NEWSFLASH: HAIR TESTING CAN DETECT AAS:
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Hair analysis of seven bodybuilders for anabolic steroids, ephedrine, and clenbuterol.
Dumestre-Toulet V, Cirimele V, Ludes B, Gromb S, Kintz P.
Laboratoire BIOffice, Artigues Pres Bordeaux, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Several bodybuilders, all winners of international competitions, were arrested for trafficking of a number of doping agents including anabolic steroids, ephedrine, beta-adrenergics, human chorionic gonadotropin, antidepressants, and diuretics. In accordance with the recent French law against doping, the judge asked to test seven bodybuilders to identify doping practices. Hair and urine specimens were collected for analysis. After decontamination, a 100 mg hair strand was pulverized in a ball mill, hydrolyzed, extracted, and derivatized to be tested by GC/MS for anabolic steroids, beta-adrenergic compounds, ephedrine, and other doping agents. Urine was analyzed for anabolic steroids and metabolites, beta-adrenergic compounds, ephedrine, and human chorionic gonadotropin, in addition to a broad spectrum screening with GC/MS. The following compounds were detected in urine: ephedrine (29 and 36 ng/mL, n = 2), clenbuterol (0.2 to 0.3 ng/mL, n = 3), norandrosterone (4.7 to 100.7 ng/mL, n = 7), norethiocholanolone (0.9 to 161.8 ng/mL, n = 6), stanozolol (1 to 25.8 ng/mL, n = 4), methenolone (2.5 to 29.7 ng/mL, n = 4), testosterone (3 to 59.6 ng/mL, n = 7), epitestosterone (1 to 20.4 ng/mL, n = 7) and ratio testosterone/epitestosterone >6 for four subjects (18.5 to 59.6). The following drugs were detected in hair: ephedrine (0.67 and 10.70 ng/mg, n = 2), salbutamol (15 to 31 pg/mg, n = 3), clenbuterol (15 to 122 pg/mg, n = 6), nandrolone (1 to 7.5 pg/mg, n = 3), stanozolol (2 to 84 pg/mg, n = 4), methenolone (17 and 34 ng/ml, n = 2), testosterone enanthate (0.6 to 18.8 ng/mg, n = 5), and testosterone cypionate (3.3 to 4.8 ng/mg, n = 2). These results document the doping practice and demonstrate repetitive exposure to anabolic compounds and confirm the value of hair analysis as a complement to urinalysis in the control of doping practice.
PMID: 12064656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Androgenic/Anabolic steroid-induced toxic hepatitis.
Stimac D, Milic S, Dintinjana RD, Kovac D, Ristic S.
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia. email@example.com
Athletes and bodybuilders often misuse androgenic/anabolic steroids. When used in therapeutic doses, these drugs produce clinical jaundice in just a small number of recipients. We present a 26-year-old male bodybuilder who self-administered high doses of androgenic/anabolic steroids that induced liver damage. One month before admission to the hospital, he used testosterone enanthate (500 mg intramuscularly, twice weekly), stanozolol (40 mg/d), and methylandrostenediol (30 mg/d by mouth, for 5 weeks). On admission, his bilirubin level was 470 micromol/L (direct, 360 micromol/L), his aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was 5,870 IU/L, his alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was 10,580 IU/L, his alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was 152 IU/L, his gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase level was 140 IU/L, his albumin level was 27.6 g/L, and his prothrombin time was 29%. During the patient's prolonged hospitalization, multiple tests and liver biopsy were performed, showing only toxic hepatic lesions. The patient was provided with supportive medical treatment. Clinical signs and laboratory findings improved substantially 12 weeks after the patient discontinued androgenic/anabolic steroids. The reasons for presenting this case were the much higher values of AST and ALT levels than reported in other studies, although the values of bilirubin and ALP were similar to those found in the literature. To our knowledge, it is the first case of toxic hepatitis induced by androgenic/anabolic steroids with predominantly hepatocellular necrosis instead of intrahepatic cholestasis.