Joseph Pitha of the United States Department of Health and Human Services has been the pioneer of this type of sublingual research. Pitha published a study in which he used a cyclodextrin/testosterone complex on men. Pitha found that this complex containing just 10 milligrams of testosterone raised testosterone levels 900% (from normal baseline level) in one hour. On the other hand, oral testosterone at 20 times this dose (200 mgs), raised testosterone just 500% at the peak. Another study comparing a 100 mg. oral vs. a 25 mg. cyclodextrin complexed sublingual 4-androstenediol, found the sublingual version led to nearly a threefold (261% to be exact) greater increase in testosterone with one quarter of the dose (25 mgs), with the peak levels at 40 as opposed to 90 minutes .