J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1999 Oct;45(5):543-52.
Effect of timing of meal intake after squat exercise training on bone formation in the rat hindlimb.
Okano G, Suzuki M, Kojima M, Sato Y, Lee SJ, Okamura K, Noriyasu S, Doi T, Shimomura Y, Fushiki T, Shimizu S.
Department of Exercise Science, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Japan. email@example.com
We hypothesized that bone acquisition was affected by the timing of meal intake after resistance exercise training. This was based on the following previous results: 1) Nutrient intake right after exercise resulted in an increase in muscle mass and a decrease in abdominal fat mass as well as muscle protein synthesis when compared to the intake of a meal later after the exercise; and 2) body composition has been proposed to be a good predictor of bone mass. To substantiate our hypothesis, 20 male rats were assigned to either a group fed a meal right after squat exercise
(R) or a group fed a meal 4 h after the exercise (L). The 10-wk training program consisted of approximately 70% of one repetition maximum for each animal, 15 repetitions per set, 10 sets per day, 3 d per week. As a result, hindlimb muscle mass in the R group was greater (p < 0.05) than that in the L group and abdominal fat mass was less (p < 0.01) in the R group as compared to the L group, regardless of there being no significant difference in body weight between the groups. Bone volume in the tibia (p < 0.01) and femur (p < 0.05) were both significantly greater in the R group than in the L group. Bone mineral content index (BMCI) and bone mineral density index (BMDI) in the tibia of the R group were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the corresponding values of the L group. The greater BMCI and BMDI in the tibia were positively and significantly (p < 0.05) related with hindlimb muscle mass, but not with abdominal fat mass. There was no significant difference in BMCI and BMDI in the femur between the groups. These results suggest that the R regimen may contribute to increased bone acquisition in the tibia as compared to the L regimen, and this effect is partly due to the enlargement of muscle mass in the R group as compared to the L group.