Taking steroids 101. A starters guide to steroids.

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  1. needtogetmuscle's Avatar
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    Taking steroids 101. A starters guide to steroids.


    Anti estrogen drugs not only help minimize side effects while on a steroid cycle, they are also extremely important in post cycle therapy.

    Anti Estrogen Drugs

    Anti Estrogen Drugs are used to reduce the estrogenic activity in the body. The drugs either reduce the estrogen or reduce the activity of the estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors work by inhibiting the action of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens into estrogens by a process called aromatization. In regards to anabolic steroids, they bind to the same binding site on the aromatase enzyme that testosterone does. In turn, less testosterone is converted to estrogen.

    Arimidex (Anastrozole) is what we call an aromatase inhibitor (AI). In clinical use, it´s used to halt the progression of Breast Cancer in women. It works by blocking the aromatase enzyme, which is responsible for the production of estrogen. In athletics and bodybuilding, it is used as an ancillary compound to be added to a cycle of Anabolic Steroids. In this respect it is also used for its estrogen reducing properties, but it has the additional benefit of increasing testosterone levels, as we´ll see...
    Arimidex Side Effects

    Many anabolic steroids aromatize (convert to estrogen via the aromatase enzyme), and this is responsible for many of the unwanted side effects found with anabolic steroid use (acne, gynocomastia, water-retention, etc...). In one study, both .5mg and 1mg doses of Arimidex were shown to decrease estrogen by roughly 50%. The 1mg/day dose also increased testosterone levels by 58% (1). In that same study, in both groups, LH and FSH also went up slightly.

    Take a look:

    Changes in testosterone and E2 concentrations in normal young men (15 22 yr old) before () and after 10 days of oral anastrozole at 0.5 and 1 mg.(1)

    This would seem to suggest that for use during a cycle, a dose of .5mgs/day would be sufficient to combat estrogen-related side effects. It is, however, important to remember that some estrogen is necessary to obtain optimal muscle growth. The lower estrogen levels provided by ´dex seems, anecdotally at least, to produce a more "hard" and "quality" look for bodybuilders who have experimented with it´s use in either a cutting or bulking cycle.

    I´d like to point out that the elevation in Testosterone provided by Arimidex is so large that it can be used as a "form" of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadal men (2). Clearly, this suggests its use in a post-cycle-therapy (as well as its previously discussed use within a cycle) to regain natural testosterone levels and full functioning of the HPTA (Hypothalamic-Testicular-Pituitary-Axis).

    Literature provided by the original maker of Anastrozole (Arimidex, produced by Zeneca Pharmaceuticals) states that stable blood plasma concentrations of the compound are achieved after a mere 7 consecutive 1mg daily doses. Also, Arimidex is just over 80% effective at inhibiting aromatase (3). Thus, if you want to take it for the entire duration of a cycle of anabolic steroids, you can simply start taking it on the same day you begin your cycle. Those are some pretty good numbers, huh?

    But can you use it for the entire duration of a cycle? Is it dangerous? Well, certainly reducing estrogen levels in your body is good from a body building point of view, as it reduces water-retention and the potential for gynocomastia (if there´s no estrogen in your body, you can´t get gyno, regardless of how much progesterone is floating around)(5). Luckily this stuff is very mild on blood lipids (cholesterol) and doesn´t affect them adversely (2), in the studies I´ve seen.
    Arimidex and Cholestrol

    As previously mentioned, those lowered estrogen levels could possibly (eventually) adversely affect your cholesterol and possibly even your immune function. I am, however, very comfortable recommending Arimidex for relatively long-term use. This should be the ancillary compound of choice for those on long and heavy cycles, especially since it also doesn´t inhibit igf like some other ancillary compounds (insulin-like-growth-factor is an important component of anabolism)(4).




    Chemical Name: Femara
    Drug Class: Type-II Aromatase Inhibitor
    Letrozole is Novartis’ entry into the breast cancer treatment world. It’s a Type-II Aromatase Inhibitor (AI), which means that it competitively binds to the aromatase enzyme and inhibits the enzyme’s ability to metabolize testosterone into estrogen. This drug was developed to fight breast cancer by inhibiting the aromatization.

    Letrozole is probably the most powerful Aromatase Inhibitor used by athletes today. It has been shown to reduce estrogen levels in women with breast cancer by 98% or more (1). SO clearly, it’s useful for administration to male steroid using athletes who are eager to prevent some of estrogen’s nastier effects on their bodies- development of breast tissue, water retention, etc…

    When we take a look at its effects in men, Letrozole actually reduced estrogen in one test subject to undetectable levels (2). In another clinical study, intravenous administration of Letrozole (2.5mcg for 28 days), Letrozole lowered Estrogen by 46% in the young men tested, and 62% in the elderly subjects. In addition, Letrozole also significantly increased LH levels to a whopping 339 and 323% in the young and the elderly, respectively and Testosterone by 146 and 99%, respectively. (3) Letrozole was also able to produce a peak LH response to Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone equal to a 152 and 52% increase from baseline in either young or older men, respectively.

    As you can see, Letrozole is a very powerful drug, and as a result, only very tiny doses are necessary. An effective daily dose of Letrozole for most people is usually about .25-.5mg/day, even though clinically, it is typically used at 2.5mgs/day. Twenty micrograms of Letro was enough, in one study done on men, to reduce estrogen levels by almost a third. (4)

    Letrozole’s effects on cholesterol are, really difficult to pin down precisely. They are, in the words of one researcher: "inconsistent.” I can tell you that in my opinion, reducing your bodies estrogen to virtually nothing, will eventually take its toll on your cholesterol profile, and will kill your sex drive and your joints- all of which require estrogen to function safely and effectively.

    Even if you take very low doses of Letrozole, it will build up to reasonable blood plasma levels, as it has a 2-4 day half-life, and this long half life also means you need to take Letrozole for 60 days to get a steady blood plasma level (5), and that it will take a very long time to clear out of your system.

    Letrozole is the only pharmacological “cure” for gyno that I know of to have ever worked in bodybuilders. In a study conducted on rodents, Letrozole was able to effectively destroy breast tissue tumors (6), and it’s also been effective on many bodybuilders who have used it to eliminate an existing case of gynocomastia. In my case, I used Letro to get rid of my own gyno, by starting with a dose of 2.5mgs/day and then lowering it by .25mcgs per week once my symptoms abated.

    With regards to using this stuff on a cycle, unless you are extremely gyno prone, or need to reduce estrogen levels to virtually nothing (for a bodybuilding contest or whatever), it’s going to be too powerful for most people. Male and female competitors typically use it to get the last bits of estrogen related water retention out of them during the final weeks of contest preparation. But when used on a typical cycle, Letro is generally overkill unless a ripped look with zero water and estrogen is desired or if the user is prone to gyno.


    Aromasin (Exemestane) is one of those weird compounds that nobody really knows what to do with. What we generally hear about it makes it very uninteresting…It’s a third generation Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) just like Arimidex (Anastrozole) and Femera (Letrozole). Both of those two drugs are very efficient at stopping the conversion of androgens into estrogen, and since we have them, why bother with Aromasin? It’s a little harder to get than the other two commonly used aromatase inhibitors, because it’s not in high demand, and there’s never been a readily apparent advantage to using it. And I mean…lets face it: It’s awkward-sounding. Aromasin doesn’t have much of a ring to it, and exemestane is even worse. Arimidex has a bunch of cool abbreviations ("A-dex" or just ‘dex) and even Letrozole is just "Letro" to most people. Where’s the cool nickname for Aromasin/exemestane? A-Sin? E-Stane? It just doesn’t work. It’s the black sheep of AIs. And why do we even need it when we have Letrozole, which is by far the most efficient AI for stopping aromatization (the process by which your body converts testosterone into estrogen)? Letro can reduce estrogen levels by 98% or greater; clinically a dose as low as 100mcgs has been shown to provide maximum aromatase inhibition (2)! So why would we need any other AIs? Well, first of all, estrogen is necessary for healthy joints (3) as well as a healthy immune system (4). So getting rid of 98% of the estrogen in your body for an extended period of time may not be the best of ideas. This may be useful on an extreme cutting cycle, leading up to a bodybuilding contest, or if you are particularly prone to gyno, but certainly can’t be used safely for extended periods of time without compromising your joints and immune system.

    So that leaves us with Arimidex, which isn’t as potent as Letrozole, but at .5mgs/day will still get rid of around half (50%) of the estrogen in your body. Problem solved, right? Use Arimidex on your typical cycles, and if you are very prone to gyno or are getting ready for a contest, use Letro.

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    BROMOCRIPTINE

    Dieting bites! Let’s just get that out of the way. Losing weight – particularly the kind of weight a bodybuilder needs to lose, is probably one of the hardest things a person can endeavor. Everyone’s a saboteur: You. Your friends. Your family who sets out a giant spread each time you come over to visit. Even your body wants to foil your attempts to make it look better.
    And that’s exactly the point here.

    Okay, so it doesn’t purposely want to sabotage you, but what you think is best for yourself cosmetically and what your body thinks is best, is usually opposite. So, it’s hard to get your body to shed weight without tricking, duping and pinning it into submission. It thinks poor little Billy Bodybuilder is starving, so it shuts poor Billy down and says, “I’ll protect you little Billy!” But alas, Billy says, “Dammit! I have a competition in 8 weeks, will you STOP????!”

    Your body thinks you should be perfectly happy at 12% body fat. It’ll even let you go to 10% without too much trouble. But try to go further and your body, your doctor and your family goes nuts!

    That’s where creative dieting and even drugs come into play. Sure, you can get down reasonably far with diet and exercise alone, but to maintain it or flip your metabolic rate, it’s nearly impossible. There’s also muscle loss, hormones going berserk, and other issues to deal with. We’ve all taken AAS, prohormones, fat burners, and other supplements to try to fix the problem. But nothing will help with that last 5-8% body fat, and the serious diet drugs could send us blazing into a room with an AK-47 and do something pretty out of character, if taken to the extreme.

    Thyroid meds are so yesterday. Cortisol blockers are only good if you take them with a perfect diet, perfectly, all the time and even then, not so good. But taking the drug Bromocriptine just may be the answer. It’s safe, legal, and relatively cheap.
    But how to beat the four biggest problems of losing body fat: ravenous hunger, metabolic log-jams, an increase in fat storage enzymes, and plummeting hormones? All will prevent you from achieving your ultimate goals. And even when you do lose the fat, losing it initially isn’t the problem, it’s losing it in the long term and keeping it off that is. And how can you beat your lifelong setpoint of weight? That appears to be a brain chemistry issue.
    How It Works:

    Bromocriptine decodes brain chemistry and supercedes all of the crashing hormones, fat storage enzymes, and faltering metabolism to lend the kind of success you’ve been seeking. It helps disguise that you are starving and prevents your brain from trying to prevent it.

    How it does that is by boosting dopamine levels, which decline with age. It also keeps prolactin from being produced out of control. Prolactin comes from the pituitary and isn’t desirable as you age since it suppresses your immune system and, most ghastly, is a fat synthesis hormone. It’s one reason you get fatter as you age.

    Bromocriptine also effects other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone. It increases growth hormone for those who have a normal concentration of it, and suppresses it in those who have an overabundance. So if you’re taking a ton of GH, don’t take Bromo. But if you are off season, Bromo is ideal for making great in roads to fat loss so you don’t have to work as hard when you start dieting for a competition and get on a big mass cycle.

    Back to dopamine and why Bromo works on fat loss in the first place. Since dopamine declines past the age of 40, by 13% per decade, it triggers the body to want to hang on to fat and protect you as you age from wasting away. But sadly, low dopamine levels also creates mental decline. Taking Bromo for mental acuity and sharpness is a great plan for anyone at this age and over.

    Bromocriptine is also being used in disease control and prevention, including cancer andType II Diabetes. In studies with rats who were fed a carcinogenic substance from tobacco known to cause breast cancer, the rats taking Bromo never developed it. Pretty significant.

    Diabetes patients taking Bromocriptine saw great results because it has been shown to suppress lypogenesis and improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance – both crucial to fat loss and the bodybuilder. But it also shows long term metabolic regulation, which can help prevent massive weight gains between competitions and mass and dieting cycles.
    Dosage:

    Take 1.25 to 2.5mg daily, unless treating a serious medical disorder where dosage may differ according to your physician’s guidance.

    Side effects:Nausea, dizziness, lowering of blood pressure, hypotension
    Bromocriptine also effects the most for the treatment of Type-II diabetes. This is because Bromocriptine has been shown to suppress lipogenesis and improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

    One animal study suggested that a further action of Bromocriptine is to alter the CNS (central nervous system) regulating metabolism, which helps to prevent weight gain.

    Bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist drug (meaning it acts like dopamine in the brain), primarily activating the dopamine D2 receptors. It's main use is for the treatment of high prolactin, Parkinson's disease, and acromegaly; it was also used by bodybuilders in the 80's for it's GH releasing properties. However, it's metabolic effects are far greater than that.

    In genetically obese rats, bromocriptine normalizes metabolism and there are many good reasons to think it will do the same in humans. Bromocriptine has use during dieting (to minimize the negative adaptations), muscle gain when very lean, and may be beneficial post-steroid cycle. It may also be useful for diabetes treatment and may have pro-sexual effects.

    Bromocriptine has a half-life of roughly 12-14 hours, and dosing is 2.5-5 mg/day taken in the morning.


    Dostinex (Cabergoline) is a dopamine agonist. Dopamine is a chemical, found in the brain, which transmits nerve impulses and is involved in the formation of epinephrine. More likely than not, this is why the Life-Extentionistas are very big on this drug. Dopamine is also released by the hypothalamus, and hormone can inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary, so given all the bad things that we have already seen to be a result of excess. If you use anabolic steroids, Dostinex will help you reduce the chance of any of these prolactin related side-effects. It has actually been shown in numerous studies to have a very high success rate in lowering prolactin and prolactin related conditions and side-effects (1) (2).In fact, for management of hyperprolactinemia and it’s symptoms (got milk?), Dostinex is the preferred treatment in terms of effectiveness as well as having very few undesirable side effects (3). It does this very well for both men and women, it should be noted…almost identically actually (4)

    Since it lowers prolactin very efficiently, Dostinex will even get rid sexual dysfunction caused by excess prolactin (5) (which is (anecdotally at least) highly correlative with the use of certain steroids like the Nandrolones and Trenbolones (Deca and Tren). This is great news for everyone who loves Tren and Deca, because those two steroids are really great additions to almost any cycle- but many people avoid using them because of the possibility of them causing impotence (often called “deca ****”).

    Using Dostinex will allow you to include steroids like Tren and Deca in any cycle- and even combine them in the same cycle- without worrying about sexual dysfunction. In fact…even if you aren’t experiencing any sort of sexual dysfunction, Dostinex will shorten the time you need to recover and gain an erection between orgasms, and can significantly enhance all parameters of sexual drive and function (6). In other words, if you’re not worried about sexual issues and you take Dostinex anyway…it’ll still help you out in bed. And from what I have heard, it’s well worth the money for that effect.

    Of course you can actually use Dostinex safely for an extended amount of time (many studies go on for months if not years, and its efficacy and safety are well documented), but women need to be more careful than men, and certainly need to discontinue using it if they’re pregnant or trying to conceive. SO Dostinex can help you, the average steroid user, by combating gyno-like effects, as well as galactorrhea, and sexual dysfunction. Sounds great, right? Of course it is…but since Dostinex is a dopamine agonist, which means it’s good for a whole lot more.

    You see Dopamine is what’s called a monoamine, which is naturally produced in the body by modifying an amino acid.

    Dopamine
    And it’s this structure which makes it very interesting to us. Dostinex as you already know is what’s known as a dopamine “agonist”- or substance that triggers a response in a specific body tissue or group of cells by binding to specific receptor on or inside the cells, as if it were actually the bodily substance that usually binds to that receptor. Probably the one that most people are familiar with, with regards to agonists is ephedrine, which is an andrenergic agonist. This is why ephedrine makes you feel “wired”…it “feels” like adrenaline to your body. Cabergoline is a dopamine agonist…which makes it “feel” like dopamine to your body.

    Dostinex
    So what does that mean? Well, in the brain, dopamine helps control the flow of information from other areas of the brain. So a dopamine agonist will help you process information more quickly, and possibly improve your memory also. Some athletes use Dostinex because it helps them learn new motor skills more quickly and thus they can learn new techniques or plays at a faster rate than their competition; needless to say this gives the athletes using Dostinex a huge advantage over their competition. This ability to work on your bodies information pathways and nervous system are doubtless why it’s been successfully been used to fight Parkinsons disease (7)(8).

    But does this actually work in real athletes? Well, actually, that’s why I started reading about Dostinex. See, I have the fortune of being able to basically call some of the most famous strength coaches in the world whenever I want. And, recently the last time I spoke to one about training and anabolic steroids, I asked him about different training programs for a person on steroids- and his answer said that it depends on whether that person was taking a nootropics or not. And as you may remember, Dostinex is a nootropic. It was that conversation that made me really take a closer look at Dostinex. And of course, that strength coach told me that his athletes have used nootropics with great success. The down side of knowing internationally renowned strength coaches is that their sense of humor is usually a little off, and if you have the fortune of being able to pick their brains on training, you also invariably have the misfortune of ending up on their group e-mail list which gets you a whole host of bizarre forwarded e-mails…

    In fact, when you don’t have enough dopamine, you may even have difficulty concentrating…low dopamine levels have also been cited as a possible underlying cause for Attention deficit disorder (ADD) and Attention deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In fact, many several medications used to treat ADD and ADHD will also serve to stimulate dopaminergic, and this could be one of their possible mechanisms of action.

    Dopamine is also what’s called a “pleasure chemical”…it’s usually released by your body when you experience a rewarding experience such as eating your favorite food, having sex, winning the lottery….whatever. Interestingly, since this “happy” effect is felt when you are satiated from food, it’s highly possible that Dopamine agonists will cause you to feel “full” more often and decrease desire for food without the discomfort that dieting usually brings. Dopamine is released when you eat a nice big meal…so…a dopamine agonist like Dostinex may make you not want to eat as much, and help you feel full even if you don’t eat enough. Dostinex, therefore, may be of great interest to precontest bodybuilders and other dieters, who want to avoid some of the discomfort and anxiety that calorie restriction can bring.

    Certain recreational drugs also have a lot to do with their effects on dopamine. Cocaine is what is known as a dopamine transporter blocker; what this means is that it competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the amount of time released dopamine is active in your body. This makes you feel good, while the dopamine is floating around your body. Methamphetamine is another illicit (illegal) recreational drug that acts on dopamine as well. It actually serves to competitively inhibit dopamine uptake as well as increasing dopamine flow through a dopamine transporter pathway. That’s how those drugs make you “feel good.” Dostinex is, of course, neither physically nor mentally addictive, but since it is a dopamine agonist, its users often experience an enhanced positive sense of well being. So besides helping with all of the things discussed earlier, Cabergoline will also just make you feel damn good.

    So now that I told you about it, I’ll tell you how much Dostinex do you need to start experiencing these effects…or basically, how I’m going to use it, now that I did all this research on it!

    From the reading I’ve done, you only need about half a milligram (1/2mg) a week to experience all of the anti-prolactin, prosexual, antidepressant, and cognitive effects of Dostinex, but that’s on the very low end of the effectiveness scale. This stuff has an extremely long active life in the body, so once a week dosing is fine…but if it were me, and I were taking this stuff, I’d probably be using about .25mgs-.5mgs twice a week.

    It should be taken before bed-time, because it may actually help you sleep a bit better, (9), Can be taken with or without food and not alter the pharmacokinetics (how it functions in your body) (10), and (incidentally) according to the literature is a much more efficient drug than Bromocriptine (11).
    I think once people find out about this drug, it’s going to find it’s way into quite a few bodybuilders’ cycles alongside Tren, Deca, or both…and athletes are going to take advantage of it’s uses for skill acquisition and motor co-ordination help…and all the other stuff…the prosexual properties and general “feel good” properties of Dostinex make it a great choice for anyone interested in …err…feeling good and having better sex…which I suspect is basically everyone, not just bodybuilders and athletes. I guess I should have paid more attention to this stuff when it started appearing on those Life-Extension club pricelists a decade ago…but at least I figured it out now….even if I happen to be a bit late on this one.

    Cabergoline is the chemical name of active ingredient in Dostinex. Dostinex is a registered trademark of Pfizer Inc. in the United States and/or other
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    Bromocriptine was by far THE most lethargic feeling I have ever had in my life. FAR worse than DNP.
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    Ok I am going to throw this little pile of info right in the middle of it all. For any of you asking the question..."should I, can I drink Alcohol during my steroid cycle?"

    NO NO AND NO NO and here is many reason why. Ya Ok a few drinks once or twice during the whole cycle maybe. But if you got a habit then stop the habit before you pick up the needle.


    INTRODUCTION

    Ethyl alcohol or ethanol, known commonly as alcohol, is the same whether the beverage is wine, beer, or hard liquor. Beverage alcohol is a drug that depresses the central nervous system, like barbiturates, sedatives, and anesthetics. Alcohol is not a stimulant. There is no question that the person who drinks alcohol seems stimulated. Speech becomes free and animated, social inhibitions may be forgotten, and the drinker can begin to act and feel more emotional. But these effects are misleading; the "stimulation" occurs only because alcohol affects those portions of the brain that control judgment. "Being stimulated" by alcohol actually amounts to a depression of self-control. A principal effect of alcohol is to slow down brain activity, and depending on what, how much, and how fast a person drinks, the result is slurred speech, hazy thinking, slowed reaction time, dulled hearing, impaired vision, weakened muscles and fogged memory. Certainly not a stimulating experience!

    Alcohol is also classified as a food because it contains calories. The average drink has about the same calorie count as a large potato but, unlike a potato or any other food, alcohol has no nutritional value. The calories are empty.

    PHYSIOLOGY

    Basics of alcohol metabolism:

    Alcohol is not digested like other foods. Instead of being converted and transported to cells and tissues, it avoids the normal digestive process and goes directly to the blood stream. About 20 percent of the alcohol is absorbed directly into the blood through the stomach walls and 80 percent is absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine.

    Alcohol dilutes itself in the water volume of the body in order to travel through the system. Those vital organs, like the brain, that contain a lot of water and need an ample blood supply are particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. Alcohol's dilution in the body does cut its effect somewhat. There one important biological difference between men and women comes into play: Muscle tissue contains more water than fat tissue, so men -- who have more muscle and less fat on the average than women -- can have about 10 percent more water in their bodies. If a lean man and a lean woman of equal weight consume the same amount of liquor, the woman is more adversely affected for this and other reasons.

    The initial impact of alcohol:

    The brain, liver, heart, pancreas, lungs, kidneys, and every other organ and tissue system are infiltrated by alcohol within minutes after it passes into the blood stream. The strength of the drink will have a significant effect on absorption rates, with higher concentrations of alcohol resulting in more rapid absorption. Pure alcohol is generally absorbed faster than diluted alcohols, which are, in turn, absorbed faster than wine or beer.

    Alcohol taken in concentrated amounts can irritate the stomach lining to the extent that it produces a sticky mucous which delays absorption. The pylorus valve which connects the stomach and small intestine may go into spasm in the presence of concentrated alcohol, trapping the alcohol in the stomach instead of passing it on to the small intestine where it would be more rapidly absorbed into the blood stream. The drinker who downs several straight shots in an effort to get a quick high may actually experience a delayed effect. Finally, the temperature of the beverage affects its absorption, with warm alcohol being absorbed more rapidly than cold alcohol.

    Measurement of effect by blood alcohol level (BAL):

    The drinker's blood alcohol level rises as a factor of the relationship among the amount of alcohol consumed, body size and proportion of body fat, the amount of food in the stomach, and what is mixed with the alcohol. The BAL rises more rapidly in those who drink on an empty stomach. Water and fruit juices slow the absorption process, while carbon dioxide speeds it up. The carbon dioxide in champagne and carbonated mixers such as Cola, and soda water rushes through the stomach and intestinal walls into the blood stream, carrying alcohol with it and creating a rapid rise in BAL. A 0.08 BAL, for example, indicates approximately 8 parts alcohol to 10,000 parts other blood components. When a person drinks more alcohol than his or her body can eliminate, alcohol accumulates in the blood stream and the BAL rises.

    Elimination of alcohol from a healthy adult body occurs at an average rate of approximately ˝ to 3/4 ounce per hour, the equivalent of 1 ounce of 100-proof whiskey, one large beer, or about 3 to 4 ounces of wine. When blood alcohol concentrations reach very high levels, the brain's control over the respiratory system may be paralyzed. A .30 BAL is the minimum level at which death can occur; at .40 the drinker may lapse into a coma. At .50 BAL, respiratory functions and heartbeat slow drastically, and at .60 most drinkers are dead.

    BODY SYSTEMS AND EFFECTS

    The Liver:

    Located in the upper-right side of the abdomen, the liver is the body's largest glandular organ. Its complex functions are associated with dozens of processes of body chemistry and metabolism. It produces the bile that helps digest fatty foods; it manufactures heparin, an anticoagulant, it stores and releases sugar. The liver also produces antibodies that help ward off disease, and it cleanses the body of poisons, including alcohol. With small amounts of alcohol, this cleansing can happen effectively. When the amount of alcohol is high, imbalances are created which can lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), hyperuricemia (as in arthritis or gout), fatty liver (which may lead to hepatitis or cirrhosis), and hyperlipemia (build-up of fats sent to the bloodstream; which leads to heart problems).

    The Central Nervous System:

    The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves originating from it. Sensory impulses are transmitted to the CNS and motor impulses pass from it. When alcohol acts on the CNS, intoxication occurs, affecting emotional and sensory function, judgment, memory and learning ability. Smell and taste are dulled. The ability to withstand pain increases as the BAL rises.

    Different parts of the brain seem to be affected by alcohol at different rates, creating alternate periods of restlessness and stupor. Long-term effects of alcohol on the central nervous system include tolerance, dependency, and irreversible damage. Changes in tolerance for alcohol, and the alcoholic drinker's dependency on alcohol, demonstrate that changes occur in the brain.

    With each drinking episode, central nervous system functions deteriorate in a predictable sequence, beginning with intellectual functioning, followed by disturbances in sensory and motor control. Last affected are the automatic biological functions, such as breathing and heart action.

    The brain is the organ that is most affected by alcohol, and proves that it is being damaged through the drinker's behavior changes and emotional distress. Three noticeable effects of alcohol injury to the brain: memory loss, confusion, and augmentation. (Augmentation is a physiological response to alcohol which results in hyper-alertness to normal situations, perceiving light as brighter or sounds as louder than usual, or the drinker’s becoming extremely sad or angry for no apparent reason.) The drinker's rapid mood swings and emotional and behavioral instability can be brought under control by stopping drinking.

    Blackouts, or loss of memory for a period during drinking, are a physical effect of alcohol on the brain. They occur as alcohol cuts off the supply of oxygen to the brain. Lack of oxygen supply to the brain can kill tens of thousands of brain cells every time a person becomes intoxicated.

    Another effect of alcohol on the brain is the "learned behavior syndrome"; when a behavior is learned under the influence of alcohol, the drinker sometimes must re-learn that behavior after stopping drinking.

    The Blood:

    One effect of drinking alcohol is "blood-sludging" where the red blood cells clump together causing the small blood vessels to plug up, starve the tissues of oxygen, and cause cell death. This cell death is most serious, and often unrecognized, in the brain. With this increased pressure, capillaries break, create red eyes in the morning, or the red, blotchy skin seen on the heavy drinker's face. Blood vessels can also break in the stomach and eso****us leading to hemorrhage, even death.

    Other effects of alcohol on the blood include: anemia; sedation of the bone marrow (which reduces the red and white blood count, and weakens the bone structure); lowered resistance to infection; and a decrease in the ability to fight off infections.

    The Gastrointestinal Tract:

    The stomach, the small and large intestines, and the pancreas are each affected by alcohol. Alcohol increases acid in the stomach. That can result in gastritis or stomach or intestinal ulcers. The pancreas produces insulin which is necessary to regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. Drinking causes a steep rise in the blood sugar; the pancreas responds by producing insulin which causes a fast drop in blood sugar and the symptom of low blood sugar or hypoglycemia. 70-90% of alcoholics suffer to some degree from the disorder of hypoglycemia, chronic low blood sugar, as a long term effect of their drinking. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can include dizziness, headaches, lack of ability to concentrate, depression, anxiety, light-headedness, tremors, cold sweats, heart palpitations, loss of coordination, and upset stomach. In time, the drinker's overworked pancreas may stop producing insulin and diabetes can result. Conversely, a person with a family history of diabetes may be more vulnerable to problems with alcohol.

    The Muscles:

    Alcohol reduces blood flow to the muscles, including the heart, causing muscle weakness and deterioration. One outcome is cardiomyopathy (sluggish heart) which is common in alcoholics. Another outcome, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), or "holiday heart,"is often treated in emergency wards after several days of party drinking. Muscle aches are a common symptom of excessive-drinking "hangovers."

    The Endocrine System:

    This system controls the body's hormones and includes the pineal, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, and the ovaries or testes. Alcohol sedates these glands, resulting in under-production of hormones; effects include increased susceptibility to allergies. Alcohol can effect sexual functioning in various ways. In low doses, it lowers inhibitions and may make a person feel sexier; but in higher doses, it can decrease sexual functioning: in men, by decreasing the frequency of erections, decreasing the maintenance of erections, decreasing penile size during erection, and increasing the amount of time between erections, in women by interfering with normal processes of sexual stimulation, and blocking orgasmic response. With chronic and prolonged use of alcohol in men, there is a shrinkage of sex glands and an increase of the "female hormone" estrogen. This produces secondary sexual characteristics, such as enlarged breasts and a decrease in body hair. Prolonged use of alcohol can cause infertility in both men and women.

    TERMS TO UNDERSTAND

    Tolerance: As people drink, their tolerance for alcohol may increase. They might seem to be able to "handle" alcohol better and need more to achieve the same effect as before. The liver does not become more tolerant, and is damaged over the course of time, leading to poor liver function and a noticeable decrease in tolerance, or "reverse-tolerance". A heavy drinker's reverse-tolerance is a sign of late-stage alcoholism.

    Withdrawal: The effects of alcohol on the body account for the sick, uncomfortable, shaky feelings following a period of drinking. Withdrawal symptoms vary in intensity according to the amount and prolonged frequency of drinking.

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include:

    * hangovers -- fairly common result of overindulging-- headache, fatigue, thirst, and nervousness. There may be nausea and abdominal cramping. Diagnosed alcoholics report fewer hangovers than drinkers who are non-alcoholic, this may be because they have learned to ignore the symptoms.
    * sleep disturbance -- waking up earlier than usual after expecting to "sleep it off," being unable to fall asleep, disturbed dreaming.
    * irritability, anxiety, and restlessness -- all caused by the irritant effects of alcohol.
    * tremors, or "morning shakes"-- Tremors will clear after several days of abstinence, if there is no permanent damage to the nervous system

    * physical weakness, rapid heart rate,
    * mental sluggishness
    * difficulty thinking clearly or flexibly

    All the above are lingering evidence of alcohol's impact on muscles, heart and brain.

    For the drinker with only a mild degree of physical dependence, withdrawal effects may not extend beyond the symptoms listed above.

    Some drinkers experience second stage withdrawal, marked by:

    * convulsions -- seizures usually occur between 12 and 48 hours of the last drink. There may be a loss of consciousness and body control.

    Third stage withdrawal symptoms involve:

    * alcoholic hallucinosis and delirium tremens -- auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations occur. This period may last for three to four days, during which the de-toxifying person is in a severe state of agitation, is often completely disoriented and sleeps little, if at all. The delusions are almost always terrifying and may produce violent behavior. There is a 10%-20% mortality rate associated with this stage of withdrawal. Detoxification of the acutely ill alcoholic requires medical supervision.

    SPECIAL CONCERNS OF WOMEN

    Female drinkers reach higher blood alcohol levels (BAL's) faster because of less water and more fat in the body and because of differences in digestive enzymes. Women develop alcohol-related disorders such as brain damage, cirrhosis and cancers at lower levels of drinking than men. It is also known that the menstrual cycle affects alcohol metabolism in women. Women have been shown to develop their highest BAL's immediately before menstruating, and their lowest on the first day of menstruation. This can be related to hormone level shifts. There is evidence which shows that premenstrual syndrome with its emotional and physical discomfort and de-stabilized blood-sugar levels can trigger excessive drinking by some women.

    FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS) and FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECT (FAE)

    Women who drink during pregnancy risk the development of both mental and physical defects in their children. Effects on the child can include: growth deficiencies; poorly formed bones and organs, heart abnormalities, cleft palate, retarded intellect, delayed motor development, poor coordination, behavior problems, and learning disabilities. Smoking cigarettes, combined with alcohol use, will increase the chance of birth defects. Use of alcohol increases the chance of miscarriage. It is best that a woman avoid alcohol, cigarettes, caffeine, and other drugs entirely during pregnancy. Antabuse is not a suitable treatment for the pregnant or potentially pregnant alcoholic woman; it interferes with maternal liver function and may cause harm to the developing fetus.

    Since harm to the infant may result even before a woman realizes that she is pregnant, women who might become pregnant need to be particularly cautious about what they consume.

    NUTRITIONAL OVERVIEW

    Secondary Diabetes: Diabetes can result from prolonged, excessive use of alcohol. Because it is caused by drinking and not from a genetic disorder, it is called "secondary" diabetes. The symptoms are identical to genetic or "primary" diabetes. Abstinence from alcohol is a vital part of treatment for this disorder.

    Vitamins and Proteins: Those who use alcohol excessively deprive their bodies of essential nutrients. The drinker and the recovering alcoholic must pay special attention to diet. A diet high in protein not only provides many of the nutrients vital to recovery, but also keeps the blood sugar from too rapid change. It is better for those who drank excessively to get protein from eggs, milk, or vegetables, than from meats or cheeses. Because of an already-fatty liver, excessive drinkers cannot process the extra fat. When they eat meat, fruit should be eaten; it aids in breaking down fats. Vitamin supplements are helpful for people with drinking problems: these include, vitamins A, B, C and E. Protein supplementation may be important to reducing alcohol craving and maintaining emotional balance for alcoholics wanting to recover from their past heavy drinking. Similarly, a diet high in complex carbohydrates stabilizes blood glucose and reduces the low blood sugar state that can lead to craving alcohol. Understanding one's own special
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    I am going to come back to this post later when I have more time. I have come to realise that there is no official Post Cycle Therapy or cookie cutter once size fits all pct for all cycles. Pct,pree pct,bridging for all different cycles is way more then something one cookie cutter official Post Cycle Therapy can cover.

    So I will cover many different cycles,length of cycles,compounds used,what can be used on cycle,what can be used during cycle,what can be used for pct, methods of pre pct, methods of bridging and more. I think the members of ef diserve much more then a cookie cutter pct.

    In the mean time if you need pct advice just send me a pm and I would be more then happy to help you.


    First off I would like to say if you cant sit through something like this and read the whole thing. Then you really have no business taking these kinds od drugs in the first place. You also have no business making a comment on this thread ether. Thanks.

    What Is Nolvadex/Tamoxifen?

    Tamoxifen is considered as the antagonist of the estrogen receptor which again is primarily present in the breast tissue of the human body. It is interesting to note that certain breast cancer cells require that the estrogen levels need to grow with passing time. Ideally, Tamoxifen has been used as the standard endocrine for the treatment of early breast cancer patients. It is therefore used as an anti estrogen therapy and it is mainly given to postmenopausal women. The role of an estrogen is to bind as well as activate the estrogen receptors that are present in the breast cells of a human body. The role of Tamoxifen is to stop estrogen to bind with the receptor. Although it is metabolized into compounds that aid in the binding of estrogen receptors, Tamoxifen does not allow the estrogen receptors to get activated in the breast cells of the human body. Hence, the growth of breast cancer cells can be stopped by making use of this compound. Nonetheless, results vary from person to person and the use of Tamoxifen cannot be deduced as a permanent cure for breast cancer patients.

    It is ideally a drug which is taken orally in the form of an edible tablet and it is known to interfere with the activity of the estrogen levels present in the breast tissue. It has been studied that unless the estrogen levels in the human body are kept under strict control, they can lead to breast cancer. Tamoxifen has primarily been used for the past 30 years for treating patients suffering from breast cancer. It has also been administered to patients who are in their early stages of breast cancer. Even patients whose breast cancer has spread to various parts of the body have been known to use Tamoxifen on a regular basis. It has been stated that this drug has the ability to stop cancer cells from spreading within the human body but ironically there is no substantial study which clearly backs this statement with the help of substantial proof. Nonetheless, owing to the hype that it has received via media, people who are having breast cancer or those women who run the risk of developing breast cancer have been known to take this medicine on a regular basis. Interestingly, it has also been seen that women who are suffering from ductul carcinoma in stu, which in turn is similar to invasive breast cancer, have also been known to administer this medicine on a regular basis.

    In the past 20 years steroid users have been using nolvadex for a number of reasons. To ether help reduce bloat or gyno problems during a cycle or after a cycle to help recovery natural test production. In men, tamoxifen "nolvaldex" is sometimes used by steroid-taking, weight-training athletes.An alternative and highly similar compound is clomiphene citrate "clomid". These drugs are used as anti-estrogen therapy. In this regard, the drug is used for three purposes. The first purpose, is to reduce the effect of circulating estrogens even if Tamoxifen itself increase the circulating level of estrogens since they are not bound to the estrogen receptors. Abnormally high levels of estrogen in men, can be caused by taking highly aromatizing anabolic steroids e.g. Dianabol, Anadrol or Testosterone. In dosing with a dosing with 20 mg of Novaldex (Tamoxifen) for the duration of a steroid cycle, a reduction in water retention can be achieved. This prevents large fluctuations in water weight within the muscle.

    Using Tamoxifen for the duration of a steroid cycle may or may not promote a preferable outcome for a weight training athlete, as the temporary increase in water weight within the muscle increases strength and allows larger weights to be used for the duration of the steroid cycle. Said water will dissipate once usage of steroids has ceased, and a dramatic loss in weight can be observed. Tamoxifen is also used to prevent estrogen related gynecomastia, resulting from elevated estrogenic levels. It can be taken as a preventative measure in small doses, or used at the onset of any symptoms e.g. nipple soreness/sensitivity. In the latter case, dosing reverses the affliction

    However it Is now well known that well taking nolvadex serum level estrogen raises and yet another drug must be taken with it during cycle,during pct,or after pct to prevent estrogen rebound. (how retarded). Studies have of course shown the its use can cause a rise in lh and test production but at what cost? Many other factors must be taken into account.

    All this is happening in complete ignorance as they are not aware that this medicine has certain side effects that can prove fatal in the longer run. At the same time robbing ones self of a better pct and cycle from using drugs like this.
    Though I do feel its "ok" to use them "if you must" but use as little as you can and use support/pct sups to help alleviate the side effects and bad feelings one gets from these harsh drugs.

    Where Was This drug Discovered?

    Interestingly, this drug was discovered by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals which were earliest known as ICI pharmaceuticals. It is now sold under various trade names such as Nolvadex, Valodex and Istubal. Although it is sold under various names, it is primarily known and popularly termed as Tamoxifen. Although this drug is widely used in treating breast cancer patients, it also has adverse side effects which very few people are actually aware off.

    Once praised for its benefits in preventing breast cancer recurrence, the lucrative pharmaceutical drug tamoxifen is now implicated in causing dangerous side-effects, including other types of cancers.

    In the early 1970's, a shameful chapter closed on the widespread use of a known carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting drug called DES (diethylstilboestrol), the first synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen drug. Against the advice of its creator, Sir Charles Dodd, between four and six million American and European women and 10,000 Australian women innocently used DES for the prevention of miscarriage and pregnancy complications.

    In addition, DES became a popular though unproven drug for a variety of other conditions. It was used for the suppression of lactation, the treatment of acne, the treatment of certain types of breast and prostatic cancer, and as an inhibitor of growth in young girls, an estrogen replacement in menopause and a "morning after" pill.

    It would take 30 years to accept what laboratory tests had indicated as early as 1938 — that DES was a highly dangerous and harmful drug. It was reported that, 20 years after taking DES, mothers had a 40 to 50 per cent greater risk of breast cancer than non-exposed mothers. In addition, the children of DES mothers showed a high incidence of reproductive abnormalities, miscarriages, vaginal cancer, testicular cancer, sterility and immune dysfunction. In fact, it is feared that repercussions of this drug will be felt for generations to come.

    The irony of this entire debacle is that the medical establishment finally acknowledged that DES was useless in preventing miscarriages. Thus, DES, another disastrous experiment on women, was added to the long list of major medical blunders.

    Out of this early research, a new drug appeared on the horizon which would be soon be heralded as a shining star in the war against the growing epidemic of breast cancer. In the late 1960's the pharmaceutical industry developed a drug called "tamoxifen". As a synthetic, non-steroidal compound with hormone-like effects (many of which are poorly understood), tamoxifen has a similar structure to DES. In fact, it was observed that tamoxifen caused the same abnormal changes seen in cells of women taking estradiol and DES. This similarity raised alarm bells for some.

    Pierre Blais, well known as a drug researcher who was ejected from Canada's health protection bureaucracy when he spoke out about silicone breast implants, describes the story of tamoxifen as "the story of modern drug design which produces garbage drugs". He says, "Good drug design ceased, unfortunately, in the 1930s." Tamoxifen, Blais asserts, "...is a garbage drug that made it to the top of the scrap heap. It is a DES in the making."

    Blais's dire predictions were ignored with the promise of a potential drug treatment for breast cancer. Tamoxifen was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a birth-control pill; however, it proved to induce rather than inhibit ovulation.(just goes to show how retarded they truly are) Although tamoxifen didn't work as a contraceptive, it was found to lower mammary cancer rates in animals. Animal studies showed that tamoxifen prevented estrogen from binding to receptor sites on breast tissue cells. Tamoxifen also reduced the incidence of breast cancer in rodents after administration of a breast-carcinogenic substance. This discovery provided the impetus to study its effects in treating human breast cancer.

    Estrogen is the common link between most breast cancer risk factors, i.e., genetic, reproductive, dietary, lifestyle and environmental. It both stimulates the division of breast cells (healthy as well as cancerous) and, especially in its 'bad' form, increases the risk of breast cancer. Thus, hormonal drugs such as tamoxifen that block the effects of estrogen on the breast were expected to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurring in women treated for breast cancer.

    Tamoxifen acts as a weak estrogen by competing for estrogen receptors much as phyto-estrogens do
    (I want you to keep this word PHYTO ESTROGENS IN MIND WE WILL COVER IT AGAIN LATER). Like phyto-estrogens, tamoxifen has mild estrogenic properties but is considered an anti-estrogen since it inhibits the activity of regular estrogens. More accurately, tamoxifen is an estrogen-blocker(Not a estrogen reducer)
    http://joe.endocrinology-journals.or...tract/73/1/171

    Yes the test shows over time that both lh and androgins were raised, but at the same time (serum level estrogen was tripled)and thus the reason many experence rebound gyno after its use.

    Tamoxifen fights breast cancer by competing with estrogen for space on estrogen receptors in the tumor tissue. Every tamoxifen molecule that hooks onto an estrogen receptor prevents an estrogen molecule from linking up at the same site. Without a steady supply of estrogen, cells in an estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) tumor do not thrive and the tumor's ability to spread is reduced.

    However, tamoxifen exhibited two conflicting characteristics. It could act either as an anti-estrogen or as an estrogen. Therefore, while tamoxifen is anti-estrogenic to the breast, it also acts as an estrogen to the uterus and, to a lesser extent, the heart, blood vessels and bone. Moreover tamoxifen also acts as an estrogen in the liver thus causing the lowering of IGF-1
    In This Issue -- 82 (21): 1661 -- JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
    http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cg.../49/7/1882.pdf
    Effect of low dose tamoxifen on the insulin-like growth factor system in healthy women
    Comparison of Tamoxifen and Testosterone Propionate in Male Rats: Differential Prevention of Orchidectomy Effects on Sex Organs, Bone Mass, Growth, and the Growth Hormone-IGF-I Axis -- Fitts et al. 25 (4): 523 -- Journal of Andrology

    For people suffering from breast cancer I guess this would be a good thing. Since Lowering IGF would reduce the growth of everything. However this is not one any of the people using nolva for pct or on cycle use want now is it?

    So, although it initially showed the tendency to counter breast cancer recurrence, it would soon be revealed that it also promoted particularly aggressive uterine and liver cancers, caused fatal blood clots and interfered with many other functions.

    Doctors, however, were quick to jump on the tamoxifen bandwagon, turning a blind eye to its more injurious tendencies. Starting in the 1970's oncologists began using tamoxifen to treat women with cancer, often in combination with other drugs, radiation or surgery such as lumpectomy and mastectomy, with modest success. Like DES, tamoxifen's benefits were then extended for use as a preventive against osteoporosis and heart disease.

    Today, doctors are treating about one million American breast cancer patients with tamoxifen, about 20 per cent of them for more than five years. As studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1989 and the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in 1992 showed, women with breast cancer who took tamoxifen reduced their chances of developing cancer in the other breast (contralateral cancer) by about 30 to 50 per cent. These findings would later be challenged.

    Tamoxifen is now recommended for all pre-menopausal women with hormone-positive cancers, as well as for most postmenopausal women with breast cancer and/or a growing number of women with hormone-negative cancers. Tamoxifen is currently used by more women with breast cancer than any other drug.

    Tamoxifen (brand name Nolvadex) is now the most widely prescribed cancer medication in the world. It generated revenues of US $265 million in 1992. By 1995, worldwide sales of Nolvadex reached $400 million. (7) And at AUD $90 for one month's supply, it doesn't come cheap (the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme covers $70).
    Global sales of tamoxifen in 2001 were $1,024 million.[54] Since the expiration of the patent in 2002, it is now widely available as a generic drug around the world. Barr Labs Inc had challenged the patent (which in 1992 was ruled unenforcable) but later came to an agreement with Zeneca to licence the patent and sell tamoxifen at close to Zeneca's price.[55] As of 2004, tamoxifen was the world's largest selling hormonal drug on record and off record may be the number 1 selling drug in word of all time to date. So we are truly talking about billions in revenue world wide for drug companies,sources,ug's and more. Money is at the root of this drug and why its so heavily pushed on all forums by everyone. Its cheap to make and it brings in billions plain and simple.

    These numbers are nothing compared to what this drug now makes for the drug companies,sources.ug's selling it. So you can bet your life they will make sure every test and study in the world is published to make sure its seen in a good light. This not even including its "off label use" Ie all us men using it for on cycle and pct. The use of the drug for this reason triples its sales and you can just emagen the amount of money its making. You do the math my friends!. At this very moment 500000000 sources and people with monitary ties to this drug are out there pushing like crazy to make sure you and everyone else keeps its use for pct alive. This is the #1 reason why we have not given up on this years ago.

    Tamoxifen was developed by UK-based Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), one of the world's largest multinational chemical corporations. Zeneca, an ICI subsidiary, is responsible for manufacturing and marketing the hormone and is now the world's largest cancer-drug company.
    CARCINOGENENIC EFFECTS
    It wasn't long before laboratory studies showed that tamoxifen acted as a carcinogen. It has been found that tamoxifen binds tightly and irreversibly to DNA, the genetic blueprint of a cell, causing a cancerous mutation to take place. Even Australia's conservative National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) warned that no amount of tamoxifen is safe when it comes to carcinogenic effects.

    In California there is a law called "Proposition 65" that requires the state to publish and maintain a list of all known carcinogens. In May 1995, the state's Carcinogen Identification Committee voted unanimously to add tamoxifen to its list.

    When research is done on anti-cancer drugs (such as SERMs), the aim is to find a drug that prolongs life, with the least amount of acute side-effects. In other words, the goal isn’t so much about finding a cure, as it is finding something that can alleviate the symptoms and/or prolong life.

    When it comes to steroid users so many are willing to forgo any and everything to get the one simple effect they desire (recovery). The popularity of these drugs stems from the popular advice to use these drugs for everything from testosterone recovery.bitch tits,make your **** grow bigger, increase the amount of jiz you drop on a girls face, and everything in between. Advice on its use is handed out like candy and everyones got a sweat tooth for quick advice. Of course many "vets and so called know it alls" defend it to the death and it can do no wrong. Mainly do to not wanting to be wrong,habit,they got money involved with it, or just for the sake of argument.
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    “Its FDA approved for cancer treatment. It must be safe!”

    It’s wrong to assume that an “FDA approved” drug has a proven safety profile. The FDA has continually issued stronger health warnings for tamoxifen over the years. For instance, in 1994 the FDA demanded that the tamoxifen manufacturer Zeneca (an ICI sub-division), issue warning letters to health care practitioners about the increased risk of endometrial and gastro-intestinal cancers with tamoxifen use. Zeneca also reported adverse effects similar to those seen with DES, such as reproductive abnormalities in the animals whose mothers received tamoxifen. (remember, DES was the original synthetic estrogen, and also an analog to tamoxifen)

    A number of cancer researchers have pointed out the health risks too, such as Elwood et al (6) -

    “[Tamoxifen], therefore, is not appropriate for use in the general population because of the known increased risk of endometrial cancer”


    What Are Side Effects Of Temoxifen

    You Can Get Blood Clots!

    Have you any idea that a regular dosage of Tamoxifen can actually increase the chances of blood clots? Well, this is a true fact and can be fatal for those who are using this drug to get rid or avoid the chance of getting Gyno on cycle and or for pct. According to recent medical studies, it has been noticed that people who have been using Tamoxifen on a regular basis have had a substantial increase in terms of their blood clots. Hence, as compared to those people who are not using this drug, their chances of getting blood clots is relatively higher.

    A blood clot can be defined as an internal body mechanism by which the cut can be stopped from bleeding excessively. The proteins present in your blood work along with the platelets and in a bid to form a clot. This is also termed as coagulation. In the event of an injury, this can prove to be really very effective as it would stop the flow of blood from your wound and thus save your life. Nonetheless, if the blood clots while it is moving through your body, it can prove fatal. This is also termed as hyper coagulation and it can prove very dangerous for the concerned individual. Tamoxifen has been known to cause hyper coagulation and hence, it needs to be taken under strict medical supervision.

    When the study was conducted, it was ascertained that a relatively large number of people developed this conditions and although not many people using this drug were actually studied, those that were using it regularly, were in a shock to find out that it also led to blood clots.

    Hence, although this drug is helpful to a certain extent, we need to also see that the extent of damage it can do to our body in terms of hazardous blood clots are much more and hence, you as a steroid user need to exercise caution and spend some quality time researching on this so called ‘wonder-drug’ before making it an eminent part of your daily routine and or pct.

    One of the main reasons why a blood clot is considered dangerous is because this drug causes a clot inside the blood vessel which in turn is known as thrombus. What happens is that at times this blood clot can travel through your blood streams and get pushed into your lungs. When this happens, you can be rest assured that your life is in acute danger as this condition is life threatening. This condition is also known as pulmonary embolus. Similarly, a clot this clot can also block the blood vessels in the brain and this in turn may lead to a stroke. When this blood clot clocks the blood vessels of your heart, it stops the blood from rushing to your heart area thereby reducing the oxygen supply to that area. This in turn leads to cardiac arrest.

    All the above mentioned conditions arising from blood clots, which in turn are caused from a regular intake of Tamoxifen, can prove to be life threatening for the concerned individual. Hence, even before you decide to take this medication on a regular basis, you need to exercise caution and be prepared to face the ill effects of this so called ‘wonder-drug’.



    Increased susceptibility to gyno -

    Tamoxifen is often used to combat gyno during cycle when “flare ups” occur. While tamoxifen may provide immediate inhibition of proliferation, and serve as valuable tool, it can actually increase future susceptibility to gyno.

    This is caused by tamoxifen’s ability to up-regulate the progesterone receptor. (54-56) This can dramatically increase the chances of developing gyno in future cycles when utilizing progestin based anabolics such as Nandrolone (Deca) or Trenbolone (or any pro-hormone acting upon the progesterone receptor).

    It is interesting to speculate. Is tamoxifen use directly related to the increased gyno occurrences seen with modern day steroid users?


    You Can Develop Cataract!

    Cataract can be defined as a thin white layer of membrane which blocks the passing light to the retina thereby clouding your vision. Although it is relatively painless, it does cloud your vision and can even blind you if it is not removed through the means of a surgical procedure. The retina is ideally a nerve layer which is located at the back of the eye socket and its main purpose is to direct the light which is entering the eye via the means of electromagnetic signals to the brain. Once the brain receives these nerve signals, it is passed on to the nervous system, after which you can transform your vision into clear moving pictures. If this thin layer of membrane is blocked owing to any reason, you would have problems with your vision.

    While aging is looked on as the major cause behind cataract, it has recently been noticed that patients using Tamoxifen have been identified as ones susceptible to cataract on a regular basis. people who are aging and using this drug on a regular basis are on a higher risk of contracting cataract as compared to those who are not using Tamoxifen. The other eye problems that can be faced by individuals include scarring of the corneal area and abrupt retinal changes.

    In case you are using this drug regularly and you have a cloudy, fuzzy or foggy vision, you need to get your eyesight checked with immediate effect. In case you are unable to withstand the glare of lamps and are unable to catch a glimpse of the morning sun, then again you need to get your eyes checked. This is so because, Temoxifen has a natural tendency to obstruct the normal eye vision and if you do suffer from this symptom, you may not be able to drive at night as the headlamps of the opposing vehicle may blind you momentarily.


    In order to get rid of cataract that has been developed owing to a continuous intake of Temoxifen, you may need to undergo a corrective surgery. In case you want to delay a surgical procedure, you may want to light up your room with plenty of tubes and bulbs and keep your eyeglass up to date with the latest prescription. Ideally, the only known cure for cataract that has been a resultant of Temoxifen is a surgical procedure.

    If you would like to avoid this problem, you would have to seek an alternative to Temoxifen at the earliest given opportunity.



    Libido reduction & erectile dysfunction
    Erectile dysfunction ow libido, and general impotence are typical complaints from men recently discontinuing steroids or HRT therapy, which is often combated by Clomid or Nolvadex, paradoxically so.

    Regardless of any positive effects on fertility or testosterone levels, Clomid and Nolvadex use is highly correlated with erectile dysfunction, libido suppression, and even emotional disorders Research with male breast cancer patients has also reported decreased libido, and thrombosis associated with tamoxifen use. he thrombotic effect (blood vessel clogging) could explain the mechanism by which SERMs may inhibit erectile function, by reducing circulation to erectile tissue (as discussed before)


    Nolva/clomid both raise shbg.
    This is something I do not see a lot of people disusing so I I wanted to make it well know. Just do a web search on TAMOXIFEN,clomid or nolva raises shbg or any variation and you will get all the studies and prof you need.
    Trait Anxiety and Tamoxifen Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Sex Hormone- Binding Globulin -- Cameron et al. 64 (4): 612 -- Psychosomatic Medicine
    iHOP - Information Hyperlinked over Proteins [ SHBG ]
    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in Clinical Perspective; Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - 66(3):Pages 255-262 - Informa Healthcare
    Wiley InterScience :: Session Cookies

    2. Nolva lowers Igf-1 Again just a simple search on (TAMOXIFEN or nolva lowers IGF 1 and walla you got all the prof you need.

    In This Issue -- 82 (21): 1661 -- JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
    http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cg.../49/7/1882.pdf
    Effect of low dose tamoxifen on the insulin-like growth factor system in healthy women
    Comparison of Tamoxifen and Testosterone Propionate in Male Rats: Differential Prevention of Orchidectomy Effects on Sex Organs, Bone Mass, Growth, and the Growth Hormone-IGF-I Axis -- Fitts et al. 25 (4): 523 -- Journal of Andrology


    They can cause Major triglyceride and glucose problems and even to the point of Severe hypertriglyceridemia or also Pancreatitis

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia caused by tamoxifen-tr... [Endocr J. 1997] - PubMed result
    Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia in association with diabetes mellitus - EM|consulte
    SpringerLink - Journal Article
    Capecitabine-Induced Severe Hypertriglyceridemia: Report of Two Cases -- Kurt et al. 40 (2): 328 -- The Annals of Pharmacotherapy
    Elsevier: Article Locator
    Estrogen and Triglycerides
    http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi.../11/8/1067.pdf
    WikiGenes - Hypertriglyceridemia


    A word on clomiphene (Clomid) –

    Clomiphene (Clomid) consists of two stereoisomers which possess radically different pharmacodynamics. Zuclomiphene has predominantly estrogenic effects and slow clearance while the enclomiphene isomer has predominately anti-estrogenic effects and quick clearance. his creates a divergent effects between estrogen blockage and estrogen stimulation and an acute imbalance once Clomid administration is discontinued. Bodybuilders will often complain of “estrogenic rebound” after stopping Clomid, which could be attributed to the lingering estrogenic isomer zuclomiphene as the anti-estrogenic enclomiphene has long cleared the system. (Recently, enclomiphene has been isolated by the pharmaceutical company Repros, for use in Androxal™.)

    For all intents and purposes, tamoxifen is a superior SERM, simply for the fact that tamoxifen provides a purely anti-estrogenic isomer, whereas Clomid provides a mix of anti and pro estrogenic effects.

    In regards to the health consequences about to be listed, it can be safely assumed that Clomid will share similar detrimental effects as tamoxifen, since it shares the same triphenylethylene backbone and carcinogenic tendencies.


    One of the main reasons why people make use of Clomid is for the purpose of recovering their bodies after a steroid cycle In simple words, this drug is mainly used in the form of post cycle therapy. Clomid has the actual potential to stimulate the production of hypothalamus which in turn would release a particular kind of hormone called gonadotrophic hormones. This hormone has the natural ability to allow the human testicles to secrete testosterone, which in turn would bring the depleting levels of testosterone in the body to its permissible levels. When this is achieved, the human body would stop losing its muscle mass in a natural way. Reacovery of test production is the gaols at any cost is the common thought.


    Its a known fact that both clomid and nolvadex cause some really messed up mood swings.
    Clomid/nolva have been known to cause severe mood swings in users and it has apparently been noticed that anyone who has been making use of Clomid/nolva have suffered from such side effects on a regular basis. Many users have categorically complained that the use of Clomid has been considered as the worst side effect that they have suffered so far. A few features of mood swings may include a change in the usual behaviour, tearful behaviour, excessive depression, anxiety and extremely sensitive in nature. Stop acting like you don't know what I am talking about. We all know its true.


    Liver cancer -

    Originally, tamoxifen was accepted as being non-toxic to the human liver upon finding that tamoxifen did not cause noticeable liver damage (DNA adducts) during short-term test tube studies with human liver cells.

    However, it became apparent that test tube research was largely flawed due to the low rate of metabolism in such a superficial environment. It was soon discovered that the hepatotoxic effects from tamoxifen stem from the metabolism and buildup of the a-hydroxytamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen metabolites, which would only appear in an in vivo environment. Surely enough, the results from the original rat studies showing dramatic carcinogenic effects on the liver, soon correlated with human data when researchers found the same type of liver DNA adducts in tamoxifen patients.

    More recent human research has reported tamoxifen treated women to have 3x the risk of developing fatty liver disease, which occurs as soon as 3 months into therapy at only 20mg/day. In some cases, the disease lasts up to 3 years, despite cessation of tamoxifen therapy. Five and ten year follow-ups with patients on long term tamoxifen therapy show cases of deadly hepatocellular carcinoma.

    In 2002, a bizarre study examined the use of tamoxifen for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment in humans. It was assumed that since tamoxifen could inhibit proliferation of breast cancer, it could offer the same benefit for liver cancer. The devastating results could not have been more indicative of tamoxifen’s hepatotoxic nature, as the tamoxifen treatment significantly increased the rate of death, compared to the group not receiving tamoxifen.

    Finally, in a case study reviewing tamoxifen induced liver disease; D.F Moffat et al made a profound statement –

    “Hepatocellular carcinoma in tamoxifen treated patients may be under-reported since there may be reluctance to biopsy liver tumours which are assumed to be secondary carcinoma of the breast.” In other words, it appears that liver carcinomas from a large number of breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy have been misdiagnosed as an infection from the breast cancer itself.

    Although tamoxifen induced liver cancer may take years to manifest in a healthy male, its damaging effects could easily be exaggerated by other popular hepatotoxic drugs, such as 17aa oral steroids.
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    Good, lots of info for newbies or anyone to read!
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    Add everything all up and put them together. What is the overall best? Best steroid, best pct, best gyno treatment on the market today?What does it all. What lowers estrogen,lowers pregetsterone, lowers shbg, raises IGF-1 and at higher doses has anabolic effects by conversion to a steroid?


    It's been a long time since I got really excited about a new anabolic steroid/Ai. Not since beastdrol and deiaselbolan have I been this Worked up about something. When I came out with beast,deisel,tfo,katanadrol I knew I had some powerful stuff that was going to change he way people look at OTC products. Granted I have some damn good products selling at **** right now and I am proud of all of them, but this new product is a product that is going to change the face of the whole Industry. A product I have designed and will be selling at ************ with in the next 2 weeks called FORMA-STANOZOLOL!!

    Now selling at https://www.************/Product-Forma-Stanzol_26.aspx


    FORMA-STANOZOLOL really is an amazing compound that should be a part of EVERY cycle - not only for muscle gains and fat loss, but for longevity and health. It's one of the world's most potent aromatase inhibitors that Started out a a prescription drug here in the U.S and is still a prescription drug in other countries under the brand name of Lentaron I.M. Depot®.

    The amazing part is Lentaron I.M. Depot® use to be available in the USA, but the government removed it because it was "too anabolic" and it put on muscle. ************ FORMA-STANOZOLOL is the EXACT compound found in Lentaron I.M. Depot® and we've attained it due to the current legal loopholes in America. What else have we done? We have enhanced its effects by adding
    25mgs DIM
    7,8 - Benzoflavone (99%) 25mg
    chrysin 4mg
    Horse Chestnut seed extract 8mg


    Because of the formatane and now added compounds Its anabolic/androgen effects are similar to that of the steroid Primobolan Depot. It also increases IGF-1 levels by an amazing 26%. It also increases HPTA activity and testicular activity similar to a combination of HCG and Clomid!

    All of this is backed up by " human" studies. Yes Real human studies don by well known Universities and agencies. Because for the longest time Lentaron I.M. Depot® was a proscrition drug . This was not a drug that got scrapped because it did not work or because other drugs worked better. No this drug lost favor because many years ago the only way to use the drug was through injections. But because of the advancements in Trans dermal delivery Lentaron I.M. Depot® is back. With the help of **** and ************ its more powerful then ever.


    Now you cn understand why I will recommend this to be a part of any and every cycle from this day forward. Whether it's to keep your estrogen under control, prevent deca and tren libido [rpblems or to simply create an environment that is more anabolic and beneficial for muscular gains and fat loss.

    Its now a fact! The science and studies prove FORMA-STANOZOLOL works better then current prescription aromatase inhibitors on the market (such as Arimidex, Femara, Aromasin, Cytadren, etc.) but at a FRACTION OF THE COST! If one wanted to prevent prolactin,estrogen,progesteron e induced gyno and or cycle side effects they may need 2-3 and some times 4 different drugs. Of course each one of these drugs comes with its own set of negative side effects. Some Ai's raise SHBG, some lower IGF-1 and almost all of them leave you feeling weak and brittle.

    FORMA-STANOZOLOL decreases SHBG 34% thus increasing androgen activity, which basically makes androgens/steroids in your systems MORE effective WITHOUT any increase in dosage. FORMA-STANOZOLOL Increases IGF-1 levels by a whopping 26% In doing so creates the perfect anabolic muscle building environment on cycle, off cycle and during pct.


    FORMA-STANOZOLOL Decreases the number of progesterone receptors (inhibits the trenbolone and “deca-****” type side effects and increases fat loss. Through "clinical studies its been proven to lower progesterone. Effect of 4-Hydroxyandrostenedione on Murine Leydig Tumor Cell Steroidogenesis -- Zimniski et al. 51 (14): 3663 -- Cancer Research


    Effect of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione on murine Leydig tumor cell steroidogenesis.

    Zimniski SJ, Brandt ME, Melner MH, Brodie AM, Puett D.

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33101.

    The murine Leydig cell tumor (M5480A) possesses high levels of estrogen receptor and is known to produce estrogens. In these studies we examined the effects of the potent aromatase inhibitor 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA) on Leydig tumor cell steroidogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The addition of 4-OHA to Leydig tumor cells in primary culture resulted in a dose- and a time-dependent decrease in media progesterone levels. The observed decrease was most likely due to impaired synthesis of progesterone, inasmuch as no alteration in progesterone metabolism was seen when progesterone levels were diminishing. However, 4-OHA inhibited progesterone conversion to testosterone following 1 h of incubation, but this effect disappeared coincident with 4-OHA metabolism. Analysis of pregnenolone production revealed a biphasic dose-dependent effect of 4-OHA. At low doses (0.01-0.1 microM), 4-OHA was found to decrease pregnenolone concentrations, while at higher doses (1-10 microM) pregnenolone levels were elevated. Therefore, the actions of 4-OHA on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vitro appear to be multifocal. Other experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of 4-OHA on tumor-bearing male mice in vivo. In these studies, the predominant effects of 4-OHA were to act as an aromatase inhibitor and to inhibit progesterone production. Thus, while 4-OHA is a potent aromatase inhibitor, we have found that this compound may alter steroidogenesis in Leydig tumor cells at several sites prior to aromatization.

    PMID: 2065323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



    What is in FORMA-STANOZOLOL
    Per serving 10 pump serving
    60 servings Per container

    100mgs Formestane
    25mgs DIM
    7,8 - Benzoflavone (99%) 25mg
    chrysin 4mg
    Horse Chestnut seed extract 8mg


    Directions for use.

    1. On cycle estrogen and progesterone control.
    Apply 3-10 pumps twice daily For up to 10 weeks to upper back,shoulders,arms and abdomen. Strength
    of effects are dose dependent. Start of with a lighter dose and work up as needed.

    2. Stand alone Anabolic fat burning agent
    Apply 7-10 pumps twice daily for 4-6

    weeks to upper back,shoulders,arms and abdomen. Strength
    of effects are dose dependent. Start of with a lighter dose and work up as needed.

    3. For post cycle therapy
    apply 3-7 pumps twice daily for 4-6 weeks to upper back,shoulders,arms and upper abdomen


    If used at higher doses, conversion to the steroid 4-hydroxytestosterone takes place, which is actually less androgenic than formestane and slightly more anabolic.
    If used on cycle it can reduce water retention caused by aromatisation to estrogen, so helping you stay looking lean, and improving your post cycle therapy as recovery will be easier.

    Now the best bit is this, There are references as that show that DHT applied in areas with high prolactin can reduce gyno. Here is one:

    Benveniste O, Simon A and Herson S. Successful percutaneous dihydrotestosterone treatment of gynecomastia occurring during highly active antiretroviral therapy: four cases and a review of the literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001;33:891-893.

    This shows that when in this case dht, but anything strongly androgenic in its actions is applied to gyno where high levels of prolactin are found then gyno can be reduced!!! Now this will work with prolactin induced gyno, as this and at least 6 other studies show.
    So not only can Forma-stanozolol, the new break through supplement from ****/************ improve gyno the same way masteron can, by preventing estrogen from binding to the estrogen receptor, it can also reduce the size of prolactin induced gyno, as it lowers the amount of progestin receptors available, and seems to act as a slight dopmamin agonist. At the same time studies have shown that it lowers progesterone through its on mechanisms.



    So how does it work exactly, Aromatase is an enzyme that synthesizes estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors block the synthesis of estrogen. This lowers the estrogen level, and slows the growth of cancers, And trans dermal formestane is one of the strongest drugs for this, so that means lean ROCK HARD gains on cycle. This is because the androgens can no longer convert into estrogen.. That is good news as it doesn't act like exemestane which forms a permanent bond with the aromatase enzyme, so preventing any estrogen which is bad for your joints and tendons.
    Also because of exemestane


    So why does gyno happen on cycle?

    Bodybuilders who use steroids may experience an increase in estrogen levels , and this has undesirable consequences for a bodybuilder, such as gynecomastia. This is often the case when a natural aromatase inhibitor 4-OHAD has itself been inhibited. 4-OHAD is a metabolite of testosterone, which can mean 4-OHAD remains inhibited whilst aromatase levels are allowed high, so you actualy get even less androgens than normal and higher estrogen levels, so using Forma-Stanozolol can change the ratios allowing the enzyme 4-OHAD to remain active, so limiting estrogen, by increasing testosterone itself through its AI activity, And by preventing estrogen from binding to receptors so preventing gyno, but as it allows some estrogen to circulate, tendons and ligaments are kept strong and healthy.

    It has a 12 hour half life wich is great as when used just morning and night it will build up even plasma levels in the blood and be constantly active, so getting full benefits of its AI properties, And through its special ability to stimulate the dopaminergic system, it can prevent prolactin.. so it actualy can PREVENT GYNO BOTH FROM PROLACTIN AND ESTROGEN, and be used to TREAT GYNO FROM PROLACTIN through its abilty to act as a dopamine agonist, its ability to lower progestin receptor count, and its androgenic properties, And be used to TREAT GYNO CAUSED BY HIGH AROMATISATION.s

    Yes NEEDTO has done it again...In fact this could even be used to treat and prevent DECA droopiness.

    But i havent finished, one more thing makes this perfect not only alone or on cycle but especialy through PCT when estrogen levels rise, problem is if you block estrogen off you get low igf-1 levels... FORMA-stanozolol, Or the main active formestane can increase igf1 levels by a whopping 26 percent!!!

    And you know I said it was androgenic... well it is, but it also can reduce BPH, so it even protects your prostrate!!!

    And as its a transdermal, you may want to rub it all over your nips for improved action, you see i love milk, but i dont want to make my own, in fact i like boobies but i dont want to grow my own, and FORMA-STANOZOLOL can reduce your chances of either of these ever happening, and believe me for those whove experienced both the former happening, its not nice!!!

    Soon ill give you a rundown on one of my favourite supps horse chesnut, or in particular the active found inside, 2 Escin , and why its an AMAZING addition to this outstanding new product FORMA-STANOZOLOL, thats set to make waves as people everywhere look and feel better, stronger, harder, leaner and more vascular.


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    Well alright now. Next you will prob want to read about injecting steroids.




    For many of you, this is common knowledge, but I'm sure that some of you still have a few questions about this subject. If you are new to steroids, this FAQ should answer your injection questions. We will start from the very beginning.......

    1cc = 1ml

    Gauge: The smaller the gauge, the thicker the needle. An 18g is much thicker than a 22g.

    Length: Generally 1.5" or 1" for our purposes.

    and no you do not mix water and oil based steroids in the same needle. Unless you like the Idea of having a arm or a leg cut off I would not do this.

    now we can proceed.......

    What is an intramuscular (IM) injection?
    A technique to deliver a medication into muscle tissue for it's eventual absorption into the systemic circulation. Steroids, both oil and water-based, are administered this way.


    What is a subcutaneous (sub-q) injection?
    A technique to deliver a medication into the soft tissue (fat) immediately underlying the skin. Insulin, HCG, and HGH are typically administered this way.


    What is aspiration?
    To aspirate is to withdraw fluid with a syringe. More specifically, after inserting the needle, pulling back on the plunger of the syringe for a few seconds to see if the needle is in a blood vessel. Rarely, this will be the case and a bit of blood will fill the syringe. If this happens the needle should be removed, replaced with a new one, and another injection site should be used. And yes, if there is a little blood in your syringe, it is ok to inject it along with your steroid once you have found a different spot..........it's your own blood isn't it?

    When aspirating, nothing should come back into the syringe if you are in the right spot. Pulling back on the plunger will create a vacuum in your syringe. The oil cannot expand to fill that space, but any air bubbles in your syringe will. You may notice the tiny bubbles getting bigger and bigger as you pull back. They will return to normal size as you release the plunger. If the air bubbles do not disappear upon releasing the plunger, you have an air leak most likely caused by the needle not being screwed onto the syringe tightly enough, although on very rare occassions, the syringe or needle itself can be defective. Either way, purge the air bubbles out, put a new needle on and try it again.


    Do I really need to aspirate?
    Those who inject without aspirating are taking unnecessary chances. Sweating, nausea, dizziness, severe coughing, breathing difficulties, anaphylactic shock, coma or death can all result from not aspirating. Most of the time, steroid users experience dizziness and coughing fits when they inject into a blood vessel. But you need to be aware of the dangers of neglecting this simple technique that should take about 3-5 seconds of your time.


    What exactly is an abscess?
    Abscesses occur when an area of tissue becomes infected and the body is able to "wall off" the infection and keep it from spreading. White blood cells migrate through the walls of the blood vessels into the area of the infection and collect within the damaged tissue. During this process, pus forms (an accumulation of fluid, living and dead white blood cells, dead tissue, and bacteria or other foreign invaders or materials).

    Abscesses can form in almost every part of the body and may be caused by bacteria, parasites, or foreign materials. Most of the time, it is caused by unsanitary injection techniques. On very rare occassions, it can be caused by foreign particles your gear (a greater chance of this occurs when using/making a homebrew). The abscesses that we are concerned about are usually reddish, raised, and painful.






    Now if you have injection problems like pain and swelling you will want to read this

    1) Tissue Irritation
    This is probably the most likely cause of post injection pain and the least serious. Tissue irritation is likely to start 12-24 hours after injection, pain can be mild to moderate depending on the level of tissue irritation and the volume injected. The injection site is likely to swell within the muscle, maybe red and likely to be warm and very firm to the touch. The pain and swelling will start to fade after 72 hours and can last over a week in the worst cases. The most likely causes of tissue irritation are:
    The hormone crashes out of the solution in the depot. This causes crystallisation of the hormone, this in turn places a lot of pressure on the nerve endings in the muscle belly causing knotting, swelling and pain - this is most common in long chain esters, high mg/ml concentration gear and gear compounded with less than idea oil blends.
    A reaction to the acid compounds within the ester. With the metabolic breakdown of the ester attached to the hormone free form acids are released which can cause the muscle tissue rapid irritation at the injection site – this is most common with propionic acid of the propionate ester. Poor quality raw materials also liberate more freeform acids.

    Newb muscles. Of course everyone knows your first injections are the worst. Over time your body will build a tolerance.

    Excessive preservative. If too much benzyl Alcohol is used to formulate the solution inflammation and pain may result. Pharma grade usually contains 0.9% Benzyl alcohol where the common senseu states UGL products contain on average 2%. Anything above 1.2% offers no added anti-microbial effects. Due to water soluable nature of benzyl alcohol tissue irritation of this nature has been known to “travel” as the excessive alcohol disperses via the blood stream. This is most common with injection into the quads (vastus lateralis).The pain travels down toward the knee. This may however be in part due to lymphatic drainage and leads me nicely to my next point.
    Ice and ibuprofen may help with the swelling. Hot baths, showers and massage of the injection site may help to distribute the injection and reduce pain.

    2) Hitting the lymphatic system.
    Hitting the lymphatic system is very rare. The lymphatic system is as vast as the circulatory system but the standard injection sights (Glute, ventro-glute, medial delts and vastus lateralis) are generally void of lymphatic nodes. If a lymph node is hit with an injection pain is likely to be severe and edema vast. The swelling will come on very fast and be extensive. It is also likely to “travel” along the lymph system to the next lymph gland. This is most noticeable with a vastus lateralis shot where the swelling tracks down toward the back of the knee. Unlike the edema experienced with tissue irritation (within the muscle only) the edema with a lymphatic puncture will be both inter and intra-muscular with a moderate amount of swelling just underneath the skin giving it a softer puffy feel. This can be tested for by pressing the swollen area with your finger, if in indent remains you have a more systematic edema and more than just local tissue irreation. The other most noticeable difference is that the swelling should not be warm/hot to touch.
    Ice and ibuprofen may help. The affected area must be rested and the patient can expect pain and swelling to start to disperse after 72 hours and last at least 10 days. The painful area must not be massaged.

    3) Infection and abscess.
    So now to the most serious reason for injection pain. An infection will start in the same manner as tissue irritation with local pain and swelling, with heat and redness around the muscle. The major difference is that after 72 hours tissue irritation should start to subside, if the area is indeed infected this pain and swelling will get worse. The swelling will change in nature becoming more systematic and edema will start to form under the skin becoming softer and more spongy (as described with a lymphatic puncture).

    There are many reasons why an infection can manifest, below are some of the most common examples.
    Poor injection technique. Correct, and sterile injection technique is a must. You must make sure the injection site and rubber stopper is clean and swabbed with an alcohol wipe.
    Also the moisture from the alcohol swab must be allowed to dry before preparing to inject. It is extremely rare but if the alcohol is not allowed to dry the bacterium has not been allowed adequate time to be killed off. If this partly destroyed bacterium was then pushed into a muscle through an Inter-muscular injection the bacterium can “evolve” into a superbug. My wife’s horse died this way due to an impatient vet.
    You should always use a clean and new syringe barrel and pin and not allow the pin to touch anything before you inject. Avoid pinning through a hair follicle or hair and don’t be tempted to inject too quickly. Injecting too quickly can increase the risk of infection as this in turn increases injection trauma.
    Not rotating injection sites. The risk of infection is massively increased if the same injection site is used over and over again without giving it time to recover. The more an injury (injection trauma) is irritated (re-injected) the more likely it is to become infected. Think back to being a child and picking that scab on your knee excessively and then being told “I told you so” when it becomes a yellow puss infected mess.
    Contaminated Gear. IMO this is probably the least common cause of infection with oil based injections (I cannot say the same for water based injections). This is a no brainer really. Use a reputable UGL or pharma and avoid water based suspensions.

    What to do in the case of an infection.

    So the pain and swelling has not subsided and the edema is pitting and moving outside the confides of the muscle fascia after 72 hours. With an infection the body is attempting to contain the bacterium and prevent it from
    reaching the circulatory system by forming a cyst. This is essential to prevent blood poisoning

    GET TO A DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY AND HAVE HIM TAKE A LOOK AT YOU. THERE IS NO DOCTORS ON THIS SITE!!!!!!!!!!!!!! You need medical help at this point.

    Can I reuse the same needle?
    Yes, but only if you are an idiot. There really is no need to explain why you shouldn't re-use a needle. Common sense should kick in here, but the bottom line of re-using needles is an INCREASED CHANCE OF INFECTION. If you have trouble obtaining needles in your area, try finding a different way of getting them. The hassle of finding a source is negligible compared to the hassle of the abscess in your ass that would most-likely require a doctor and a scalpel.

    Can I inject with the same needle I draw with?
    Hell ****ing no. Use a different needle!!!!!!!!


    Does it matter if I push the needle in fast or slow?
    I would recommend slowly, and so would just about everyone else for a number of reasons. Enough said.

    What gauge needles should I use?
    for drawing - 20g, 21g

    18g needles are too big and they will eat up your stoppers in a hurry. A bigger hole means an increased chance of letting some little nasties into your sterile vial. Sometimes, the 18g will take out little chunks of rubber that fall nicely into your vial. That is not something you want. Imagine injecting that tiny piece of rubber into your muscle. I'll bet the doctor would have lots of fun digging into your rmuscle trying to find it and mutilating your muscle in the process.....

    for injecting - 22g, 23g, 25g - for oil-based steroids, 27g, 29g - for insulin, HCG, HGH, and some water-based steroids. 21g-25g for some lower quality types of winny or suspension, higher quality versions can use a smaller needle generally.

    22g and 23g are fine for glutes and quads. 25g is preferred for the smaller muscles such as delts, biceps, triceps, etc.


    What length needles should I use?
    Most people can get by with a 1" needle, but if you have a higher percentage of bodyfat or are just plain big you should use a 1.5" needle to insure that you get deep into the muscle. You should only use a 1.5" needle for glutes, or if you have huge quads. For smaller muscle groups, 1" is the most common, although some people like to use a 5/8".


    How many ccs can I shoot in one place?
    It depends on how big you are. A general guideline is 1cc for delts, 2cc for quads, and up to 3ccs for glutes. Some do more, some do less......it all depends. After a cycle or two, you will know what your body can handle. If you are injecting into other muscles such as biceps, triceps, or calves, it's best to start off with a small volume and work your way up.

    Can I pre-load my syringes?
    yes but only if they are going to be stored for less then a week and they are stored right.

    Which is the best brand of needle?
    who cares a needle is a needle IMO
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    Common "FREAK OUTS"

    I can't get all the tiny air bubbles out of my syringe....
    As long as you tap it and get most of the air out, you will be fine. A little air intramusculary won't hurt you. According to the USH2 by Dan Ducaine, it supposedly takes about 10ccs of air injected into a blood vessel to kill you. I wonder how the hell they figured that one out.

    I saw blood in the syringe after I pulled out....
    You passed through a blood vessel and a little bit of blood entered the syringe on the way out. No biggie.

    I pulled the needle out and blood dripped/squirted out....
    You passed through a blood vessel. Apply a little pressure with your alcohol swab. You'll live.

    I pulled the needle out and oil was dribbling out....
    You injected too much in one place or you didn't inject deep enough. No biggie. Try injecting slower or leaving the needle in you for 30 seconds after you have injected it all. This should give the oil some time to dissipate so very little, if any, should dribble out.

    I injected into my quad, and my leg was twitching....
    You grazed a nerve. Usually it's a good idea to pull out and try another spot.

    I don't think I injected deep enough....
    If you think you injected into a layer of fat, don't worry. It will just take longer for the steroid to dissipate than it would if you had injected into the muscle. Eventually it will be absorbed. Don't let anyone tell you that you wasted it because that is not true.
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    Now anyone who wants to do steroids should always have blood test done before and after cycles. This is something you should to help you with that.

    Blood Work - What To Look For

    We should all get bloodwork done before starting AAS so you can see for yourself the affects it is having on your body and to make sure you are as healthy/safe as possible.

    Maybe this can help clear things up a bit.................

    What Does Your Blood Test Mean?

    Glucose: This is the chief source of energy for all living organisms. A level greater than 105 in someone who has fasted for 12 hours suggests a diabetic tendency. If this level is elevated even in a non-fasting setting one must be concerned that there is a risk for developing diabetes. This is an incredibly powerful test and can predict diabetes ten years or more before one develops the strict definition of diabetes which is levels greater than 120.

    Sodium: This element plays an important role in salt and water balance in your body. A low level in the blood can be caused by too much water intake, heart failure, or kidney failure. A low level can also be caused by loss of sodium in diarrhea, fluid or vomiting. A high level can be caused by too much intake of salt or by not enough intake of water.

    Potassium and Magnesium: These elements are found primarily inside the cells of the body. Low levels in the blood may indicate severe diarrhea, alcoholism, or excessive use of water pills. A very low level of magnesium in the blood can cause your muscles to tremble. Low potassium levels can cause muscle weakness and heart problems.

    Chloride: Is an electrolyte controlled by the kidneys and can sometimes be affected by diet. An electrolyte is involved in maintaining acid-base balance and helps to regulate blood volume and artery pressure. Elevated levels are related to acidosis as well as too much water crossing the cell membrane.

    BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): BUN is a waste product derived from protein breakdown in the liver. Increases can be caused by excessive protein intake, kidney damage, certain drugs, low fluid intake, intestinal bleeding, exercise, heart failure or decreased digestive enzyme production by the pancreas. Decreased levels are most commonly due to inadequate protein intake, malabsorption, or liver damage.

    Creatinine: Creatinine is also a protein breakdown product. Its level is a reflection of the bodies muscle mass. Low levels are commonly seen in inadequate protein intake, liver disease, kidney damage or pregnancy. Elevated levels are generally reflective of kidney damage and need to be monitored very carefully.

    Uric Acid: Uric acid is the end product purine metabolism. High levels are seen in gout, infections, high protein diets, and kidney disease. Low levels generally indicate protein and molybdenum (trace mineral) deficiency, liver damage or an overly acid kidney.

    Phosphate: Phosphate is closely associated with calcium in bone development. Therefore most of the phosphate in the body is found in the bones. But the phosphate level in the blood is very important for muscle and nerve function. Very low levels of phosphate in the blood can be associated with starvation or malnutrition and this can lead to muscle weakness. High levels in the blood are usually associated with kidney disease. However the blood must be drawn carefully as improper handling may falsely increase the reading.

    Calcium: Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer, muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting, and heart function. It is highly sensitive to elements such as magnesium, iron, and phosphorous as well as hormonal activity, vitamin D levels, CO2 levels and many drugs. Diet, or even the presence of calcium in the diet has a lot to do with "calcium balance" - how much calcium you take in and how much you lose from your body.

    Albumin: The most abundant protein in the blood, it is made in the liver and is an antioxidant that protects your tissues from free radicals. It binds waste products, toxins and dangerous drugs that might damage the body. Is also is a major buffer in the body and plays a role in controlling the precise amount of water in our tissues. It serves to transport vitamins, minerals and hormones. The higher this number is, the better. The highest one can reasonably expect would be 5.5.

    Alkaline Phosphatase: Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme that is found in all body tissue, but the most important sites are bone, liver, bile ducts and the gut. A high level of alkaline phosphatase in your blood may indicate bone, liver or bile duct disease. Certain drugs may also cause high levels. Growing children, because of bone growth, normally have a higher level than adults do. Low levels indicate low functioning adrenal glands, protein deficiency, malnutrition or more commonly, a deficiency in zinc.

    Transaminases (SGTP) & (SGOT): These are enzymes that are primarily found in the liver. Drinking too much alcohol, certain drugs, liver disease and bile duct disease can cause high levels in the blood. Hepatitis is another problem that can raise these levels. Low levels of GGTP may indicate a magnesium deficiency. Low levels of SGPT and SGOT may indicate deficiency of vitamin B6.

    Gamma-Glutamyltranserase (GGTP): Believed to be involved in the transport of amino acids into cells as well as glutathione metabolism. Found in the liver and will rise with alcohol use, liver disease, or excess magnesium. Decreased levels can be found in hypothyroidism and more commonly decreased magnesium levels.

    Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH): LDH is an enzyme found in all tissues in the body. A high level in the blood can result from a number of different diseases. Also, slightly elevated levels in the blood are common and usually do not indicate disease. The most common sources of LDH are the heart, liver, muscles, and red blood cells.

    Total Protein: This is a measure of the total amount of protein in your blood. A low or high total protein does not indicate a specific disease, but it does indicate that some additional tests may be required to determine if there is a problem.

    Iron: The body must have iron to make hemoglobin and to help transfer oxygen to the muscle. If the body is low in iron, all body cells, particularly muscles in adults and brain cells in children, do not function up to par. If this test is low you should consider getting a Ferritin test, especially if you are a female who still has menstrual cycles.

    Triglycerides: These are fats used as fuel by the body, and as an energy source for metabolism. Increased levels are almost always a sign of too much carbohydrate intake. Decreased levels are seen in hyperthyroidism, malnutrition and malabsorption.

    Cholesterol: Group of fats vital to cell membranes, nerve fibers and bile salts, and a necessary precursor for the sex hormones. High levels indicate diet high in carbohydrates/sugars. Low levels indicate low fat diet, malabsorption, or carbohydrate sensitivity.

    HDL/LDL: LDL is the "bad cholesterol", which carries cholesterol for cell building needs, but leaves behind any excess on artery walls and in tissues. HDL is the "good cholesterol" which helps to prevent narrowing of the artery walls by removing the excess cholesterol and transporting it to the liver for excretion. A low HDL percentage frequently indicates diets high in refined carbohydrates and/or carbohydrate sensitivity.

    CO2: The CO2 level is related to the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide in the lungs and is part of the bodies buffering system. Generally, when used with the other electrolytes, carbon dioxide levels indicate pH or acid/alkaline balance in the tissues. This is one of the most important tests that we measure. Most people have too much acid in their body. If you garden you will know that it is very difficult to grow plants in soil where the pH is incorrect. Our blood is similar to soil in many respects and it will be difficult to be healthy if our body's pH is not well balanced.

    WBC: White blood count measures the total number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood. Since WBCs kill bacteria, this count is a measure of the body's response to infection.

    Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin provides the main transport of oxygen and carbon in the blood. It is composed of "globin", a group of amino acids that form a protein and "heme", which contains iron. It is an important determinant of anemia (decreased hemoglobin) or poor diet/nutrition or malabsorption.

    Hematocrit: Hematocrit is the measurement of the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. It is an important determinant of anemia (decreased), dehydration (elevated) or possible overhydration (decreased).

    MCV: Thismeasures the average size of the red blood cells and their volume. These components together can indicate iron deficiency anemia (decreased), b12/folate deficiency anemia (increased), or rheumatoid arthritis (decreased).

    LAB VALUES

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Normal Lab Values


    HEMATOLOGY
    Red Blood Cells
    RBC (Male) 4.2 - 5.6 M/µL
    RBC (Female) 3.8 - 5.1 M/µL
    RBC (Child) 3.5 - 5.0 M/µL
    White Blood Cells
    WBC (Male) 3.8 - 11.0 K / mm cubed
    WBC (Female) 3.8 - 11.0 K / mm cubed
    WBC (Child) 5.0 - 10.0 K / mm cubed
    Hemoglobin
    Hgb (Male) 14 - 18 g/dL
    Hgb (Female) 11 - 16 g/dL
    Hgb (child) 10 - 14 g/dL
    Hgb (Newborn) 15 - 25 g/dL
    Hematocrit
    Hct (Male) 39 - 54%
    Hct (Female) 34 - 47%
    Hct (Child) 30 - 42%
    MCV 78 - 98 fL
    MCH 27 - 35 pg
    MCHC 31 - 37%
    Neutrophils 50 - 81%
    Bands 1 - 5%
    Lymphocytes 14 - 44%
    Monocytes 2 - 6%
    Eosinophils 1 - 5%
    Basophils 0 - 1%


    CARDIAC MARKERS
    Troponin I 0 - 0.1 ng/ml (onset: 4-6 hrs, peak: 12-24 hrs, return to normal: 4-7 days)
    Troponin T 0 - 0.2 ng/ml (onset: 3-4 hrs, peak: 10-24 hrs, return to normal: 10-14 days)
    Myoglobin (Male) 10 - 95 ng/ml (onset: 1-3 hrs, peak: 6-10 hrs, return to normal: 12-24 hrs)
    Myoglobin (Female) 10 - 65 ng/ml (onset: 1-3 hrs, peak: 6-10 hrs, return to normal: 12-24 hrs)

    GENERAL CHEMISTRY
    Acetone 0.3 - 2.0 mg%
    Albumin 3.5 - 5.0 gm/dL
    Alkaline Phosphatase 32 - 110 U/L
    Anion gap 5 - 16 mEq/L
    Ammonia 11 - 35 µmol/L
    Amylase 50 - 150 U/dL
    AST, SGOT (Male) 7 - 21 U/L
    AST, SGOT (Female) 6 - 18 U/L
    Bilirubin, Direct 0.0 - 0.4 mg/dL
    Bilirubin, Indirect total minus direct
    Bilirubin, Total 0.2 - 1.4 mg/dL
    BUN 6 - 23 mg/dL
    Calcium (total) 8 - 11 mg/dL
    Carbon dioxide 21 - 34 mEq/L
    Carbon monoxide symptoms at greater than or equal to 10% saturation
    Chloride 96 - 112 mEq/L
    Creatine (Male) 0.2 - 0.6 mg/dL
    Creatine (Female) 0.6 - 1.0 mg/dL
    Creatinine 0.6 - 1.5 mg/dL
    Ethanol 0 mg%; Coma: greater than or equal to 400 - 500 mg%
    Folic acid 2.0 - 21 ng/mL
    Glucose 70 - 110 mg/dL (diuresis greater than or equal to 180 mg/dL)
    HDL (Male) 25 - 65 mg/dL
    HDL (Female) 38 - 94 mg/dL
    Iron 52 - 169 µg/dL
    Iron binding capacity 246 - 455 µg/dL
    Lactic acid 0.4 - 2.3 mEq/L
    Lactate 0.3 - 2.3 mEq/L
    Lipase 10 - 140 U/L
    Magnesium 1.5 - 2.5 mg/dL
    Osmolarity 276 - 295 mOsm/kg
    Parathyroid hormone 12 - 68 pg/mL
    Phosphorus 2.2 - 4.8 mg/dL
    Potasssium 3.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
    Protein (total) 6.0 - 9.0 gm/dL
    SGPT 8 - 32 U/L
    Sodium 135 - 148 mEq/L
    T3 0.8 - 1.1 µg/dL
    Thyroglobulin Less than 55 ng/mL
    Thyroxine (T4) total 5 - 13 µg/dL
    Total protein 5 - 9 gm/dL
    TSH Less than 9 µU/mL
    Urea nitrogen 8 - 25 mg/dL
    Uric acid (Male) 3.5 - 7.7 mg/dL
    Uric acid (Female) 2.5 - 6.6 mg/dL

    LIPID PANEL (ADULT)
    Cholesterol (total) Less than 200 mg/dL desirable
    Cholesterol (HDL) 30 - 75 mg/dL
    Cholesterol (LDL) Less than 130 mg/dL desirable
    Triglycerides (Male) Greater than 40 - 170 mg/dL
    Triglycerides (Female) Greater than 35 - 135 mg/dL

    URINE
    Color Straw
    Specific Gravity 1.003 - 1.040
    pH 4.6 - 8.0
    Na 10 - 40 mEq/L
    K Less than 8 mEq/L
    Cl Less than 8 mEq/L
    Protein 1 - 15 mg/dL
    Osmolality 80 - 1300 mOsm/L

    24 HOUR URINE
    Amylase 250 - 1100 IU / 24 hr
    Calcium 100 - 250 mg / 24 hr
    Chloride 110 - 250 mEq / 24 hr
    Creatinine 1 - 2 g / 24 hr
    Creatine Clearance (Male) 100 - 140 mL / min
    Creatine Clearance (Male) 16 - 26 mg / kg / 24 hr
    Creatine Clearance (Female) 80 - 130 mL / min
    Creatine Clearance (Female) 10 - 20 mg / kg / 24 hr
    Magnesium 6 - 9 mEq / 24 hr
    Osmolality 450 - 900 mOsm / kg
    Phosphorus 0.9 - 1.3 g / 24 hr
    Potassium 35 - 85 mEq / 24 hr
    Protein 0 - 150 mg / 24 hr
    Sodium 30 - 280 mEq / 24 hr
    Urea nitrogen 10 - 22 gm / 24 hr
    Uric acid 240 - 755 mg / 24 hr

    COAGULATION
    ACT 90 - 130 seconds
    APTT 21 - 35 seconds
    Platelets 140,000 - 450,000 / ml
    Plasminogen 62 - 130%
    PT 10 - 14 seconds
    PTT 32 - 45 seconds
    FSP Less than 10 µg/dL
    Fibrinogen 160 - 450 mg/dL
    Bleeding time 3 - 7 minutes
    Thrombin time 11 - 15 seconds

    CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID
    Appearance clear
    Glucose 40 - 85 mg/dL
    Osmolality 290 - 298 mOsm/L
    Pressure 70 - 180 mm/H2O
    Protein 15 - 45 mg/dL
    Total cell count 0 - 5 cells
    WBC's 0 - 6 / µL

    HEMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS
    Cardiac Index 2.5 - 4.2 L / min / m squared
    Cardiac Output 4 - 8 LPM
    Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index 40 - 70 g / m squared / beat
    Mean Arterial Pressure 70 - 105 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Vascular Resistance 155 - 255 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
    Pulmonary Vaslular Resistance Index 255 - 285 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
    Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index 7 - 12 g / m squared / beat
    Stroke Volume 60 - 100 mL / beat
    Stroke Volume Index 40 - 85 mL / m squared / beat
    Systemic Vascular Resistance 900 - 1600 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
    Systemic Vascular Resistance Index 1970 - 2390 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
    Systolic Arterial Pressure 90 - 140 mm Hg
    Diastolic Arterial Pressure 60 - 90 mm Hg
    Central Venous Pressure 2 - 6 mm Hg; 2.5 - 12 cm H2O
    Ejection Fraction 60 - 75%
    Left Arterial Pressure 4 - 12 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Artery Systolic 15 - 30 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Artery Diastolic 5 - 15 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Artery Pressure 10 - 20 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure 4 - 12 mm Hg
    Pulmonary Artery End Diastolic Pressure 8 - 10 mm Hg
    Right Atrial Pressure 4 - 6 mm Hg
    Right Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure 0 - 8 mm Hg

    NEUROLOGICAL VALUES
    Cerebral Perfusion Pressure 70 - 90 mm Hg
    Intracranial Pressure 5 - 15 mm Hg or 5 - 10 cm H2O

    ARTERIAL VALUES
    pH 7.35 - 7.45
    PaCO2 35 - 45 mm Hg
    HCO3 22 - 26 mEq/L
    O2 sat 92 - 100%
    PaO2 80 - 100 mm Hg
    BE -2 to +2 mmol/L

    VENOUS VALUES
    pH 7.31 - 7.41
    PaCO2 41 - 51 mm Hg
    HCO3 22 - 29 mEq/L
    O2 sat 60 - 85%
    PaO2 30 - 40 mm Hg
    BE 0 to +4 mmol/L

    Hormone / antagonist Life stage Value
    Progesterone (nanograms per milliliter or nano-moles per liter) < 1.0 ng/ml
    (< 3.18 nmol/L)
    17-Hydroxyprogesterone (nanograms per deciliter or nano-moles per liter) 5 –250 ng/dl
    ( 0.15 –7.5 nmol/L)
    Estradiol (picograms per milliliter or pico-moles per liter) < 60 pg/ml
    (< 185 pmol/L)
    FSH (units per liter) 1.0 –12.0 U/L

    LH (units per liter)
    2.0 –14.0 U/L
    SHBG (nano-moles per liter) 6–50 nmol/L
    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (nanograms per deciliter or nano-moles per liter) 180 –1250 ng/dl
    ( 6.24 –43.3 nmol/L)
    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (micrograms per deciliter) 10 –619 µg/dl
    Androstenedione (nanograms per milliliter) 0.8-2 ng/ml
    Androstenediol (nanograms per milliliter) 0.2-2 ng/ml
    Total testosterone - morning sample (nanograms per deciliter or nano-moles per liter) 270 –1070 ng/dl
    (9.36 –37.10 nmol/L)
    Free testosterone - morning sample (picrograms per milliliter or pico-moles per liter) 20 –40 yr 15.0 –40.0 pg/ml (520 –1387 pmol/L)
    41 –60 yr 13.0 –35.0 pg/ml (451 –1213 pmol/L)
    61 –80 yr 12.0 –28.0 pg/ml (416 –971 pmol/L)
    Prolactin (nanograms per milliliter) 0 –15 ng/ml
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    Q: I just got my blood work done to test my liver enzymes and such, and they just called me and said everything was fine. But what is “Fine”? Don’t I have a right to see them and go over them with my doctor? Getting the high sign is great, but it was pretty vague, too.

    A: You do, and it’s fairly unprofessional to be that vague when it’s an entire blood assay that’s been performed (which we’re assuming was done). Call your doctor back and set up a “follow up” appointment for his office only. Specify that it is to discuss results in-depth, as a follow up to a paid visit, and that you do not expect to have to pay for the doctor’s explanation since it was a part of earlier services already compensated. If you don’t specify this ahead of time, those sneaky office managers and receptionists always find a way to charge you at the time or bill you later. If you don’t have insurance, this can be deadly. If they won’t grant you face to face time with Mr. Wonderful, MD, then ask for him to return your phone call to discuss your levels and compare it to whatever baseline you have had established when you weren’t taking AAS. By the way, it merits mentioning that having a “baseline reading” of your blood work as a non-AAS using human is very, very important. It’s what they will compare to every time as your established normal chemistry. Perhaps in 20 years, they will not use it, but it’s important to renew your baseline “normal” chemistry every 10 years or so. Going off ‘roids to do that is important.
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    And of course many of you will have questions about drug testing.

    There is little question that drug testing has become an integral part of most competitive sports. Performance enhancing drugs are of course banned by most governing athletic bodies, and as such the use of various testing methods have been employed to deter and detect violators of drug abuse policies. If you have been following the Sydney Olympics you have no doubt been witness to the numerous athlete disqualification's for steroids and other performance enhancing drugs. Does this mean that a handful of athletes have went ahead and unfairly used performance enhancing drugs to compete against the majority of clean competitors? Hardly. In reality a little game has developed between the athletes and governing bodies. The athletes often have planned and implement drug use regimens that will allow for the greatest chance of a clean urine sample upon testing, and the athletic committees struggle to stay one step ahead of the athletes in detecting violators. In many instances the athletes have not planned correctly, and as a result are disqualified from competition, even stripped of medals. But clearly drug use remains to be an inextricable side of competitive athletics. In this article we will take a closer look at the drug policies and testing methods employed in professional sports, as well as the private work place.
    Olympic Athletes
    NCAA Athletes
    Standard Work Place
    How long do steroids stay in your system?


    Olympic Athletes
    WHAT HAPPENS IN A OLYMPIC DRUG TEST?
    For an event test, the athletes selected for a drug test are notified immediately following the event (for example, at the end of the 400m sprint or Rugby League Grand Final). For "out of competition" testing athletes are normally notified by telephone that they will have to have a drug test done within the next 24 hours. ASDA can, however, conduct some "no notice - out of competition testing" if an International Sporting Federation requests "Out of competition" tests are normally carried out at training sessions.
    The athlete will be accompanied to the drug control (an area which has been set up for the testing) by a chaperone. Chaperones are nominated by ASDA, not the sporting organization. The athlete may also be accompanied by their coach or manager.
    To do a drug test an athlete must give a urine sample. Sealed drinks are provided to help the athlete go to the toilet.
    When an athlete is ready to go to the toilet the chaperone accompanies them into the toilet. The chaperone must watch them pass their urine into a small plastic container.
    The athlete will go back and secure their urine sample by pouring it into two small bottles. These bottles are identified as the A sample and the B sample. The A sample will be tested first, and if positive the B sample will be tested for confirmation.
    The A and B samples are packed into small cases known as envopacks and locked with special seals. They are then sent to the laboratory for analysis.
    The Australian Sports Drug Testing Laboratories (ASDTL) in Sydney test the urine for banned drugs. The main groups of drugs that athletes are banned from using are:
    Stimulants - e.g. cocaine, amphetamines, pseudoephedrine
    Narcotic Analgesics - (painkillers) e.g. morphine, dextropropoxyphene
    Anabolic Steroids - e.g. stanozolol
    Diuretics
    Other Hormones e.g. Human Growth Hormone
    Beta-blockers are banned in sports where they are likely to enhance performance
    WHAT HAPPENS IF AN OLYMPIC ATHLETE IS CAUGHT USING BANNED DRUGS?
    A positive test result (i.e. a sample that contains a banned drug) can lead to an athlete being disqualified from their sport. In Australia, the athlete's sporting organization decides on the ban that will be given for a positive test result.
    The accidental or inadvertent use of a banned substance such as those contained in many cough and cold medicines is commonly known as inadvertent doping. This will usually incur a less serious ban.
    Many common medicines contain banned drugs. Athletes should check with a doctor or coach before they take anything.
    If an athlete refuses to take a drug test they are considered to have a positive test result and may be banned from their sport.



    NCAA Athletes
    WHAT HAPPENS IN A NCAA DRUG TEST?
    Each academic year the student athlete shall sign a form prescribed by the Council in which the student athlete consents to be tested for the use of drugs prohibited by NCAA legislation. Failure to complete and sign the consent form prior to practice or competition in Divisions I and II sports in which the Association conducts year-round drug testing and prior to competition in all other sports in Divisions I, II and III shall result in the student athlete's ineligibility for participation (i.e., practice and competition) in all intercollegiate athletics.
    Student athletes who fail to sign the notification form or signature form, fail to arrive at the collection station at the designated time without justification, fail to provide a urine sample according to protocol, leave the collection station before providing a specimen according to protocol, or attempt to alter the integrity or validity of the urine specimen will be treated as if there were a positive for a banned substance.
    Student athletes competing in Divisions I-A, I-AA or II football or Division I indoor or outdoor track and field are subject to year-round testing.
    At NCAA team championship events, immediately after any established cool down period after the event, student athletes selected for drug testing will be notified by a crew member. Each student athlete will be instructed to read and sign the Team Championship Student Athlete Notification Form. The notification form will instruct the student athlete to report to the collection station within one hour, unless otherwise directed by the crew chief or designate.
    At NCAA on-campus, nonchampionship testing events, the student athlete will be notified of and scheduled for testing by the institution. The institution will notify the student athlete of the date and time to report to the collection station and will have the student athlete read and sign any Student Athlete Notification Form
    Student athletes shall provide identification when entering the drug testing station.
    When ready to urinate, the student athlete will select a sealed beaker from a supply of such and will record his/her initials on the beaker's lid.
    A crew member will monitor the furnishing of the specimen by observation in order to assure the integrity of the specimen until a specimen of at least 80 ml is provided.
    If the specimen is incomplete the student athlete must remain in the collection station under observation of a crew member until the sample is completed. During this period, the student athlete is responsible for keeping the collection beaker closed and controlled.
    If a student athlete is suspected of manipulating specimens (e.g., via dilution), the NCAA will have the authority to perform additional tests on that student athlete, not to exceed two consecutive negative tests.
    WHAT HAPPENS IF AN NCAA ATHLETE IS CAUGHT USING BANNED DRUGS?
    For student athletes who have a positive finding, The Center will contact the director of athletics or a designate by telephone as soon as possible. The telephone contact will be followed by "overnight/signature required" letters (marked "confidential") to the chief executive officer and the director of athletics. The institution shall notify the student athlete of the finding.
    A positive finding may be appealed by the institution to the NCAA competitive safeguards committee or a subcommittee thereof. The institution shall notify the student athlete of the positive test and of the right to appeal.
    Student athletes who have a positive finding are declared ineligible.
    NCAA Banned Anabolic Steroids and Diuretics
    Anabolic Agents:
    androstenediol, androstenedione, boldenone, clostebol, dehydrochlormethyl-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dromostanolone, fluoxymesterone, mesterolone, methandienone, methenolone, methyltestosterone, nandrolone, norandrostenediol, norandrostenedione, norethandrolone, oxymesterone, oxymetholone, stanozolol, testosterone, Clenbuterol.
    Diuretics:
    acetazolamide, bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, bumetanide, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, ethacrynic acid, flumethiazide, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, methyclothiazide, metolazone, polythiazide, quinethazone, spironolactone, triamterene, trichlormethiazide
    The above is a brief overview of the NCAA Drug Test Protocol for more information please visit http://www.ncaa.org/sports_sciences...ting/index.html



    Standard Work Place
    WHAT HAPPENS IN A STANDARD WORK PLACE DRUG TEST?
    We contacted several drug screening services representing thousands of businesses and not a single one tested for anabolic steroids. What is being tested for varies greatly based on testing company, expense, expectations, federal requirements etc., mostly the ladder. Following is a description of what to expect from the standard tests.
    Federal government guidelines (by NIDA-The National Institute on Drug Abuse and SAMHSA-The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) require that companies which use commercial class drivers licenses for employees must have a testing system in place. Among other things, this required testing program must test for 5 specific categories of drugs (sometimes referred to as the "NIDA 5"). Because of this federal requirement, most drug testing companies offer a basic drug test which checks for drugs in these 5 common categories.

    Cannabinoids (marijuana, hash)
    Cocaine (cocaine, crack, benzoylecognine)
    Amphetamines (amphetamines, methamphetamines, speed)
    Opiates (heroin, opium, codeine, morphine)
    Phencyclidine (PCP)
    Expanded Tests
    Most drug testing companies also offer an expanded test which includes a few additional drugs in the testing process. Most do not add all of these in their expanded test, but choose a different combination of 3 or 4 to add :
    Barbituates (Phenobarbital, Secobarbitol, Butabital)
    Methaqualone (Qualuudes)
    Benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, Serax, Rohypnol)
    Methdone
    Propoxyphene (Darvon compounds)
    Ethanol
    Additional Tests
    In addition, there are a few other substances which it is possible but quite unusual to test for. I only found reference to testing for these additional substances at 1 (out of 15) drug testing site :
    LSD
    Hallucinogens (Psilocybin, Mescaline, MDMA, MDA, MDE)
    Inhalents (Toluene, Xylene, Benzene)
    TEST TYPES
    There are three primary types of drug tests: blood, urine, and hair. Most common is the urine test which has the benefit of being inexpensive and less intrusive than the blood test.
    Urine Tests
    Are the least expensive of the test methods (~$25-$50)
    Can be done at home (for example by parents).
    Detect use primarily within the past week (longer with regular use).
    Can be affected by abstaining from use for a period of time before the test
    Are often temperature tested to insure sample integrity
    Hair Tests
    Are considered the least intrusive method of drug testing.
    Are currently many times more expensive than urine tests (~$100-$150).
    Detect substance use over a longer period (see detection period)
    Do not usually detect use within the past week.
    Require a sample of hair about the diameter of a pencil and 1.5 inches long. They can not be done with a single hair.
    Test positive a little more than twice as often as a urine test. In a recent study, out of 1823 paired hair and urine samples, 57 urine samples tested positive for drugs of abuse; while 124 hair samples from the same group tested positive.
    Are not significantly affected by brief periods of abstinence from drugs.
    Can sometimes be used to determine when use occurred and if it has been discontinued. Drugs, such as opiates (codeine, morphine, heroin) lay down on the hair shaft very tightly and are shown not to migrate along the shaft, thus, if a long segment of hair is available one can draw some "relative" conclusions about when the use occurred. However cocaine, although very easy to detect, is able to migrate along the shaft; making it very difficult to determine when the drug was used and for how long.
    Claims to be able to reliably differentiate between opiate and poppy seed use
    Blood Tests
    Are considered the most intrusive method of testing.
    Are the most expensive method of testing
    Are the most accurate method of testing
    Are the least common method of testing (most likely due to cost)
    WHAT HAPPENS IF AN EMPLOYEE OR FUTURE EMPLOYEE TESTS POSITIVE?
    A positive test result can lead to being fired or suspended. For new hires testing positive you will most likely not get the job.


    How long do steroids stay in your system?
    18 months+ * nandrolone decanoate
    nandrolone undecanoate
    nandrolone laurate
    boldenone undecylenate
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    9 months** nandrolone phenylpropionate
    nandrolone cypionate
    methenolone enanthate
    trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3-6 months** testosterone-mix (Sustanon & Omnadren)
    testosterone enanthate
    testosterone cypionate
    trenbolone acetate
    drostanolone propionate
    clostebol acetate
    methandriol dipropionate
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3 months injectabel stanozolol
    injectable methandienone
    formebolone
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1-1.5 months*** oxymetholone
    fluoxymesterone
    methandienone
    mesterolone
    ethylestrenol
    norethadrolone
    oxandrolone
    oral stanozolol
    methyltestosterone
    testosterone propionate
    oral testosterone undecanoate
    oral methenolone acetate
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1-2 weeks Clenbuterol
    * Long-chain esterified injectable steroids are the most unreliable in terms of determining an actual clearance time. Their extremely low water solubility and high affinity for fat give them the ability to be stored in small amounts in body tissues for many months after use. These are the most dangerous types of drugs for tested competitors to use, particularly when being administered heavily in the off season.
    ** Short or medium chain esterified injectables are cleared from the body more rapidly than long chain injectables, however are still somewhat inconsistent in terms of calculable clearance times. It is safest to use such compounds only in the off season, provided this season protects the user from drug testing.
    *** Oral steroids are the most reliable in terms of rapid clearance time. In many cases the athlete can safely use such compounds three weeks out from a drug test and return a negative result. The time frame of 1-1 1/2 months was provided as a guideline for maximum safety. The short chain esterified injectable testosterone propionate was included in this category due to the fact that testosterone metabolites will only cause a drug test failure if they appear in unusually high quantities (in relation to epitestosterone metabolites). Should agencies adopt procedures that look for the actual esterified compound in blood, this would be moved to one of the categories listing other small to medium chain steroids.




    OTHER SUBSTANCES----------- URINE-----HAIR
    Alcohol---------------------------- 6-12 hrs- n/a
    Amphetamines------------------ 4-5 days- up to 90 days
    Barbiturates--------------------- 2-12 days-n/a
    Benzodiazepines--------------- 1-42 days-n/a
    Cannabis (single use)--------- 24-72 hrs-up to 90 days
    Cannabis (habitual use)------ up to 12 wks
    Cocaine-------------------------- 4-5 days-up to 90 days
    Codeine/Morphine------------- 2-4 days-up to 90 days
    Heroin---------------------------- 8 hrs-----up to 90 days
    PCP------------------------------- 2-10 days-up to 90 days
    All detection times are approximate.
    Times may oscillate between a occasional user (1 a year)
    vs. habitual user (4 times plus a week).
    __________________
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    The 17 Most Deadly Mistakes - Even Expert
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1. Lack of General Steroid Education: what you don't know
    can hurt you! You need to know what certain types of
    steroids do, how to stack and cycle for max results with
    minimum risks, injection procedures (you CAN kill yourself
    if you don't do this correctly) etc. You need to know the
    dangers and how to take steroids safely.
    2. Listening to the Wrong Advice: You cannot take anyones
    advice without reasearching yoursefl from a reliable source
    of information (like this site). Knowledge is Power.
    Therefore, one must read as much as possible, gather all
    available information, then ask as many questions as
    possible. Whatever you do, just don't take advice from the
    first guy that comes along.
    3. Starting Steroid Use Too Young: This can cause numerous
    problems not only physically but mentally, since most 18-20
    year olds are not mature enough to handle the elevated test
    levels and ignore the media hype of "roid rage", and
    physically you can damage permanently growth plates and HPTA
    4. Using Counterfeits: Counterfeit steroids are a bigger
    problem than you would believe, there are more counterfeit
    steroids in the market than you would think. These steroids
    offer no positive gains, and some give the side effects of
    real steroids. Taking counterfeit steroids is like injecting
    poison into your body, bad effects nothing positive.
    5. Using Excessive Dosages: When taking steroids, the more
    you take is not always the best way to go. Taking excessive
    dosages has become a huge problem with steroids today. It
    isn't only dangerous, but studies have shown it to be
    ineffective. The body can only use a limited amount of the
    steroid so the extra is turned into estrogen by the body.
    6. Staying On Steroids Too Long: In several cases, steroid
    users avoid waring signs telling them not to go on a cycle
    more than 8 to 12 weeks without an off period. If an off
    period is not taken, there is a higher chance for the
    negative effects of steroids to occur. If there is no off
    period the body does not have a chance to recover from the
    steroids, so more damage is done. This also is terrible for
    the kidneys and liver.
    7. Eating Poorly: Many people ignore magazines and educators
    that explain eating as being an important asset to growing,
    but the truth is, eating healthy has a big effect on the
    body. When on steroids the user must comsume between 4000
    and 7000 calories a day, not meaning eat only fat foods. The
    diet must be high in calories and protein, but low in fat.
    8. Training Incorrectly: When on steroids the training must
    be intense and difficult. Instead of the usual weight that
    suits you, you must do excess weight and strenuous work for
    the best gains. The workout should involve the maximum
    weight possible, and make progress each time.
    9. Not Getting Regular Blood Tests: Steroids are very
    dangerous and can cause great problems. Blood tests should
    be done often and regularly. When steroids are first taken
    many tests become elevated but will return to normal with in
    a few weeks. During the off period tests should also be done
    to make sure the body is recovering properly. If there is a
    problem with the Blood test, consult a doctor that you can
    trust.
    10. Using The Wrong Steroids: Many athletes will increase
    their chances of getting negative effects when they take the
    wrong steroids. The strongest steroids that build more
    muscle mass, have the most side effects. These drugs should
    be avoided if possible, unless there is a reason to have an
    unbelievable gain. But these drugs are very toxic and we
    would recommend not taking them.
    11. Not Learning How To Hold On To Your Gains Without
    Steroids: Unless you learn how to do this you will never
    achieve true long term gains and run the risk of becoming a
    "non-stop user".
    12. Improper Injection Procedures: This is so important that
    it CANNOT be skipped over, the risks of injecting without
    knowledge are massive, we personally know of a kid who
    nearly killed himself injecting steroids intravenously!
    13. Lack Of Preparation and Planning: Not being fully
    prepared and having everything you need before you start
    your cycle. Not being sure you have time set aside to train
    correctly, prepare food, rest etc. Without careful planning
    and preparation you will achieve very little. Poor storage
    in the home, gym, or where-ever. Poor cycle stacking. Poor
    anti-estrogen choices.
    14. Starting On Gear For the Wrong Reasons: Because your
    friends are doign them. Because you think everyone else in
    your gym is on. Thinking that if you use AAS you don't have
    to work as hard to gain quality muscle, not thinking about
    the consequences before you start, once you start you can
    never go back! Being willing to accept the risks associated.
    Don't bow to peer pressure, it's your health and your life.
    15. Not Being Physically Ready to Start Steroids: Steroids
    are not magic, they are the icing on the cake and starting
    on them without first having a basic training foundation is
    dangerous.
    16. Neglecting Personal Security: Not using secure and
    discreet online tactics when ordering. Not being security
    concious when ordering or researching steroids online
    (unencrypted email communications, unsecure websites, not
    cleaning your online "footprints", not thinking that the
    authorities won't go after the "little guy" as well).
    Talking loosely about your steroid use.
    17. Sacrificing Overall Health: It's not just about pure
    muscle gains, don't forget cardio vascular health,
    flexibility, internal organs, muscles, ligaments, testicles,
    mental health (steroid obesession - don't let steroids
    affect your life and relationships) etc. Thinking that
    because your "big" and ripped, that you're actually
    functionally strong. Focusing only on "showbiz" mucles and
    not on supporting, under-lying ones.
    Author: Dr. No
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    Injection site pain


    1) Tissue Irritation
    This is probably the most likely cause of post injection pain and the least serious. Tissue irritation is likely to start 12-24 hours after injection, pain can be mild to moderate depending on the level of tissue irritation and the volume injected. The injection site is likely to swell within the muscle, maybe red and likely to be warm and very firm to the touch. The pain and swelling will start to fade after 72 hours and can last over a week in the worst cases. The most likely causes of tissue irritation are:
    The hormone crashes out of the solution in the depot. This causes crystallisation of the hormone, this in turn places a lot of pressure on the nerve endings in the muscle belly causing knotting, swelling and pain - this is most common in long chain esters, high mg/ml concentration gear and gear compounded with less than idea oil blends.
    A reaction to the acid compounds within the ester. With the metabolic breakdown of the ester attached to the hormone free form acids are released which can cause the muscle tissue rapid irritation at the injection site – this is most common with propionic acid of the propionate ester. Poor quality raw materials also liberate more freeform acids.

    Newb muscles. Of course everyone knows your first injections are the worst. Over time your body will build a tolerance.

    Excessive preservative. If too much benzyl Alcohol is used to formulate the solution inflammation and pain may result. Pharma grade usually contains 0.9% Benzyl alcohol where the common senseu states UGL products contain on average 2%. Anything above 1.2% offers no added anti-microbial effects. Due to water soluable nature of benzyl alcohol tissue irritation of this nature has been known to “travel” as the excessive alcohol disperses via the blood stream. This is most common with injection into the quads (vastus lateralis).The pain travels down toward the knee. This may however be in part due to lymphatic drainage and leads me nicely to my next point.
    Ice and ibuprofen may help with the swelling. Hot baths, showers and massage of the injection site may help to distribute the injection and reduce pain.

    2) Hitting the lymphatic system.
    Hitting the lymphatic system is very rare. The lymphatic system is as vast as the circulatory system but the standard injection sights (Glute, ventro-glute, medial delts and vastus lateralis) are generally void of lymphatic nodes. If a lymph node is hit with an injection pain is likely to be severe and edema vast. The swelling will come on very fast and be extensive. It is also likely to “travel” along the lymph system to the next lymph gland. This is most noticeable with a vastus lateralis shot where the swelling tracks down toward the back of the knee. Unlike the edema experienced with tissue irritation (within the muscle only) the edema with a lymphatic puncture will be both inter and intra-muscular with a moderate amount of swelling just underneath the skin giving it a softer puffy feel. This can be tested for by pressing the swollen area with your finger, if in indent remains you have a more systematic edema and more than just local tissue irreation. The other most noticeable difference is that the swelling should not be warm/hot to touch.
    Ice and ibuprofen may help. The affected area must be rested and the patient can expect pain and swelling to start to disperse after 72 hours and last at least 10 days. The painful area must not be massaged.

    3) Infection and abscess.
    So now to the most serious reason for injection pain. An infection will start in the same manner as tissue irritation with local pain and swelling, with heat and redness around the muscle. The major difference is that after 72 hours tissue irritation should start to subside, if the area is indeed infected this pain and swelling will get worse. The swelling will change in nature becoming more systematic and edema will start to form under the skin becoming softer and more spongy (as described with a lymphatic puncture).

    There are many reasons why an infection can manifest, below are some of the most common examples.
    Poor injection technique. Correct, and sterile injection technique is a must. You must make sure the injection site and rubber stopper is clean and swabbed with an alcohol wipe.
    Also the moisture from the alcohol swab must be allowed to dry before preparing to inject. It is extremely rare but if the alcohol is not allowed to dry the bacterium has not been allowed adequate time to be killed off. If this partly destroyed bacterium was then pushed into a muscle through an Inter-muscular injection the bacterium can “evolve” into a superbug. My wife’s horse died this way due to an impatient vet.
    You should always use a clean and new syringe barrel and pin and not allow the pin to touch anything before you inject. Avoid pinning through a hair follicle or hair and don’t be tempted to inject too quickly. Injecting too quickly can increase the risk of infection as this in turn increases injection trauma.
    Not rotating injection sites. The risk of infection is massively increased if the same injection site is used over and over again without giving it time to recover. The more an injury (injection trauma) is irritated (re-injected) the more likely it is to become infected. Think back to being a child and picking that scab on your knee excessively and then being told “I told you so” when it becomes a yellow puss infected mess.
    Contaminated Gear. IMO this is probably the least common cause of infection with oil based injections (I cannot say the same for water based injections). This is a no brainer really. Use a reputable UGL or pharma and avoid water based suspensions.

    What to do in the case of an infection.

    So the pain and swelling has not subsided and the edema is pitting and moving outside the confides of the muscle fascia after 72 hours. With an infection the body is attempting to contain the bacterium and prevent it from
    reaching the circulatory system by forming a cyst. This is essential to prevent blood poisoning

    GET TO A DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY AND HAVE HIM TAKE A LOOK AT YOU. THERE IS NO DOCTORS ON THIS SITE!!!!!!!!!!!!!! You need medical help at this point.
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    If you have questions feel free to pm me or post in this thread and I will do my best to get to you. If there is a subject that You would like to learn more about please feel free to let me know and I will do my best to compile information and write about that topic for you.

    A big thank you to all the masters who have come before me and all the people I have learned from along the way. We all learn from each other and if not for the men and woman who helped pave the way before us we would all be shooting the the dark. We are all far more advanced today then we were 10 years ago and it is because of them that we were.
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    Very nice tutorial, I've not read all of it yet but will be coming back to complete my lesson!

    Kudos for posting this!
    Quote Originally Posted by bdcc View Post
    If you are not on the PES Insider list you are not cool. Uncool people don't deserve free Alphamine.
    PES product educator, PM me with any questions!
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    Quote Originally Posted by Delta Force View Post
    Very nice tutorial, I've not read all of it yet but will be coming back to complete my lesson!

    Kudos for posting this!
    Any time my man. I will keep adding to the thread as I write.
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    GREAT POST!! :-)
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    shIIt man, thats alot of info. man, if your new to hormones, you got it all laid out for you easily. needto is so nice, me, i'd tell you to google search like I had to do.
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    Nice, this should be a staple in the anabolics section if it already is, my b can't tell off of my phone
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    holy sh1t Nate.. ****ing great post man. Tons of info here
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    Great post Need2
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    Too long did not read.......Cliffs?


    Haha just playing (I skimmed it ha) very good information there.
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    Quote Originally Posted by BarbellBeast View Post
    holy sh1t Nate.. ****ing great post man. Tons of info here
    I will add more, if anyone wants to know more about any subject just post it and i will have a full write up on it in a week tops.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Grambo View Post
    Too long did not read.......Cliffs?


    Haha just playing (I skimmed it ha) very good information there.
    Its all old news to you my man.. Well maybe not all of it but most of it.
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    tons of great info in here!!
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    killing it
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    Quote Originally Posted by needtogetmuscle View Post
    killing it
    Always
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    niiiice
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    Over the last 4-5 years there has been one subject people have come to me for help with over ans over again. One subject and one problem that every man fears and no man wishes on even there worst enemy. Gyno is a horrible horrible thing to deal with. It can ruin your life, rob you of confidence and change the way you look, act, and feel about your self. Often it leaves people feeling hopeless if they can not get rid of gyno right away and then surgery seems to be the only option they have to turn to.

    Gyno surgery is not a cheap option though. It can cost not only thousands of dollars but life long problems and side effects. A messed up surgery job can never be fixed and once its done you are stuck with it.

    Thankfully we have advanced and many of us are starting to learn that in time almost any if not all gyno can be cured with out surgery. Some times it may only take a month or two but for others it can take up to a year. However all gyno can be cured with the right combination of drugs,products, and cycles.

    The main problem is no one knows how, or is willing to trust another to show them. Well for years now I have been helping thousands of people with gyno and I am happy about what I do. I do not charge for it because I feel charging a man when he is down like that is immoral and wrong. So I offer my service free of charge to hundreds of people a day when I have the time ( I always find the time). My friends some of the info in this Article may seem jumbled or even hard to understand to many. Try and read everything and understand what you can. In the end just remember I am always here to help you and you can ask me anything you like, Send me a pm, a email, or even call me any time I am always here to help a fellow friend or brother in Iron.

    Just because you think I am to busy, or because you do not know me very well yet is no reason not to contact me. I am here to serve the members of this forum and all people who need help. This is no laughing matter and some people out there need serous help. That is why I am here!!!! :biggrin: I assure you that your gyno ( any kind) can be prevented and or cured. Do not believe the hype that the only way is surgery



    First before we can understand how to combat and deal with gyno we must first have a better understanding of the hormones involved with creating gyno. What they are, what they do, and even where they come from.

    What is Estrogen?

    Estrogen hormones are vital to the estrous cycle, and function as the primary female sex hormone. It also contains neuro-stimulative properties which is why too much estrogen can cause anxiety. Estrogen is synthesized in all vertebrate mammals as well as certain insects. The existence of these steroid hormones in both mammals and insects conveys that estrogenic sex hormones have an antique evolutionary account.


    E1 (good estrogen plays a role in bone formation and bone preservation. Estrogen does also play a role in preservation of cholesterol through increasing High Density Lipoprotein levels and lowering Low Density Lipoprotein levels. Estrogen also allows for healthy looking skin since it increases the production rate of melanin which explains why women are so pretty! Just take a look at Marilyn Monroe the perfect example of a beautiful bottle shaped women with plenty of estradiol. Estrogen also keeps women in a better mood, specifically estradiol.

    Unfortunately, Estrogen (E2) also plays a role in initiating prostate/breast cancer. Estrogen also aggravates blood platelet aggression which could lead to a severe blood clot, which leads to a stroke or heart attack/heart disease. Estrogen decreases fecal matter motility which leads to constipation. Estrogen also leads to loss of muscle mass and gains of fat deposits within the adipose tissues. Estrogen also leads to an increase in cortisol levels along with a rise in SHBG's. This quickly will lead to a DROP IN TESTOSTERONE! In theory, this could explain why steroid user's testosterone levels do not come back 100% percent with when usinga SERM alone for pct!! there is documentation showing that Selective Estrogen Modulators raise SHBG levels as well as studies that show they " raise not lower" estrogen levels.


    There are other sources of estrogen as well; the other common types are xenoestrogens, mycoestrogens, and phytoestrogens.

    These are outside sources of estrogen and we encounter them every day of our lives. often they are the cause for pubertal gyno a grossly growing problem around the world.


    Xenoestrogens are chemically produced compounds that have estrogenic effects and differ chemically from naturally occurring estrogenic substances such as female estrogen hormones. As a heterogeneous group of chemicals that are hormonally living compounds. Xenoestrogens show similarity to other estrogens such as phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens. Xenoestrogens also have pharmacological estrogens (estrogenic action is an intended effect, as in the contraceptive pill), but of course other chemicals can too have estrogenic effects. Xenoestrogens have been presented to the environment by industrial, agricultural, chemical companies and consumers only in the last 70 years give or take. However; archiestrogens have been a omnipresent part of the environment even prior to the existence of the human race. There is evidence that shows xenoestrogens create oncogenes by overstimulating proto-oncogenes. When an oncogene is highly stimulated it becomes a tumor cell which we all know is bad news. There is significant evidence in a variety of recent studies linking xenoestrogens to the onset of breast cancer by an increase in breast cancer growth within in the tissue of the mammary. Xenoestrogen exposure has shown to be a reason why boys have delayed pubertal onrises, these xenoestrogens have also been linked to giving pubertal boys gynecomastia or also known as GYNO. Gyno does not look appealing can really lower a young man or adult's self esteem. Gyno makes the difference of someone not being able to take of the shirt at the beach because of the fear that someone may make them feel less of a man by pointing out the gyno on his chest. (Pediatrics. 2003 Jul;112(1 Pt 2):247-52.) Xenoestrogen exposure and consumption has also been linked to testicular atrophy and reduction of gondal size. This issue leads to a hault in spermatogenesis, reproductive problems, barely or no sperm motility, an increase in estrogen to testosterone ratio which leads to the cessation of testosterone production, all these issues become VERY problematic to the HPTA.

    One well known Xenoestrogen is BPA; which is known to dramatically decrease DNA methylation by increasing hypomethylation. This causes a sudden rise in estrogens which causes problems to the male endocrine system. Bisphenol A functions as a xenoestrogen by binding STRONGLY to estrogen-related receptor γ (ERR-γ). This unidentified ligand behaves as a constitutive activator of transcription. BPA seems to bind strongly to ERR-γ (dissociation constant = 5.5 nM), but not to the estrogen receptor (ER). BPA binds to the ERR-γ to preserve its basal constitutive activity. (J Biochem. 2007 Oct;142(4):517-24. Epub 2007 Aug 30.) BPA has also been linked to an increase in prostate size and aggrevating prostate cancer. Another study displayed how BPA is an estrogen agonist and causes PERMANENT growth in the prostate, in other words its irreversible which is NOT GOOD! Exogenous estrogen was also shown to be the culprit in permanent growth of the prostate. Just a heads up, BPA is what a lot of companies use to make their plastic, many coming from plastic bottles. You might want to give your kids more Brita or filtered water instead of plastic bottles to avoid exposure to BPA. Another option would be to avoid canned foods with their notoriety of containing BPA. The scary fact is that it does not have to be much BPA exposure in order to cause all these affects, which something people should really analyze. BPA has also been linked to causing a drop in dopamine which leads to a LOSS IN LIBIDO and a drop in memory, in other words, an aging brain. BPA has also been shown to have negative effects on the thyroids which can be detrimental to fat loss and the homeostasis of the body. I have seen people have such drastic weight fluctuations due to their thyroid malfunction condition. (Journal Of Health Science. Vol. 55 (2009), No. 2. 147-160).

    Nonylphenol is of the organic compounds which are subsets of the alkylphenols. Nonylphenol is a useful precursor to certain detergents/laundry detergents. They are even used in contraceptives and condoms, really scary stuff indeed. Nonylphenol is considered to be an endocrine disruptor due to frail ability to mimic estrogen and in turn; disrupt the HPTA of the male endocrine system. The effects of nonylphenol is not as potent as other Xenoestrogens because nonylphenols are not very close structural mimics of estradiol, but the levels of nonylphenol can be sufficiently high to cause damage to the male endocrine system. Nonylphenol has been commonly detected in waste water streams across the world, which is a problem since we wash our clothes with that same water. For example, nonylphenol has been detected both in the Great Lakes and in the region of New York City. Nonylphenol is persistent in the environment, therefore lingers with the potential to negatively affect the humans and of course males endocrine systems. Nonylphenol also accumulates overtime, which is dangerous to those who eat meat, another reason why people should very conscious of where they buy their meat from.

    Parabens are found in lotions and also known to be xenoestrogens with pro-breast cancer activity. However it is one of the weaker forms of xenoestrogens.

    There is some evidence suggesting that the food preservative BHA is also a xenoestrogen, California has already made it a policy to label BHA as a carcinogen.

    DDT which is a WELL KNOWN insecticide has also a xenoestrogen has been touted as an endocrine distributor because of its negative effects on semen quality. It's a highly estrogenic component that causes a decline in testosterone. There is research that shows that DDE a metabolite of DDT acts as anti-androgen. This means that one will feel and act less like a man when exposed to it, ranging from a lack of libido to being a straight up wimp. DDT has also been linked to causing increased risks of diabetes and also provoking a lack of function within the thyroid hormones. They have also linked DDT to testicular cancer, which is more proof for how destructive this xenoestrogen is to the endocrine system. DDT is also linked to breast cancer but that is pretty obvious since it is a XENOESTROGEN.

    As you can see Xenoestrogens range from sunscreen lotion to women's cosmetics, this lets you know that our endocrine system is threatened everyday just by our environment alone.

    My friends the odds are stacked against us, and it does not end here.
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    Phytoestrogens



    Phytoestrogens also known as "dietary estrogens", are a varied group of naturally occurring non-steroidal plant compounds that share of their similar structure with estradiol, and have the ability to cause estrogenic much more often than anti-estrogenic effects. Phytoestrogens primarily belong to a large group of substituted polyphenolic compounds; which comprise of the coumestans, prenylated flavonoids (the hobs you find in beer) and isoflavones (soybean are genistein and daidzein which are all bad for the endocrine system) are three of the most active in estrogenic effects in this class. The most researched and documented are the isoflavones, which are normally found in soy and red clover. Lignans have also been identified as phytoestrogens, although they are not flavonoids. Mycoestrogens have comparable structures and effects, but are not related to plants; they are mold metabolites of Fusarium. Phytoestrogens exert their effects mostly through binding to estrogen receptors (ER). There are two variants of the estrogen receptor, alpha (ER-α) and beta (ER-β) and numerous phytoestrogens display fairly higher affinity for ER-β compared to ER-α. Besides the interaction with estrogen receptors, phytoestrogens can also modulate the concentration of endogenous estrogen hormones by binding or ceasing efficiency of some enzymes, and this could affect the bioavailability of sex hormones by binding or stimulating the synthesis of sex hormone binding globuline. Foods with the highest relative phytoestrogen content were nuts and oilseeds, followed by soy products, cereals and breads, legumes, meat products, and other processed foods that may contain soy, vegetables, fruits, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic beverages. Flax seed and other oilseeds contained the highest total phytoestrogen content, followed by soybeans and tofu. The highest concentrations of isoflavones are found in soybeans and soybean products followed by legumes, whereas lignans are the primary source of phytoestrogens found in nuts and oilseeds (e.g. flax) and also found in cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables.

    Phytoestrogen concentration varies in diverse foods, and can contrast significantly within the same group of foods depending on processing mechanisms and the type of soybean extract used. Legumes, whole grain cereals, and several seeds are high in phytoestrogens. A more broad list of foods known to have phytoestrogens includes: soybeans, tofu, soy beverages, flax, sesame seeds, barley, dried beans, lentils, apples, carrots, pomegranates, wheatberries, oats, wheat germ, rice bran, soy linseed bread, ginseng, hops bourbon, beer, fennel yams, rice, alfalfa, mung beans and anise.


    There has been an increase in reports about incidences of male reproductive abnormalities and falling sperm counts have driven interest into the nature of these threats to worldwide fertility. Xenoestrogens have been flagged as major culprits. These non-steroidal estrogens/oestrogens of plant derivation are potent endocrine disruptors that modulate normal physiological functions. Phytoestrogens have also become a major factor in the usual Western fast food diet over the last few decades. Soy formula milk is another widespread source of phytoestrogens, now used increasingly as an alternative to breast or cow's milk for infants with allergies. This use is of a HUGE concern since the most vulnerable periods for oestrogenic abuse are thought to be the pre- and neonatal periods when almost irreversible harm can be brought onto the developing child. Studies concerning the safety of phytoestrogens are now needed either to relieve fears or increase awareness of the effects of our current diet on potential fertility. (2005, Vol. 8, No. 3 , Pages 197-207 (doi:10.1080/14647270500030266)).

    Phytoestrogens don't even provide benefit in women

    A HEALTHY women post menopausal consumes less than 1mg of phytoestrogens, which is pretty much nothing. There was a study conducted with 964 postmenopausal Caucasian women who participated in the Framingham Offspring Study and completed the Willett food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). By searching the agricultural and medical literature, they were able to identify food sources of phytoestrogens. The concentrations of the diverse isoflavones, coumestrol and lignans in each food in the FFQ were scored in seven categories, then multiplied by the serving size of the food, and the frequency of its expenditure. The estimated daily median intake of the isoflavone daidzein was 39 microg (24-57 microg); of genistein, 70 microg (28-120 microg); of formononetin, 31 microg (13-44 microg); and of biochanin A, 6 microg (2-11 microg). Median total intake of isoflavones was 154 microg (99-235 microg). The main sources of isoflavones were peas and soy beans. The estimated daily intake of coumestans was 0.6 microg (0.2-1.7 microg), with broccoli as the key source. The estimated daily median intake of matairesinol was 19 microg (12-28 microg) and of secoisolariciresinol 560 microg (399-778 microg). The median total intake of lignans was 578 microg (416-796 microg). The main source of the lignans was fruits. (J Nutr. 2001 Jun;131(6):1826-32.)

    As you see from the information above, one serving alone of these phytoestrogens can be detrimental to women's health over a period of time. Even more so to a man!

    Phytoestrogens have also been linked to immunosuppressive effects along a decrease in thyroid output function. These studies that linked phytoestrogens to immunodeficiency showed how consumption of SOY isoflavone and genistein lowered t-cells which we know is something that occurs usually in HIV/AIDS patients. HIV/AIDS is a diease which causes one's immune system to shut down completely allowing one to catch any disease.

    Estrogen is all around us; it is well known that the estradiol level in 55-year old men, for example, is usually a bit higher than that of a 55-year old woman. Unfortunately after the age of the 30, men's testosterone levels continue to plummet 10 percent every 10 years. Many factors lead to estrogen dominance ranging from life stress to the xenoestrogens we consume. A man, however, does not develop breasts because he has a higher testosterone level than women do and a lower estrogen ( the world is changing this).

    As men age, their estradiol levels gradually rise, whereas their progesterone and testosterone levels gradually fall. The hormone balance changes. These gradual changes lead to reduction in testosterone benefits and eventually to estrogen dominance.

    That is, a mans estradiol effects emerge since his testosterone level is not sufficient to block or balance out the Estrogen. The Estrogen Dominance then stimulates breast cell and prostate hypertrophy. Estrogen Dominance is responsible for the majority of breast cancers and is the only known cause of endometrial cancer in women. Since the male prostate is pretty much the equivalent of the uterus, it should not be unexpected that estrogen dominance is also a major cause of prostate cancer as stated before.

    In today's world estrogen dominance is accruing at a much younger age and at a much faster rate. Even for much younger when when estrogen is not completely dominant the much higher levels of estrogen is still causing life long problems.

    Estrogen dominance is a growing health concern for Men all over the world. Although it is more common in older men. It is quickly becoming a epidemic in younger men causing such problems as infertility, erectile dysfunction, enlarged prostate, and certain types of cancer. Many of the symptoms can be seen in our youth today. Many of the symptoms you may even notice in your own life.

    The symptoms of estrogen dominance in men include:

    Low sex drive
    Impotency/erectile dysfunction
    Infertility
    Male pattern baldness
    Gynecomastia, or "man boobs"
    Weight gain
    Enlarged prostate
    Prostate cancer
    Testicular cancer
    mood swings
    and many many more.

    Symptoms of the on set of gyno
    puffy nips
    Itchy and or sore nips
    lactating or fluid from the nipples
    Pain to the touch


    Gynecomestia

    In adolescent boys, the condition is often a source of distress, but for the large majority of boys whose pubescent gynecomastia is not caused by obesity, usually the breast enlargement shrinks or disappears within several years. The condition is usually caused by an imbalance of estrogenic to androgenic (usually estradiol to testosterone ratio) effects on the breast tissue, resulting in a surge of unconstrained estrogen action on breast tissue. Approximately only 4 to 10% cases of gynecomastia are due to drugs. The aromatization takes place in the cyto-chrome enzyme P-450. Both Digoxin and Furosemide are drugs reported to cause the gyno as well, however; anabolic androgenic steroids are the most common drugs in causing gynecomastia. Breast prominence can result from hypertrophy of the breast tissue, chest adipose tissue (fat) and skin, and is normally a combination of the two. Breast distinction due exclusively to too much adipose is often termed pseudogynecomastia aka psedogyno or sometimes lipomastia.

    Types of Gynecomastia

    Puffy Nips: is one of the more common forms of gynecomastia. This glandular tissue buildup is concentrated under and in general confined to the areola, however; it can be slightly extended outside the areola forming a dome shaped image to the areola.

    Glandular: This form of gyno is common with bodybuilders as a result of the use of anabolic androgenic steroids. The undeniable overload testosterone levels from AAS (specifically any form of test) are converted to estrogen via aromatization. Bodybuilders and along other athletes are afflicted with gynecomastia in its purest form when suffering from AAS gyno. However; drug-induced gynecomastia can almost be resolves with the use of proper supplementation, if caught before permanent fibrosis develops and even after it can still be cured.

    Gynecomastia in lean men is generally only a breast tissue gland with no added adipose tissue; heavier men will have sloppier looking gyno because of the adipose tissue covering the glandular tissue. Guaranteed treatment of pure gynecomastia can be done simply by removal of the breast tissue, which also rids of the gyno tissue. Most of the time the glandular tissue is benign but at times it can become malignant, so gyno is NO laughing matter and must be taken serious especially during or after a cycle. So good bro's make sure you keep an eye out on your chest during cycle and take good care of yourself during and post cycle. Again I must stress that any and almost all gyno can be treated with out surgery but in some cases it is better to take care of it sooner rather then later.

    Adolescent/Pubertal Gynecomastia: The Congenital or Hereditary Gynecomastia is on average evident by the ages of 9 to 18 in young males. About thirty percent to sixty percent of young adolescent boys experience pubertal gynecomastia. UNFORTUNATELY, thirty percent possibly will live with enlarged male breasts for the rest of their lives, but in other cases the gynecomastia will go away with age. However, severe forms of adolescent gynecomastia may require an involvement, in conference with the patient, the parents, and child development professionals. Now of course there is hope for men who have lived with gyno all of there lives. Your parents may have neglected it but there is no reason you have to.



    Adult or andropause gyno: This is the most common form of gynecomastia due to declining androgen levels with a rise in estrogen in elderly or post andropause men. Gynecomastia based off of post andropause in most adults is composed mainly of glandular tissue but it may contain varying amounts of adipose and tough tissue. Now you know why old men have those wrinkly chests that look like they never had the shape of pecs on them before.

    Asymmetric/Unilateral: Unilateral gynecomastia occurs when only one breast is bigger due to a case of gynecomastia. The other breast is usually normal in size and shape. Bilateral Asymmetry occurs when gynecomastia is present in both breasts, of course; each being to a different degree. Most bodybuilders and boys during puberty acquire unilateral gyno, and by a pretty big margin I might add.

    Severe gynecomastia: is described as an excess or loose skin, and severely enlarged breasts. This form of gyno is determined in part by age, reason being older people suffering from gynecomastia tend to have less skin elasticity and therefore will have a greater profusion of excess skin associated to gynecomastia. Experienced plastic surgeons will perform as much of the surgical treatment of severe gynecomastia as feasible through an aereolar incision so as to avoid widespread scarring. However, some scarring may be inevitable when treating severe cases of gynecomastia. The larger the gyno the more the scaring and this is why even if you are going to have surgery once should try to reduce gyno in size as much as possible beforehand
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    Pseudogynecomastia: is not composed of glandular tissue, but rather of adipose tissue (fat). It looks a lot like typical gynecomastia but requires different treatment. Exercise and diet can be very effective in preventing and fighting off pseudogynecomastia. Only if this regimen is unsuccessful should surgery be considered an option. This is generally the only type of gynecomastia which can be improved with liposuction, but removal may be used in some cases as well. This form of gyno is also known as "false Gynecomastia" and is often associated with obesity whereby insulin interacts with a surplus of sugars or certain carbohydrates, specifically those of which that have been processed.


    Not just estrogen causes gyno!!


    PROGESTERONE. IGF, GH, AND PROLACTIN INDUCED GYNECOMASTIA

    Gynecomastia can be as a result of a number of agents including estrogens, progestins, GH, IGF-1, and prolactin may all be involved. Regarding prolactin, androgens decrease prolactin levels while estrogens increase prolactin. Non-aromatizing androgens such as DHT have by no means been shown to raise prolactin levels in humans, but testosterone has, due to its aromatization to estradiol. Prolactin secreting tumors also known as prolactinomas, are often linked with gyno. Of course in these cases the prolactin is believed to induce gyno by suppressing testosterone production. Prolactinomas that are adequately large to cause gynecomastia, do cause gyno as a consequence of the impairment of Gonadotropin secretion, which leads to secondary hypogonadism. Remember Prolactin only has a direct effect on breast tissue only when estrogen is present so they say ( how much is needed?). This is why they say lowering estrogen levels will lead to lower prolactin levels and then eventually less occupied progesterone receptors. Keep in mind just using something to lower estrogen will not cure gyno when progesteonr/prolactin is one of the culprits. Also take into consideration that as IGF and GH levels rise, they will also rise within the mammary glands which could cause a growth of glandular tissue if the rise in IGF and GH is too rapid. This in basic terms means you got the GYNO.


    After awhile, excess levels of prolactin also lead to laction which is when the mammary gland secretes milk. I don't know about you my friend but milk coming from my nips just is not something I want to experience. And I have no plans to feed young children even my own. Secretion is not the only way of knowing your gyno is of progesterone/prolactin nature but it is one clear indicator.


    Aromatizing AAS

    There are AAS that are more likely to induce gynecomastia whether it be due to aromatization or aromatization with progesterone site binding. Here is a small/general list of the more common and moderate to high aromatizing compounds.

    Any form of Testosterone

    Dianabol

    Deca Durabolin/nanodrolone (progesterone)

    MethylTestosterone

    Methyltrienolone

    Any form of Trenbolone (progesterone)and androgenic

    Anadrol 50 Receptor cross over

    Nondrolone Laurate (progesterone)

    Norethandrolone

    M 1,4ad

    13-ethyl-3-methoxy-gona-2,5(10)-dien-17-one (progesterone)

    2a, 17a-dimethyl-etiocholan-3-one-17b-ol

    13 ethyl 3 methoxy

    4-ad


    Many people have reported receiving gyno from Superdrol, people question those accusations since superdrol is a 5aReduced compound, however; Professor Filimanov the formulator of Need2Slin.

    " Prolactin is normaly caused by progestins, but can also be caused by dht, how?
    For example, it is currently understood that when testosterone enters the cell cytoplasm it is subsequently converted to the more "active" androgen, dihydrotestosterone, DHT, by reduction at the 5alpha position, this is normal. Dihydrotestosterone is then either bound to a cytoplasmic "receptor" protein Rc, or is further metabolized to either 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol or 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol ,DIOL. The binding of DHT to its cytoplasmic receptor protein results in translocation of the steroid-receptor complex into the nucleus where presumably the complex dissociates and DHT exerts its androgenic effects. The transport of DHT to the nucleus can also result from the conversion of testosterone to DHT by nuclear membrane-bound 5alpha-reductase. Prolactin augmentation of DHT effects is envisioned as resulting from interaction of prolactin with its receptor, which due to the large size of the prolactin molecule is probably located in or on the plasma membrane.
    Because superdrol is androgenic, but lacks the ability to show affinity via 5ar, it circulates, and this causes the large amounts of androgens to look for a transporter, so that it can bind to the androgen receptor, so it uses prolactin which has a high affinity to cytoplasmic receptor protein, allowing the androgens, testosterone, to be carried and allowing them to convert to dht, only problem is prolactin hormone or luteotropic hormone is synthesised and secreted by sex binding lactotrope cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland, And this gland now produces more prolactin to help deal with the large amount of testosterone circulating that hasnt bound to the estrogen of androgen receptor, Part of the reason why superdol is so anabolic, So instead of binding to the androgen receptors in the scalp and the prostrate it converts to dht through this unique process, using prolactin to enter the cytoplasmic receptror protein, and allowing it to convert to dht and then bind to the androgen receptors in the muscle, causing its distinct hardening effects, it still can't bind to the scalp or prostrate via 5ar as the form of dht it has converted too doesnt allow for that affinity.
    So more prolactin is produced to allow for the superdol to find a receptor ,this excess prolactin triggers a process that fills the breast with milk via a process called lactogenesis, in men however it causes a distinct enlargment of the mammary gland and can even cause a man to lactate.

    If superdrol had better binding to the androgen receptor via 5AR then this problem would be prevented, the other thing is that prolactin production can remain elevated for months after a cycle has finished, and once the androgen has been removed, ( the cycle is over) the cytoplasmic receptor proteins have nothing to do other than to allow the prolactin to proceed with its hormonal action within the body, causing the male mammary gland to enlarge ready to produce milk... Hence the REBOUND GYNO, this is why proper pct is needed for superdrol, and the use of something to prevent prolactin."

    As you see Professor Filimanov reinstates the correlation between prolactin/progesterone and estrogen which could lead to gyno even with a compound such as Superdrol.

    Receptor cross over can also occur. Hormones are keys and your receptors are like locks. What happens is a hormone is ether placed in the body (by an out side source) or it is produced with in the body. This hormone we will call a "key". The hormone then sets out to find a "lock" that it can fit into,turn, and sequentially open up the components inside. To go one step more and make it a little more simple I will explain it like this.
    Imagine your receptors as little treasure chest. Inside is chest it a set of instructions. This set of instructions can be a number of things. It can be directions to another chest or a task that must now be carried out. With out something to open the chest the instructions can never be carried out or the next chest found and opened. Following me ?

    Some hormones are more like "dummy keys" will call them. They will find a "lock" and set them self into the "Lock hole" but then that is it. They never turn the key and open up whats inside. so we see hormones often work like this

    1. Key fits a lock. AKA a hormone found a lock and set its self into it. Pretty simple

    2. Key was not a dummy key and when it set its self into the lock it turned and opened up the chest letting out the instructions inside that will now be carried out.

    3 "master keys" We will call them. Or "Muti function keys"

    A subject not much talked about on any of the steroid forums or even in many articles I have come across is the fact that. In respect to anabolic steroids (out side source of hormones) most of them have all been explained as just "lock" and "key" . However the truth is pro hormones,disginer steroids and steroids all have "Multi function" and some even "Master key" functions.
    as you can see explained earlier.

    By now I am sure you are confused but that is fine. The body is a extremely complex thing and everyone's body acts the same yet differently when it comes to hormones. This is why a lot of times you must work with some one to help find out what works for you. To help find out more about you and how your body works, as well as the basics of science and how all things "should" work.

    This last part has thrown many for a loop. Leaving many wondering why the have gyno when they did everything right, and used all the right compounds. The sad truth is there is no Guarantee that you will not end up with a case of gyno.

    However there is one Guarantee and that being that no matter what the odds are on your side that your gyno can be reversed with proper supplementation my friends. You just need to know how. Often it is best to work with some one who has experience and has worked with many others to prevent or reverse gyno of all kinds.


    Believe me friends, I know it is NOT easy by any means to feel comfortable about your body when you have gyno whether it be from puberty or AAS usage. It can really make one depressed knowing that their chest is not masculine appealing to the people around them or themselves. I know people who LOW SELF ESTEEM for years because of their pubertal gyno. We as people struggle on a daily basis to fit in whether it be through appearance, social status, or self accomplishment. The people I witnessed getting rid of their gyno, achieved all those forms of greatness and more at least to themselves which is all that matters; since it's your body and your life.

    Now Of course it is time for the good part. The part every one has been waiting for. If all gyno can be cured then how?

    Well My friends I am sorry to be the one to tell you. Yes there are drugs and products out there that work to reduce estrogen. Yes there are drugs that reduce progesterone and or porlactin. Yes there are serms that block the progesterone receptors. Yes all of these drugs and or supplements can be used to reduce,prevent, and even cure existing gyno.

    However anyone out there giving you a cookie cutter gyno removing program is simple trying to do one thing. SELL YOU A PRODUCT/GROUP OF PRODUCTS AND OR DRUGS. Or they are only speaking from experience for what worked for them NOT YOU!!!

    How many of you have used a friends advice because it worked for them,only to be disappointed when it does not work for you?
    How many of us have tried everything only to find nothing worked? Or have you tried everything?

    The fact of the matter is I do not hand out cookie cutter programs because although they may work for some they do not work for everyone. Each person must find out what works for them. Each person must learn how they will react to different products,drugs, and combination thereof.

    One person my use nolva and it worked great for them. Another may use it and there gyno gets worse or they have a rebound long after. You must learn to read your body, learn what it is telling you. You must learn how to change things exactly when they need to be changed for you and why.

    You must start off by having everything you need before hand. This is the one thing that is the same for everyone. When people make the statement "aaah just get some letro" Or hey man all you need is some arimadex and dostinex you will be fine" These people hardly know what they are talking about most of the time. They know what worked for them, they know what might have worked for others. However the most importent fact they know nothing about is WHAT WORKS FOR YOU AND HOW YOU WILL REACT.

    Everyone is always looking for the cheap way out. Or the easy way out. SO often we jump all over the quick easy and cheap advice that is so readily handed out on the aas forums today.

    When you are ready to do it right, when you want results, when you are at the end of your rope. Then you will bite the bullet and spend the money to get "everything" you need. A gyno removing program can have side effects and the proper supplements should be taken to counteract them.


    When it comes to some causes of gyno you have to understand that it took years of exposure to out side estrogen to cause the problem. It may not be resolved overnight but it can be in the end and I am always here to help you do this.

    Feel free to pm me any time my friends I am always here on the forums. :biggrin::biggrin::biggrin:



    preventing Gyno of course is another topic in its self. When it comes to on cycle gyno prevention one should always use as little as he can or non at all if he can get away with it.
    If you do not need it then do not use it. However always have it on hand IMO.

    Many of the drugs known today for gyno prevention all have there pitfalls and some are better then others for different reasons. If prevention is what you are looking for then forma-stanzol happens to be the best choice for many different reasons. You can read more about this compound here in this thread. http://www.elitefitness.com/forum/an...nt-698487.html

    5 to 10 pumps morning and night is all one would need depending on the dosing of the cycle you are on. Back up plans should always be in place and on hand. One should always have letro and dostinex on hand but never a need to use them unless nothing else works.

    During pct often people use just nolva or clomid and neglect that fact that these compounds do nothing to lower estrogen nor do they do anything at all for raised levels of prolactin or progesterone. Forma-stanzol on the other hand does.


    Lastly I would like to open then thread up for discussion and questions by all. If you have any feel free to ask here or send me a pm and I will get to them as I can. Thank you to all.
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    Thanks and welcome aboard here! I know you are a sincere and ethical man. Your caring knowledge is very much appreciated here.
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    thnx for the altruism and looking out fo the a.m. bros
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    Quote Originally Posted by Knowbull View Post
    Thanks and welcome aboard here! I know you are a sincere and ethical man. Your caring knowledge is very much appreciated here.
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    This post has so much great info.
    Finally made a sticky!
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    A LOT of good info
    Recoverbro Elite
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    bump.


    very informative and useful. Thanks so much!
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    priceless info
  

  
 

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