D. what did you think about GDA? i know has more but i decide start with this let`s discussion.
Vanadyl Sulfate true method of action for increasing Insulin Sensitivity mainly via reduction of gluconeogenesis (Hepatic Glucose output) among other positive contributing factors?
Some GDA compounds potentiate insulin release from pancreatic beta cells such as Gymnemic Acid (Gymnemma Sylvestre), for example, which does so by increasing beta cell permeability.
Corosolic acid method of action directly via IR signaling pathway. I'll post the full Study PDF below. It's very interesting and shows a few scenarios. Corosolic Acid was able to directly stimulate IR phosphorylation signaling events without insulin. It was also seen to enhances these signaling events in varying concentrations of Insulin as well. On top of that, when pretreatment was done with Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, the effect of CA on glucose uptake was completely abolished. Wortmannin btw, is a direct inhibitor of IR mediated signaling events.
Corosolic acid stimulates glucose uptake via enhancing insulin receptor phosphorylation
Berberine mimics insulin action by increasing glucose uptake ability by 3T3-L1 adipocytes (fat cells) and L6 myocytes (muscle cells) in an insulin-independent manner. Furthering this mimicking process, berberine inhibits activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (an important negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling in vivo). It also increases phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In diabetic mice, berberine lowers hyperglycemia and improves impaired glucose tolerance, but does not increase insulin release and synthesis. The results suggest that berberine represents a different class of anti-hyperglycemic agents.
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