 273 +/- 44 vs. PL: 140 +/- 50 nM; P < 0.05), and systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (BR: 124 +/- 2 vs. PL: 132 +/- 5 mmHg; P < 0.01). During moderate exercise, nitrate supplementation reduced muscle fractional O2 extraction (as estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy). The gain of the increase in pulmonary O2 uptake following the onset of moderate exercise was reduced by 19% in the BR condition (BR: 8.6 +/- 0.7 vs. PL: 10.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P < 0.05). During severe exercise, the O2 uptake slow component was reduced (BR: 0.57 +/- 0.20 vs. PL: 0.74 +/- 0.24 l/min; P < 0.05), and the time-to-exhaustion was extended (BR: 675 +/- 203 vs. PL: 583 +/- 145 s; P < 0.05). The reduced O2 cost of exercise following increased dietary nitrate intake has important implications for our understanding of the factors that regulate mitochondrial respiration and muscle contractile energetics in humans.Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance.
Acute dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation has been reported to lower resting blood pressure, reduce the oxygen (O(2)) cost of sub-maximal exercise, and improve exercise tolerance. Given the proposed effects of NO(3)(-) on tissue oxygenation and metabolic rate, it is possible that NO(3)(-) supplementation might enhance the duration of resting apnea. If so, this might have important applications both in medicine and sport. We investigated the effects of acute NO(3)(-) supplementation on pre-apnea blood pressure, apneic duration, and the heart rate (HR) and arterial O(2) saturation (SaO(2)) responses to sub-maximal and maximal apneas in twelve well-trained apnea divers. Subjects were assigned in a randomized, double blind, crossover design to receive 70ml of beetroot juice (BR; containing ~5.0mmol of nitrate) and placebo juice (PL; ~0.003mmol of nitrate) treatments. At 2.5h post-ingestion, the subjects completed a series of two 2-minute (sub-maximal) static apneas separated by three minutes of rest, followed by a maximal effort apnea. Relative to PL, BR reduced resting mean arterial pressure by 2% (PL: 86±7 vs. BR: 84±6mmHg; P=0.04). The mean nadir for SaO(2) after the two sub-maximal apneas was 97.2±1.6% in PL and 98.5±0.9% in BR (P=0.03) while the reduction in HR from baseline was not significantly different between PL and BR. Importantly, BR increased maximal apneic duration by 11% (PL: 250±58 vs. BR: 278±64s; P=0.04). In the longer maximal apneas in BR, the magnitude of the reductions in HR and SaO(2) were greater than in PL (P<=0.05). The results suggest that acute dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation may increase apneic duration by reducing metabolic costsPESCIENCE.COM
"The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
08-30-2012, 11:53 PM
08-31-2012, 01:05 AM
Honestly, my experimentation with solo nitrates produces little to no pump at 1000mg NO3 but the performance enhancement is ridiculous.
08-31-2012, 01:20 AM
08-31-2012, 03:57 AM
08-31-2012, 03:58 AM
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 50 mile time trial performance in well-trained cyclists.
Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve short distance time trial (TT) performance by 1-3 % in club-level cyclists. It is not known if these ergogenic effects persist in longer endurance events or if dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance performance to the same extent in better trained individuals. Eight well-trained male cyclists performed two laboratory-based 50 mile TTs: (1) 2.5 h after consuming 0.5 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and (2) 2.5 h after consuming 0.5 L of nitrate-depleted BR as a placebo (PL). BR significantly elevated plasma [NO(2) (-)] (BR: 472 ± 96 vs. PL: 379 ± 94 nM; P < 0.05) and reduced completion time for the 50 mile TT by 0.8 % (BR: 136.7 ± 5.6 vs. PL: 137.9 ± 6.4 min), which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the increased post-beverage plasma [NO(2) (-)] with BR and the reduction in TT completion time (r = -0.83, P = 0.01). Power output (PO) was not different between the conditions at any point (P > 0.05) but oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O(2)) tended to be lower in BR (P = 0.06), resulting in a significantly greater PO/[Formula: see text]O(2) ratio (BR: 67.4 ± 5.5 vs. PL: 65.3 ± 4.8 W L min(-1); P < 0.05). In conclusion, acute dietary supplementation with beetroot juice did not significantly improve 50 mile TT performance in well-trained cyclists. It is possible that the better training status of the cyclists in this study might reduce the physiological and performance response to NO(3) (-) supplementation compared with the moderately trained cyclists tested in earlier studies.
"The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
08-31-2012, 03:59 AM
OK so I've read about nitrogen balance within the muscles, do dietary nitrates play any role in this?
The reason why I ask is I have read several anabolic steroids increase nitrogen retention. This is was out of my league, but my brain decided to play connect the dots.
08-31-2012, 04:04 AM
Recent BJM review on nitrate supplementation
Nitrates AM Jones
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological signalling molecule that can modulate skeletal muscle function through its role in the regulation of blood flow, muscle contractility, glucose and calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration.1 Until quite recently, it was considered that NO was generated solely through the oxidation of the amino acid l-arginine in a reaction catalysed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS).2 It is now appreciated, however, that NO may also be produced by the reduction of nitrate to nitrite and subsequently of nitrite to NO.3 This pathway may be particularly important in hypoxia. Nitrate and nitrite are present in the body as products of NO production through NOS and are also modulated through the diet. Nitrate in foods (particularly green leafy vegetables) can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, leading to an increased plasma nitrite concentration that serves as a circulating ‘reservoir’ for NO production.4
Several recent studies have addressed the extent to which dietary nitrate supplementation might affect the physiological responses to exercise. Larsen et al5 first showed that 3 days of sodium nitrate supplementation (0.1 mmol/kg/day) reduced resting blood pressure and the O2 cost of submaximal cycle exercise. Subsequently, we have reported that enhancing NO bioavailability through supplementation of the diet with a natural foodstuff (nitrate-rich beetroot juice) reduces resting blood pressure and the O2 cost of exercise and improves exercise performance.6,–,10 In the first study,6 we found that 4–6 days of dietary nitrate supplementation (0.5 litres of beetroot juice per day containing ∼6 mmol nitrate) reduced the ‘steady-state’ O2 cost of submaximal cycle exercise by 5% and extended the time to exhaustion during high-intensity cycling by 16%. In a follow-up study,7 we used 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the mechanistic bases of this phenomenon. Dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in both a reduced pulmonary O2 uptake and reduced muscle metabolic perturbation, enabling high-intensity knee-extension exercise to be tolerated for a greater period of time. These data imply that the reduced O2 cost of exercise following dietary nitrate supplementation is related to a reduced ATP cost of muscle force production, perhaps consequent to reduced cross-bridge cycling or sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity.11 It is also possible, however, that nitrate supplementation enhances mitochondrial efficiency. Larsen et al12 have reported that sodium nitrate reduced proton leakage and increased the mitochondrial P/O ratio.
The positive effects of nitrate supplementation on the O2 cost of submaximal exercise can be manifest acutely (ie, 2.5 h following a 6 mmol nitrate ‘bolus’) and this effect can be maintained for at least 15 days if supplementation at the same daily dose is continued.8 Because beetroot juice contains compounds other than nitrate that might also be bioactive, we have developed a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo. Nitrate-depleted beetroot juice had no physiological effects relative to a control condition, whereas nitrate-rich beetroot juice reduced the O2 cost of both walking and running and extended the time to exhaustion by 15%.9 Most recently, we have investigated the influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 4 and 16.1 km time trial (TT) performance in competitive cyclists.10 We found that cyclists were able to produce a greater power output for the same rate of pulmonary O2 uptake, resulting in a 2.7% reduction in the time to complete both the TT distances.
Collectively, recent studies5,–,10 13 indicate that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of physical activity and might enhance exercise performance. While these early findings are clearly of considerable interest to athletes, it is possible that clinical populations and older people may also benefit if dietary nitrate intake can be shown to reduce the O2 cost of the ‘activities of daily living’
"The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance." - Socrates
08-31-2012, 04:08 AM
08-31-2012, 04:37 AM
08-31-2012, 06:43 AM
08-31-2012, 07:21 AM
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