Getting Big Without Getting Fat
by Matt Kroczalesk T-Nation
Getting big requires a lot of heavy lifting, both in the gym and in the kitchen.
The gym lifting is relatively simple, just not easy. Plenty of effective bulking programs have been published on T NATION. I suggest picking one written by a coach you trust and hitting it with intense desire and bulldog determination. Don't try to "tweak" it or outcoach the coach and you'll be successful.
The lifting you do in the kitchen is another matter. Adding weight, meaning scale weight, is easy. Simply eat anything that isn't nailed down for a few months and your weight-gaining woes will be a memory, along with your abs.
Sadly, for the truly genetically hapless, this kind of uninhibited "see-food" bulking can result in a three to four pound fat gain for every pound of new muscle. That isn't an acceptable tradeoff for any bodybuilder, especially one who doesn't want to own a separate set of fat pants.
What I'm about to present is different. This isn't an old school sloppy bulking program that will quickly obliterate your abs and leave you facing a lengthy dieting phase for just a few pounds of new muscle. This is refined and efficient; a lean gain diet program designed to add muscle without sacrificing the physique in the process. Call it 21st century bulking or whatever the hell you want. I call it the most effective way to gain muscle while staying in shape.
The program is divided into two different days – one plan for training days, the other for off days. By "training" I mean heavy weight training in the gym, not any type of cardio or conditioning. A cardio-only day is considered a non-training day in this plan.
The training days maximize growth through a higher carbohydrate intake, very little fat, and a good amount of lean protein. The training day schedule takes advantage of the powerful hormone insulin by timing carbohydrate intake for when nutrients will be preferentially forced into muscle cells and not body fat cells, namely first thing in the morning and post training.
To speed nutrients to your muscles, consume a during/post training shake composed of fast absorbing carbs and protein. This shake should be sipped throughout your training and be finished by the time the workout is completed. The possible exception to this would be on heavy squatting and deadlifting days when consuming anything while training could cause discomfort or vomiting. In this case, drink the shake after finishing those main exercises or immediately post workout.
Ideally, the post training meal should be eaten within the next 60 to 90 minutes to take advantage of the increased nutrient uptake window that immediately follows heavy training. Practically speaking, eat when you feel you've digested your shake and are ready to eat.
While the focus of the training day schedule is to promote muscle hypertrophy, the goal of the non-training day program is to mitigate body fat accumulation. This is accomplished by significantly decreasing carbohydrate intake, reducing the total number of meals and calories, and by combining healthy fats with protein at optimal times.
Reducing carbohydrate intake and timing them properly keeps insulin under control, effectively preventing additional body fat storage. Carbohydrate intake is lowered later in the day when insulin sensitivity is typically at its worst. This means that higher levels of insulin would need to be secreted for a similar blood sugar level earlier in the day.
Once liver and muscle glycogen needs are met, higher insulin levels lead to increased body fat storage. This is why the plan substantially reduces or eliminates carb intake at these times and replaces it with protein and healthy fats. This helps mitigate appreciable fat gain, even with a calorie surplus.
While cardio is often unnecessary – and sometimes not even desirable – in a growth phase, it can be used with this program depending on goals and body type.
For those that either have a genetic predisposition for fat gain or desire to remain as lean as possible, cardio is recommended.
Cardio can also be beneficial to those that complain of poor appetite. I know pro bodybuilders that perform cardio in the off-season simply as a means to stimulate their appetite for the work that must be done at the training table.
There are two distinct times when body fat stores are most easily tapped for energy: first thing in the morning before eating and immediately post training.
I'd start with 30 minutes of cardio on an empty stomach first thing in the morning, three times per week on non-training days. If body fat accumulation is still too much, increase in small increments from there.
Remember, this isn't a program to decrease body fat levels and get into bodybuilding stage condition, but to put on as much lean mass as possible while limiting fat gain. If too much cardio is performed, muscular growth potential will be severely inhibited.
The Lean Mass Calculator
This following sample diet plan is based upon a 220-pound lifter at 10% body fat.
To adjust the numbers for your size, simply take your lean body weight (body weight – (body fat % x body weight) and divide it by 200 (the approximate lean bodyweight of the sample lifter).
So for a 150-pound lifter with 10% body fat, the formula would be 150 - (0.10 x 150) = 135/200= 0.675.
Take this number and multiply it by the amounts listed in the sample plan to arrive at the correct numbers for your lean body mass.
So for the 150-pound lifter, instead of having 90 grams of carbs and 35 grams of protein at meal 1 on his training day, he'd have 90 x 0.675 = 60 grams of carbs and 35 x 0.675 = 24 grams of protein.
This is an off-season program, and as such those with a higher metabolism may be able to get away with being a little "looser" in their food selections. That said, the following list of food selections will lead to the best results:
Protein: Chicken breast, tilapia, cod, turkey breast, egg whites, protein powders, and trimmed lean red meat.
Carbohydrate: Oatmeal, Malt-o-Meal, grits, brown or white rice, baked potatoes, yams (also known as sweet potatoes), and Ezekiel bread.
Vegetables: Broccoli, green beans, cauliflower, asparagus, spinach, and lettuce.
Healthy fats: All natural peanut butter, almond butter, or extra virgin olive oil are preferred, as are essential fats.
Sample Diet Plan
(for a 220-Pound Lifter) with Macronutrient Amounts
Training days: 7 meals plus workout nutrition
Meal 1: 90 grams carbs, 35 grams protein
Meal 2: 65 grams carbs, 35 grams protein
Meal 3: 65 grams carbs, 35 grams protein
During/post workout shake: Approximately 75 grams carbs, 50 grams protein
Meal 4: (Post training meal) 90 grams carbs, 35 grams protein
Meal 5: 65 grams carbs, 35 grams protein
Meal 6: 35 grams protein, unlimited veggies
Meal 7: (Bedtime shake) 100 grams casein/whey blend
Non-training days: 7 meals
Meal 1: 80 grams carbs, 50 grams protein
Meal 2: 70 grams carbs, 50 grams protein
Meal 3: 70 grams carbs, 50 grams protein
Meal 4: 50 grams protein, up to 2 cups veggies, 15 grams healthy fat
Meal 5: 50 grams protein, up to 2 cups veggies, 15 grams healthy fat
Meal 6: 50 grams protein, 15 grams of healthy fat
Meal 7: (Bedtime shake) 100 grams casein/whey blend, 15 grams healthy fat
Simplified Sample Diet Plan
(all food quantities listed are precooked measurements)
Training days: 7 meals plus workout nutrition
Meal 1: 2 cups oatmeal, 8 egg whites scrambled
Meal 2: 3/4 cup white rice, 6 ounces chicken breast
Meal 3: 2 large baked potatoes, 6 ounces chicken breast
During/post workout shake: Peri-workout nutrition (Approximately 75 grams carbs, 50 grams protein).
Meal 4: (Post training meal) 1 cup white rice, 6 ounces tilapia
Meal 5: 3/4 cup white rice, 6 ounces tilapia
Meal 6: 6 ounces extra lean round steak, 2 cups of broccoli
Meal 8: (Bedtime shake) 100 grams casein/whey blend
Non-training days: 7 meals
Meal 1: 1 1/2 cups of oatmeal, 10 eggs (8 whites, 2 whole eggs)
Meal 2: 1 cup brown rice, 8 ounces chicken breast
Meal 3: 1 cup brown rice, 8 ounces chicken breast
Meal 4: 8 ounces trimmed sirloin, 2 cups broccoli, 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter
Meal 5: 8 ounces cod, large salad with 1 tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil for dressing
Meal 6: 8 ounces trimmed round steak, 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter
Meal 7: (Bedtime shake) 100 grams casein/whey blend, 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter
Get Your (Lean) Bulk On!
Working with the body's natural insulin production and utilization is the ticket to maximizing muscular hypertrophy while minimizing fat gain. When combined with a kick-ass weight training routine featuring heavy doses of the basics, most trainees following this program can expect significant muscle gain in as little as eight weeks.
Plug your numbers into the Lean Mass Calculator and watch your muscle grow – no off-season fat pants required!