The physical state of a meal affects hormone release and postprandial thermogenesis. There is evidence that food consistency may influence postprandial physiological responses. Recently we found that homogenization of a vegetable-rich meal significantly delayed the gastric emptying rate and was more satiating than the same meal in solid-liquid form. In this present study we investigated whether homogenization also influences endocrine and metabolic responses to the meal. Eight healthy men, aged 21-28 (mean 24.5) years, were given the meal (cooked vegetables 250 g, cheese 35 g, croutons 50 g and olive oil 25 g, with water 300 ml; total energy 2.6 MJ) in both solid-liquid (SM) and homogenized (HM) form, in random order, at 1-week intervals. Variables assayed were plasma glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels for 2 h and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for 5 h. Plasma glucose pattern was similar after both meals. However, HM induced significantly greater insulin, GIP and DIT responses than SM.
Mean integrated areas under the curves (AUC) were 1.7 (SEM 0.38) v. 1.2 (SEM 0.33) U/l per 120 min (P = 0.005) for insulin, 19.9 (SEM 2.44) v. 16 (SEM 1.92) nmol/l per 120 min (P = 0.042) for GIP, and 237.7 (SEM 16.32) v. 126.4 (SEM 23.48) kJ/300 min (P = 0.0029) for DIT respectively. Differences between GIP-AUC after HM and SM correlated significantly with differences between insulin-AUC after HM and SM (r2 0.62, P = 0.021). These findings demonstrate that homogenization of a meal results in a coordinated series of changes of physiological gastroentero-pancreatic functions and confirm that the physical state of the meal plays an important role in modulating endocrine and metabolic responses to food