Arterial Stiffness from resistance training

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    Arterial Stiffness from resistance training


    So while it's controversial among researchers, there are loads of articles that show a single bout of exercise to increase arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave variability (PWV), is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

    None of this is new or innovative, just giving a background.

    I just began researching this as a small assignment I have to do for a class, and so far have not been able to find definitive conclusions for whether long term high intensity weight training has a negative impact on cardiovascular function. Either way, it would only seem logical to want to reduce this effect if at all possible when destroying are bodies in the gym on a daily basis right?

    So to the contrary of resistance training, there is a ton of info discussing the positive effects of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness and reduced PWV

    This article discusses how performing cardio for 30 min after resistance training was enough to attenuate the arterial stiffening effect from weight training. However, when cardio was performed before RT there was no change.

    J Appl Physiol 103: 1655–1661, 2007.
    First published September 13, 2007; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00327.2007.
    Combined aerobic and resistance training and vascular function: effect of
    aerobic exercise before and after resistance training

    Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Combined aerobic and resistance
    training and vascular function: effect of aerobic exercise before and
    after resistance training. J Appl Physiol 103: 1655–1661, 2007. First
    published September 13, 2007; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00327.2007.—
    Aerobic exercise training combined with resistance training (RT)
    might prevent the deterioration of vascular function. However, how
    aerobic exercise performed before or after a bout of RT affects
    vascular function is unknown. The present study investigates the
    effect of aerobic exercise before and after RT on vascular function.
    Thirty-three young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to
    groups that ran before RT (BRT: 4 male, 7 female), ran after RT
    (ART: 4 male, 7 female), or remained sedentary (SED: 3 male, 8
    female). The BRT and ART groups performed RT at 80% of one
    repetition maximum and ran at 60% of the targeted heart rate twice
    each week for 8 wk. Both brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity
    (baPWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after combined training
    in the BRT group did not change from baseline. In contrast, baPWV
    after combined training in the ART group reduced from baseline
    (from 1,025 43 to 910 33 cm/s, P 0.01). Moreover, brachial
    artery FMD after combined training in the ART group increased from
    baseline (from 7.3 0.8 to 9.6 0.8%, P 0.01). Brachial artery
    diameter, mean blood velocity, and blood flow in the BRT and ART
    groups after combined training increased from baseline (P 0.05,
    P 0.01, and P 0.001, respectively). These values returned to the
    baseline during the detraining period. These values did not change in
    the SED group. These results suggest that although vascular function
    is not improved by aerobic exercise before RT, performing aerobic
    exercise thereafter can prevent the deteriorating of vascular function.


    This article is brand new and I haven't been able to access the full version yet, but is interesting as well. It claims that supplementing with creatine also may attenuate the negative impact of resistance training on arterial compliance.

    Abstract
    Arterial stiffness and hemodynamics may be increased following a bout of resistance exercise. Oral creatine supplementation (Cr) may attenuate cardiovascular responses after exercise via improved anaerobic metabolism. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Cr on hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses after acute isokinetic exercise. Sixteen healthy males (22.6 0.6 year) were randomly assigned to either placebo (Pl, n = 8) or Cr (n = 8) (2 5 g/day) for 3 weeks. Brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and leg PWV were measured in the supine position at rest before and after the interventions. After the supplementation period, parameters were also measured 5 min (PE5) and 15 min (PE15) after two sets of leg isokinetic exercise. There was no difference between the groups in resting measurements before and after the supplementation. Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had attenuated (P < 0.05) increases in SBP at PE5 (Pl 14.0 2.5, Cr 5.6 2.3 mmHg), HR at both P5 (Pl 28 4 vs. Cr 16 2 beats/min) and PE15 (Pl 21 3, Cr 11 2 beats/min) and rate pressure product at P5 (Pl 45.8 6.4, Cr 24.8 2.2) and P15 (Pl 34.2 5.0, Cr 15.9 6.0). Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had suppressed increases in baPWV at PE5 (Pl 1.5 0.4, Cr −0.1 0.4 m/s) and PE15 (Pl 1.1 0.2, Cr −0.3 0.3 m/s) and returned SBP to pre-exercise values at PE15 (Pl 10.6 2.8, Cr 2.1 2.6 mmHg). PWV in the exercised leg decreased at PE5 in both groups. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation attenuates the hemodynamic and baPWV responses after acute isokinetic exercise.




    European Journal of Applied Physiology
    DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-1832-4Online First™

    Original Article
    Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise

    Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Ralph Wieder, Jeong-Su Kim, Florence Vicil and Arturo Figueroa

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    There is a small article about this very subject is the latest issue of Muscular Development magazine.

    Guess we all need to add some cardio to our off-season workouts (because we already do it in-season, right?).
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    Yeah I'm used to splitting up my Cardio and weight training either on separate days, or morning/night. Seems the benefit from the above study only occured when Cardio was done immediately following weights.
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    Very interesting... I wonder if the timing really IS that important. Either way, I'm doing some cardio after every weight session now, except legs.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Movin_weight View Post
    .I]

    This article is brand new and I haven't been able to access the full version yet, but is interesting as well
    Interesting, I would assume it has something to do with the high blood pressures reached during resistance training, especially when performing the valsalva maneuvar. The stress from the high bp may result in some arterial remodelling and result in the stiffness. Then again, it would also be interesting to see if they monitered ambulatory and resting bp, or did a comparison of the two.

    Perhaps:

    resistance training in pre-hypertensive men
    resitance training in norma-tensive men

    Or, the aerobic training may have resulted in a reduction in resting bp, and therefore may have played a role in protecting against the vascular remodelling.

    hmm...

    Either way, Movin-weight, shoot me a PM, I can get this article in ft for you on my office pc monday.

    Br
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    Quote Originally Posted by ZiR RED View Post
    Interesting, I would assume it has something to do with the high blood pressures reached during resistance training, especially when performing the valsalva maneuvar. The stress from the high bp may result in some arterial remodelling and result in the stiffness. Then again, it would also be interesting to see if they monitered ambulatory and resting bp, or did a comparison of the two.

    Perhaps:

    resistance training in pre-hypertensive men
    resitance training in norma-tensive men

    Or, the aerobic training may have resulted in a reduction in resting bp, and therefore may have played a role in protecting against the vascular remodelling.

    hmm...

    Either way, Movin-weight, shoot me a PM, I can get this article in ft for you on my office pc monday.

    Br
    Thanks ZIR, I actually have access to it through my university, but the journal publishing website has had server probs over the past few days. But it should be back up soon.
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    [QUOTE=ZiR RED;2737384]Interesting, I would assume it has something to do with the high blood pressures reached during resistance training, especially when performing the valsalva maneuvar. The stress from the high bp may result in some arterial remodelling and result in the stiffness. Then again, it would also be interesting to see if they monitered ambulatory and resting bp, or did a comparison of the two.

    Perhaps:

    resistance training in pre-hypertensive men
    resitance training in norma-tensive men

    Or, the aerobic training may have resulted in a reduction in resting bp, and therefore may have played a role in protecting against the vascular remodelling.

    hmm...

    Either way, Movin-weight, shoot me a PM, I can get this article in ft for you on my office pc monday.

    Br[/QUOTE

    Yeah i'm not completely sure of the cause, but I located another article that discusses muscle damage/inflammation as possibly being the cause. The subjects were untrained, and performed eccentric muscle contractions which are known to induce high amounts of muscle tissue damage.

    J Appl Physiol. 2010 Oct;109(4):1102-8. Epub 2010 Jul 29.
    Arterial stiffening following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Barnes JN, Trombold JR, Dhindsa M, Lin HF, Tanaka H.

    Cardiovascular Aging Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. Barnes.Jill@mayo.edu
    Abstract

    Acute inflammatory responses are linked to a transient increase in risk of a cardiovascular event, and this risk may be mediated by a concomitant reduction in vascular function. Humans experience an acute inflammatory response as a consequence of infection, injury, or muscle damage. We measured macrovascular function before and after eccentric exercise to determine whether muscle damage from unaccustomed exercise has an unfavorable effect on the large elastic arteries. A total of 27 healthy sedentary or recreationally active men (age 18-38 years) participated in either bilateral leg press eccentric exercise or unilateral elbow flexor eccentric exercise. Postexercise muscle damage was confirmed by significant reductions in isometric strength and increases in muscle soreness (P < 0.05). Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity was significantly elevated 48 h after leg exercise (808 31 vs. 785 30 cm/s; P < 0.05) and arm exercise (790 28 vs. 755 24 cm/s; P < 0.05). There were no changes in mean arterial pressure. C-reactive protein was elevated after leg exercise but not after arm exercise. The increase in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity 48 h after arm exercise was associated with muscle strength (r = -0.47; P < 0.05) and creatine kinase concentrations (r = 0.70; P < 0.01). We concluded that eccentric exercise in both small and large muscle mass translates to transient, unfavorable changes in central macrovascular function and that the increase in central arterial stiffness after small muscle eccentric exercise is associated with indicators of muscle damage.

    Also heres another interesting one showing that an acute bout of resistance exercise did not effect arterial stiffness... but yet repeated bouts of the valsalva maneuver did even in the absence of weights.

    Arterial stiffness following repeated Valsalva maneuvers and resistance exercise in young men

    Authors: Heffernan, Kevin S.; Jae, Sae Y.; Edwards, David G.; Kelly, Erin E.; Fernhall, Bo

    Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 32, Number 2, 1 April 2007 , pp. 257-264(8)

    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness after a bout of resistance exercise (RE) and an experimental condition consisting of repeated Valsalva maneuvers (VMs). Fourteen male participants randomly completed a lower-body, unilateral RE bout and a VM bout designed to alter blood pressure (BP) in a similar pulsatile fashion. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV, measured in metres per second (ms-1)) was used to measure central and peripheral arterial stiffness and was assessed before and 20 min after each perturbation. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) was assessed during bouts using finger plethysmography. Change in systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure were similar during both bouts. Central PWV increased after repeated VMs (7.1 0.3m/s to 7.8 0.3m/s), but not after RE (7.2 0.3m/s to 7.2 0.3m/s) (interaction, p = 0.032). There was no change in peripheral PWV after VM (8.9 0.3m/s to 9.3 0.3m/s) or RE (8.5 0.2m/s to 8.4 0.2m/s). Arterial stiffness increased after repeated VM. Even though presented with a similar BP load, arterial stiffness did not increase after acute RE. These findings suggest a role for VM in acutely altering arterial properties.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Movin_weight View Post
    Thanks ZIR, I actually have access to it through my university, but the journal publishing website has had server probs over the past few days. But it should be back up soon.
    Are you using springerlink? For some reason I can't load it on my lap top, and I'm having issues upgrading my internet explorer to do so.
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    Quote Originally Posted by ZiR RED View Post
    Are you using springerlink? For some reason I can't load it on my lap top, and I'm having issues upgrading my internet explorer to do so.
    yeah I received an email from my library tech saying that springerlink has been having server issues the last week, which is why I can't gain access to the articles
  

  
 

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